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Патент USA US2405542

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2,495,542
Patented Aug. 6, >1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,542
FUSION WELDING
Frank A. Wassell, Schenectady, N. Y., assigner to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application September 13, 1943, Serial No.` 502,091
12 Claims. (Cl. 219--10)
1
My invention relates to fusion welding and
more particularly to an improved method of
fusion Welding parts of magnesium, aluminum
2
cient quantity to ñll the gap between the parts
and thereby complete the weld which unites
them.
This welding procedure and the preparation
of the edge portions of the parts to be welded
forming a part of this procedure have been illus
trated in the accompanying drawing. Fig. 1 of
this drawing shows apparatus suitable for per
molten portions.
forming my method of welding; Fig. 2 shows the
It is an object of my invention to provide a
method of fusion welding which reduces the 10 edge preparation in accordance with my inven
tion when welding sheets of about 1/8 inch in
amount of drop down required to obtain com
thickness; Fig. 3 shows the resulting Weld when
plete fusion at the bottom of a weld between
performing my method of welding; and Fig. 4
parts Whose molten edges freeze rapidly and have
shows the edge preparation in accordance With
a surface skin which not only increases the
my invention when welding sheets greater than
surface tension eiîect and the size of the molten
1/8 inch in thickness.
edges but also prevents them from wetting one
Although magnesium, aluminum and alloys of
another and intermingling.
either of these metals having the characteristics
It is a further object of my invention to elimi
of magnesium and aluminum may be llame
nate the line crack at the bottom of a fusion
welded, I prefer to employ that form of arc Weld
weld between parts of aluminum, magnesium
and alloys of either of these metals which are
readily oxidizable to form over the molten por
tions thereof a refractory oxide skin which in
creases the effect of surface tension on these
ing in which the arc and those portions of the
meta1 rendered molten thereby are protected by
a shielding atmosphere of a monatomic gas, such
as helium or argon. Arc welding in such atmos
good even drop down of desired amount along
the bottom surfaces of these edge portions when 25 pheres has been described and claimed in U. S.
Letters Patent 1,746,981-Henry M. Hobart, Feb
a Welding agency is applied to the top surfaces
or alloys of either of these metals which are
butted together and Welded along their joining
edge portions with that fusion required for a
of these edge portions.
Further objects of my invention will become
apparent from the following description thereof.
In accordance with my invention the top edge
portions of the parts to be welded are beveled,
ii’ necessary, to form joining edges about 1/3 inch
thick. These joining edges are smoothed so that
a good contact can be had therebetween and the
bottom edge portions of the parts along said join
ruary 4, 193i), and 1,746,191-Phi1ip K. Devers,
February 4, 1930, both of which are assigned to
the assignee of this application.
When using the procedures disclosed in these
patents it is not necessary to employ welding
ñuxes as when welding with either the oxy
acetylene or Oxy-hydrogen flame. Since the
fluxes used in llame welding magnesium, alumi
num and their alloys, are corrosive in nature,
ing edges are beveled so that they are separated
from one another by an amount suflicient to
their use requires complete cleaning of the welded
permit the edge portions of the parts at said
ing atmosphere of helium or argon is much to
parts and for this reason arc Welding in a shield
be preferred.
joining edges to drop down and away from one
I have found, however, that when Welding
another without coming into contact with one
parts which are formed of magnesium, aluminum
another when rendered molten during welding.
and their alloys and which are butted together
Prior to Welding, the parts are placed together
prior to welding, complete fusion of the butting
with their joining edges in contact with one an
edges of the parts along their bottom edges can
other and with their bottom edge portions free
to drop down when rendered molten. A welding 45 not be obtained when the arc is applied to their
top surfaces unless an excessive and undesirable
agency is then applied to the top surfaces of the
edge portions of said parts at their joining edges
amount of drop down is provided. By drop down
and the parts and the welding agency are trav
ersed relative to one another under conditions
I refer to the fusion and dropping down of the
butting edge portions of the parts to form a re
enforcement along their bottom edges which form
part of the weld. This lack of fusion at the root
of the Weld is evidenced by a ñne line which upon
which will fuse the edge portion of the parts
sufficiently to cause them to drop down and away
from one another and form a gap between the
parts. Simultaneously with this fusing of the
edge portion of the parts, ñller metal is supplied
tothe Welding agency and- fused> thereby in suin
examination proves to be the exterior of a crack
extending into the weld. Its presence in the
weld weakens it and causes failure in the weld
:140.1542
3
4
when the welded assembly is subjected to me
chanical strain.
This crack may be eliminated if an excessive
amount of fusion and drop down is allowed on
the under side of the weld. This procedure is
undesirabie, however, in that it slows up the
welding operation and produces a larger reen
forcement along the bottom edges of the parts
tially uniform rate of speed and the filler rod IT
is uniformly fed into the aro to supply the neces
sary amount oi material to fill the gap between
at the weld than is desirable or necessary.
the molten edge portions of the parts being weld
ed. Preferably, the filler rod il is inclined away
from the electrode i0 at least 60° in order to
obtain a more uniform fusion thereof. If the
angle between the filler rod and the electrode is
less than 60°, the heat reflected from the arc
It is also possible to eliminate this crack at
may cause large sections thereof to melt and
the root oi the weld by leaving su??cient clear
ance between the two edges of the parts to be
welded. This procedure will insure complete
fall down in large globules which will cause very
uneven beads and decreased weld penetration.
As previously pointed out, the bottom edges of
weld penetration and the elimination of the un
the parts are unsupported and during welding
desirable crack but is likewise undesirable be 15 may sag and drop down to form a bottom bead
cause it requires very accurate spacing of the
ld. Sui’ñcient filler material l? may be supplied
parts to get a good even drop down and because
to the arc to produce a top bead it.
it is difficult to hold the desired spacing between
If the parts to be welded li are about 1A; inch
the parts due to the contraction forces of the
or less in thickness their edge portions are pre~
solidifying weld metal.
20 pared and assembled in the manner shown in
I have found that complete fusion at the bot
Fig. 2. Their joining edges 20 are made smooth
tom of the weld may be obtained if, before weld
so that a good contact can be had therebetween
ing, the parts are beveled very slightly along
along their top half portions. The bottom edge
their bottom edges to form between them an
portions of the parts are beveled at their joining
outwardly opening gap. When assembled with 25 edges to form an outwardly opening gap 2| be~
their unbeveled joining edges in contact with one
tween the bottom half portions oi their joining
another, these joining edges resist the contrac
edges. This gap is preferably from 0.005 to 0.025
tion forces of solidifying weld metal formed be»
inch wide at the bottom surfaces of the parts.
l' have found, however, that this bevel may be
tween the parts allows the molten edge portions 30 gre tly increased and have beveled the bottom
of the parts to drop down and away from one an
edges of the parts at their joining edges to form
other so that additional material supplied be~
a V-groove ci 90° when practicing my invention.
tween their molten edge portions fills the gap
ri‘he parts are then held in supports 22 and 23
between the parts forming a sound crack-free
with their joining edges E0 in contact with one
weld. Welds made in accordance with my pro 35 another and with their bottom edge portions
cedure will invariably fail to one side oi the
along said joining edges free to drop down when
weld in the parent metal, thus clearly demon
rendered molten.
strating the elimination of any bottom cracks.
in Fig. 3 I have shown a cross section of a
Furthermore, photomicrographs of welds made
weld 21's' formed between parts ii in accordance
in accordance with my invention show the com 40 with my procedure above described. The root of
plete elimination or” such cracks at the root of
this weld is free of the crack which would other-l
the weld. When following my procedure the
wise be present if the bottom edges of the parts
rate of welding may be so controlled as to obtain
were not beveled before welding with that appli
the desired amount of drop down and bottom
cation or" heat to their top surfaces which pro
reeniorcement of the weld. Furthermore, suiii
duces that fusion which results in the desired
cient additional material may be added to the
amount of drop down.
`weld to obtain any desired conñguration along
The section of Fig. 3 is illustrative of a weld
the upper surface portions of the weld.
between 1A; inch sheets of an alloy containing 6
My welding procedure is best effected by the
per cent aluminum, 0.7 per cent zinc, 0.2 per cent
use of automatic apparatus which completely
ol) manganese and the balance magnesium. A 65
eliminates many of the variables which are
ampere, 161/2 volt welding arc was employed and
characteristic of hand welding operations. -It is
the travel speed and the rate or welding was
to be understood, however, that my procedure
about 13 inches per minute. The electrode it was
tween the parts and the bottom bevel or gap be
may be performed by hand welding.
`
formed of tungsten and was connected to the
In Fig. l or the accompanying drawing ï have
positive terminal of a direct current source of
diagrammatically illustrated automatic appa
welding current. Sufficient helium was supplied
ratus suitable for performing my method of weld
about the arc and molten top portions of the
ing. As shown therein a direct current arc is
parts at their joining edges to protect these molt
established between a tungsten electrode iii and
en portions from the oxidizing influence of the
the top surfaces oi the parts to be welded il at GO surrounding atmosphere.
their butting edges. Best results are obtained
When welding magnesium, aluminum and al
when electrode iii is connected to the positive
loys of these metals it is my belief that the nat
terminal oi’ the source of welding current. A
ural surface tension effect of their molten por
shielding atmosphere of helium, argon or an
tions at the edges to be welded causes large
equivalent gas is supplied about the arc and the
globular formations which come together and
molten portion of the parts being welded, through
prevent the arc or other welding agency applied
a nozzle l2 which is connected through a pipe
to their top surfaces from obtaining through pen
i3 to a suitable source of supply. Nozzle l2 is
etration unless the amount of molten metal is
mounted on a support id through the agency of
increased by increasing the welding heat to an
an insulating member l5. Additional material 70 extent that results in an undesirable drop down
is supplied to the arc by feeding through a nozzle
of the molten edges. This surface tension effect
iii a iiller rod il having substantiallythe same
is greatly increased by a tough skin of oxide that
composition as the parts being welded.
forms on the molten edges of the parts at their
The welding arc and parts to be welded are
joining edges and by the fact that this oxide skin
traversed relative to one another at a substan 76 prevents the molten parts from wetting one an
2,405,542
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6
other and intermingling. In accordance with my
having joining edges about 1A; inch thick which
invention Where the bottom edges of the parts
are beveled, the molten edge portions of the parts
when molten assume large globular formations
whose surfaces do not readily intermingle to form
a weld, said method comprising preparing said
joining edges of said parts and positioning said
parts relatively to one another so that the top
are free to fall away from one another forming
a gap which is then filled with additional molten
material.
This additional material flushes the
surface portions of the molten edges of the parts
forming a good bond therewith. An examination
of welds made in accordance with my invention
shows along the underside of the weld two paral
lel lines which are apparently the surfaces of
union between the molten edge portions of the
parts and the molten material added therebe
tween to complete the weld. The presence of
these lines and a faint intermediate line are be
lieved to be evidences of the surface tension ef
edge portions of said joining edges of said parts
make a good contact with one another alongy their
lengths and so that when said top edge portions
of said joining edges are in contact with one
another their bottom edge portions are suüciently
spaced from one another along their lengths by
an outwardly opening gap which separates the
bottom edge portions of said joining edges of
said parts by an amount suiiicient to permit said
joining edges of said parts to drop down and
away from one another without coming into con
fects above referred to. Photomicrographs of
tact with one another when rendered molten dur
Welds made in accordance with my invention
ing welding, supporting said parts with their said
definitely show that these parallel lines are not
surface manifestations of cracks in the weld but 20 joining edges in contact with one another and so
that their bottom edge portions at said joining
are at most merely surface phenomena in no way
edges are free to drop down when rendered mol
affecting the strength of the weld. Welded as
ten, progressively applying heat lengthwise of the
semblies made in accordance with my invention
top edge portions of said joining edges of said
will, when sufficiently stressed, break in the par~
ent metal adjacent the weld.
25 parts to render said joining edges suiiiciently
molten to drop down and away from one another
When welding parts having a thickness greater
and form a gap between said parts, and as said
than 1A; inch, the edge portions of the parts to
joining edges of said parts become molten and
be welded H are prepared in the manner illus
drop down and away from one another supply
trated in Fig. 4. That is, the edges of the parts
are beveled to form joiningr edges about 1&5 inch 30 ing molten filler material in sui‘iicient quantity to
iill the gap formed between said parts at said
in thickness and these edges are prepared in the
molten joining edges and thereby complete a weld
manner previously stated. The parts are sup
between said parts.
ported in clamps 22 and 23 so that their bottom
2. The method of fusion welding metallic parts
edge portions are free to drop down as in Fig. 2
having joining edges about 1/8 inch thick which
and the prepared edges are first joined in the
when molten assume large globular formations
manner above described. Thereafter the groove
whose surfaces do not readily intermingle to form
between the parts formed by their beveled top
a weld, said method comprising smoothing said
vedges is ñlled to complete the weld by supplying
joining edges so that good contact can be had
additional material to the welding agency and
traversing it and the parts relatively to one an 40 therebetween, beveling the bottom edge portions
of said parts along said joining edges so that
other along the beveled top edge portions of the
when their top edge portions are in contact with
parts a sufficient number of times to fuse them
one another their bottom edge portions are sepand iill the groove formed thereby with molten
arated from one another by an amount suíiicient
filler material.
to permit the edge portions of said parts at said
Although not illustrated in the drawing or re
joining edges to drop down and awa-.y from one
ferred to above, I have found that it is possible
to weld in accordance with my procedure when
another without coming into contact with one
using a grooved backing member against the
under side of the joining edge portions of the parts
to be welded. This backing member is prefer
ably formed of metal having a low heat conduc
another when rendered molten during welding,
supporting said parts with the top edge portions
oi’ said joining edges in contact with one another
and with their said bottoni edge portions free to
drop down when rendered molten, applying heat
to said top edge portions of the joining edges of
said parts to render them sufficiently molten to
tivity.
That is, it is more desirable to use a
backing member formed of stainless steel than
one formed of copper. The grooved portion of
the backing member should be located immedi- f
ately under the joining edges of the parts and
should be of suflicient width so that the molten
edge portion of the parts are free to drop down
when rendered molten.
Although I have above referred to the use of an
electric arc when performing my method of weld
ing it is to be understood that any suitable weld
ing agency may be used without departing from
the spirit and scope of my invention. It is also
to be understood that the amount of bevel, weld
ing heat, speed of welding and other factors in
volved in practicing my invention may be varied
as required by the different surface tension char
acteristics of magnesium, aluminum and light
weight alloys of either of these metals which are
readily oXidiZable to form over their molten por
tions a refractory oXide skin.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent in the United States is:
1. The method of fusion welding metallic parts
drop down and away from one another and form
a gap between said parts, and as said joining
edges of said parts become molten and drop down
and away from one another supplying molten
filler material in suñ'lcient quantity to fill the gap
between said parts and thereby complete a weld
between them.
3. The method of fusion welding metallic parts
having joining edges about 1A; inch thiol; which
when molten assume large globular formations
whose surfaces do not readily intermingle to form
a weld, said method comprising smoothing said
joining edges so that good contact can be had
therebetween, beveling the bottom edge portions
of said parts along said joining edges so that when
their top edge portions are in contact with one
another their bottom edge portions are separated
from one another along their. lengths by an out
wardly opening gap at least .005 inch in width
at the bottom edge portions of said joining
edges of said parts, supporting said parts with
2,405,542
"i
3
the top edge portions of said joining edges
joining edges resting on a backing member hav
ing a grooved portion of stainless steel located
immediately under the joining edges of said
parts, said grcoved portion being sumciently wide
so that the joining edge portions` of said parts
in contact with one another and with their said
bottom edge portions free to drop down when
rendered molten, progressively applying heat
lengthwise of the top edge portions of the join
ing edges oi said parts to render them suñìciently
molten to drop down and away from one another
and form a gap between said parts, and as said
joining edges of said parts become molten supply
ing thereto molten filler material in sufficient
quantity to fill the gap between said parts and
thereby complete a weld between them.
4. The method of fusion welding parts having
joining edges about 1/8 inch thick formed of mag
nesium, aluminum and alloys and metals having
the weight, surface tension and oxidizing charac
teristics of magnesium and aluminum which
causes during welding at the edges to be welded
large globular formations oi molten metal whose
surface skin of oxide prevents them from wetting _
one another and intermingling to form a weld,
said method comprising smoothing said joining
edges so that good contact can be had therebe
tween, beveling the bottom edge portions of said
parts along said joining edges so that when their
top edge portions are in contact with one another
their bottom edge portions are separated from
one another by an amount suiiicient to permit the
edge portions of said parts at said joining edges
to drop down and away from one another with
out coming into Contact with one another when
when rendered molten are free to drop down a
limited amount, progressively applying heat
lengthwise or“ the top edge portions of the joining
edges or" said parts to render them sufûciently
molten to drop down and away from one another
and form a gap between said parts, and as said
joining edges oi said parts become molten and
drop down and away from one another supplying
molten filler material in sufficient quantity to iill
the gap between said parts and thereby complete
a weld between them.
6. rllhe method of reducing the amount of drop
down required to obtain complete fusion at the
bottom of a weld between metallic parts having
joining edges about 1/8 inch thick which when
rendered molten freeze rapidly and have a sur
face skin which not only increases the surface
tension eiîect and size of said molten edges but
also prevents them from wetting one another and
intermingling, said method comprising prepar
ing said joining edges of said parts and position
ing said parts relatively to one another so that
the top edge portions of said joining edges of said
parts make a good Contact with one another
along their lengths and so that when said top
edge portions of said joining edges are in Contact
rendered molten during welding, supporting said
with one another their bottom edge portions are
parts with said top edge portions oi said joining
suñîciently spaced from one another along their
edges in contact with one another and with their
lengths by an outwardly opening gap which sep
bottom surfaces on each side of said joining edges 35 arates the bottom edge portions of said joining
resting on a backing member having a grooved
edges of said parts by an amount suñicient to
portion of stainless steel located immediately un
permit said joining edges of said parts to drop
der the joining edges of said parts, said grooved
down and away from one another without com
portion being proportioned so that the joining
ing into contact with one another when rendered
molten during welding, supporting said parts
edge portions of said parts when rendered molten
with their said joining edges in Contact with one
are free to drop down a limited amount, progres
sively applying heat lengthwise of the top edge
another and so that their bottom edge portions
at said joining edges are free to drop down when
portions of the joining edges of said parts to
rendered molten, applying a welding agency to
render them suiliciently molten to drop down and
the top surfaces of said edge portions of said
away from one another and form a gap between
parts, traversing said welding agency and said
said parts, and as said joining edges or said parts
edge portions of said parts relatively to one an
become molten and drop down and away from
other, controlling the heat of said welding agency
one another supplying molten filler material in
and the rate oi' relative travel between said weld
sumcient quantity to ñll the gap between said
parts and thereby complete a weld between them. 50 ing agency and said edge portions of said parts to
render said edge portions of said parts sufficient
5. The method of fusion welding parts having
ly molten to drop down and away from one an
edge portions greater than V8 inch thick formed
other and form a gap between said parts, and si
of magnesium, aluminum nd alloys and metals
multaneously with said fusion of said edge por
having the weight, surface -tension and oxidizing
tions of said parts by said welding agency supply
characteristics of magnesium and aluminum
ing filler material to said weldingagency and
which causes during welding at the edges to be
fusing it thereby in sufficient quantity to ñll the
welded large globular formations of molten metal
gap between said parts and thereby complete a'
whose surface skin of oxide prevents them from
weld between them.
wetting one another and intermingling to form
7. The method of reducing the amount of drop
a weld, said method comprising beveling the top 60
down required to obtain complete fusion at the
edge portions of said parts to form joining edges
bottom of a weld between metallic parts having
about 1A; inch thick, smoothing said joining edges
joining edges about 2%; inch thick which when
so that good contact can be had therebetween,
rendered molten freeze rapidly and havea sur
beveling the bottom edge portions of said parts
l’aoe skin which not only increases the surface
along said joining edges so that when their top
tension eliect and size of said molten edges but
edge portions are in contact with one another
also prevents them from wetting one another and
their bottom edge portions are separated from
intermingling, said method comprising smooth
one another by an amount sufficient to permit
ing said joining edges so that good contact can
the edge portions of said parts at said joining
be had therebetween, beveling the bottom edge
edges to drop down and away from one another
portions of said parts along said joining edges so
without coming into contact with one another
that when their >top edge portions are in Contact
when rendered molten during welding, support
ing said parts with said top edge portions of said
with one another their bottom edge portions are
joining edges in contact with one another and
separated from one another by an amount suñi
cient to permit the edge portions of said parts at
with their bottom surfaces on each side of said
2,405,542
said joining edges to drop down and away from
one another without coming into contact with
one another when rendered molten during weld
ing, supporting said parts with the top edge por
tions of said joining edges in contact with one
another and with their said bottom edge portions
free to drop down when rendered molten, apply
ing a welding agency to the top surfaces of said
edge portions of said parts, traversing said weld
ing agency and said edge portions of said parts
relatively to one another, controlling the heat of
said welding agency and the rate cf relative trav
el between said welding agency and said edge
portions of said parts to render said edge portions
of said parts sufficiently molten to drop down
10
intermingling to' form a weld, said method com
prising preparing the joining edges of said parts
and positioning said parts relatively to one an
other so that the top edge portions of said join
ing edges of said parts make goed contact with
one another along their lengths and so that when
said top edge portions of said joining edges are in
contact with one another their bottom edge por
tions are spaced from one another along their
lengths by an outwardly opening gap of from .005
to .G25 inch in width at the bottom edge portions
of said joining edges of said parts, supporting
said parts with their said joining edges in contact
with one another and so that their bottom edge
and away from one another and form a gap be
portions at said joining edges are free to drop
down when rendered molten, maintaining a di
tween said parts, and simultaneously with said
fusion of said edge portions of said parts by said
welding agency supplying fillerv material to said
positive polarity and the top surfaces of said
parte at said joining edges, supplying a shield
welding agency and fusing it thereby in suñicient
quantity to fill the gap between said parts and
thereby complete a weld between them.
8. The method of fusion wel-:ling parts about
1,12, inch thick formed of magnesium, aluminum
and alloys and metals having the weight, surface
tension and oxidizing characteristics of magne
sium and aluminum which causes during weld
ing at the edges to be welded large globular for
mations of molten metal whose surface skin of
oxide prevents them from wetting one another li i)
and intermingling to form a weld, said method
comprising preparing the joining edges of said
parts and positioning said parts relatively to one
another so that the top edge portions of said
joining edges of said parts make good contact
with one another along their lengths and so that
when said top edge portions of said joining edges
are in Contact with one another their bottom
edge portions are spaced from one another along
rect current arc between a tungsten electrode of
ing gas selected from the group consisting of
argon and helium about the arcing terminal of
said electrode and the portions of said parts
rendered molten by said arc, traversing said arc
and said edge portions of said parts relatively to
one another, controlling the heat of said arc
and the rate of relative travel between said are
and said edge portion of said parts to render said
edge portions of said parts suiiîciently molten to
drop down and away from one another and form
a gap between said parts, and simultaneously
with said fusion of said edge portion of said
parts supplying molten metal to fill the gap and
complete the weld between said parts by uni
formly feeding to said are the end of a- filler rod
which is of substantially the same composition
as said parts and which is inclined at least 60°
away from said electrode and said arc.
l0. The method of fusion welding parts hav
ing edge portions greater than 1A; inch thick
their lengths by an outwardly opening gap at l f) formed of magnesium, aluminum and alloys and
least .005 inch in width at the bottom edge por
tions oi said joining edges of said parts, sup
porting said parts with their said joining edges
in contact with one another and so that their
bottom edge portions at said joining edges are
free to drop down when rendered molten, main
taining an arc between a tungsten electrode and
the top surfaces of said parts at said joining
edges, supplying an atmosphere of shielding gas
metals having the weight, surface tension and
oxidizing characteristics of magnesium and alu
minum which causes during welding at the edges
to be welded large globular formations of molten
metal whose surface skin of oxide prevents them
from wetting one another and intermingling to
form a Weld, said method comprising beveling
the top edge portions of said parts to forrnjoining
edges about M3 inch thick, preparing the joining
edges of said parts and positioning said parts
selected from the group consisting of argon and 60
relatively to one another so that the top edge
helium about the arcing terminal of said elec
portions of said joining edges of said parts make
trode and the portions of said parts rendered
good contact with one another along their
molten by said arc, traversing said arc and said
lengths and so that when said top edge portions
edge portions of said parts relatively to one an
of said joining edges are in contact with one an
other, controlling the heat of said arc and the
other their bottom edge portions are spaced from
rate of relative travel between said arc and said
one another along their lengths by an outwardly
edge portion oi said parts to render said edge por
opening gap of at least .O05 inch in width at the
tions of said parts sufñciently molten to drop
bottom edge portions of said joining edges of said
down and away from one another and form a
parts, supporting said parts with their said join
gap between said parts, and simultaneously with
ing edges in contact with one another and so
said fusion of said edge portion of said parts sup
that their bottom edge portions at said joining
plying molten metal to ñll the gap and complete
edges are free to drop down when rendered molt
the weld between said parts by uniformly feed
ing to said arc the end of a filler rod which is
of substantially the same composition as said
en, maintaining an arc between a tungsten elec
trode and the top surfaces of said parts at said
joining edges, supplying a shielding gas selected
parts and which is inclined at least 60° away from
from the group consisting of argon and helium
said electrode and said arc.
about the arcing terminal of said electrode and
9. The method of fusion welding parts about
the portions of said parts rendered molten by
1A; inch thick formed of magnesium, aluminum
and alloys and metals having the weight, surface 70 said arc, traversing said arc and said edge por
tions of said parts relatively to one another, con
tension and oxidizing characteristics of magne
trolling the heat of said arc and the rate of rel
sium and aluminum which causes during welding
ative travel between said arc and said edge por
at the edges to be welded large globular forma
tions of said parts to render said edge portions
tions of molten metal whose surface skin of ox
of said parts suiiiciently molten to drop down
ide prevents them from wetting one another and
2,405,542
'il
12
and away from one another and form a gap be
parts and which is inclined at least 60° away
-from said electrode and said arc.
l2. The method of fusion welding parts hav
tween said parts, and simultaneously with said
fusion of said edge portions of said parts sup
plying molten metal to fill the gap between said
ing joining edges greater than 1/8 inch thick and
parts by uniformly feeding to said arc the end of
formed of magnesium, aluminum and alloys and
a iiller rod which is of substantially the same
metals having the weight, surface tension and
composition as said parts and which is inclined
oxidizing characteristics of magnesium and alu
at least 60° away from said electrode and said
minum which causes during welding at the edges
arc and thereafter supplying additional ñller rod
to- be welded large globular formations of molten
to said arc and traversing it and said parts rel
metal whose surface skin of oxide prevents them
atively to one another along said beveled top edge
from wetting one another and intermingling to
portions of said parts a suñicient number of
form a weld, said method comprising beveling
times to fuse said beveled top edge portions and
‘fie top edge portions of said parts to form join
ñll the groove formed thereby with molten metal.
ing edges about 1A; inch thick, beveling the bot«
l1. The method of fusion welding parts hav 15 tom edge portions of said parts along said join
ing joining edges about 1/8 inch thick formed of
ing edges so that when their top edge portions
magnesium, aluminum and alloys and metals
are in contact with one another their bottom
having the weight, surface tension and oxidizing
edge portions are separated from one another
characteristics of magnesium and aluminum
by an outwardly opening gap of at least .005 inch
which causes during welding at the edges to be 20 in width, supporting said parts with said top edge
welded large globular formations of molten
portions of said joining edges in contact with
metal whose surface skin of oxide prevents them
one another and with their bottom edge portions
from wetting one another and intermingling to
free to drop down when rendered molten, main
form a weld, said method comprising beveling
taining a direct current arc between a tungsten
the bottom edge portions of said parts along said 25 electrode of positive polarity and the top surfaces
joining edges so that when their top edge por
of said parts at said joining edges, supplying a
tions are in contact with one another their bot
shielding gas selected from the group consisting
tom edge portions are separated from one an
of argon and helium about the arcing terminal of
other by an outwardly opening gap of at least
said electrode and the portions of said parts ren
.005 inch in width, supporting said parts with 30 dered molten by said arc, traversing said arc and
said top edge portions of said joining edges in
said edge portions of said parts relatively to one
Contact with one another and with their bottom
another, controlling the heat of said arc and the
edge portions free _to drop down when rendered
rate of relative travel between said arc and said
molten, maintaining a' direct current arc be
edge portions of said parts to render saidnedge
tween a tungsten electrode of positive polarity ~ portions of said parts suiiiciently molten to drop
and the top surfaces of said parts at said joining
down and away from one another and form a
edges, supplying a shielding gas selected from
gap between. said parts, simultaneously with said
the group consisting of argon and helium about
fusion of said edge portion of said parts supply
the arcing terminal of said electrode and the
ing molten metal to nl] the gap between said
portions of said parts rendered molten by said 40 parts by uniformly feeding to said arc the end
arc, traversing said arc and said edge portions
of a filler rod which is of substantially the same
of said parts relatively to one another, control
composition as said parts and which is inclined
ling the heat of said arc and the rate of relative
at least 60° away from said electrode and said
travel between said arc and said edge portions
arc, and thereafter supplying additional filler
of said parts to render said edge portions of said 45 rod to said welding agency and traversing it and
parts suiiiciently molten to drop down and away
said parts relatively to one another along said
from one another and form a gap between said
beveled top edge portions of said 'parts a su?li
parts, and simultaneously with said fusion of said
cient number of times to fuse said beveled top
edge portion of said parts supplying molten metal
edge portions and ñll the groove formed there
to ñll the gap between said parts by uniformly
by with molten metal.
.
feeding to said arc the end of a filler rod which 50
is of substantially the same composition as said
FRANK A. WASSELL.
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