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Патент USA US2405569

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Aug. 13, 1946.
2,405,569
K. E. FrrcH E_TAI.
CRYRTOCTRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Filed March 18, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet l
A15'. FITCH
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WWA/Twas. Á. Locke
ATTORNEY
Aug. 13, 19MB.{
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K. E. FrrcH z-:TAL
2,405,569
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM ì
Filed March 18', 1942
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Aug. '13, 194s.
K. E. FITCH ETAL
2,405,569
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH -SYSTEM
Filed March 18, 1942
s sheèts-sneet s
ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
2,405,56É
`UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,569
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Karl E. Fitch, Summit, N. J., and George A. Locke,
Glenwood Landing, N. Y., assignors to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
Y York, N. YV., a corporation of New York
Application March 1’8, 1942, Serial No. 435,178
34 Claims.
(c1. 17a-22)'
l
`
2
This invention relates to telegraph apparatus
of the invention, the system includes a pluralit
of signal transmitting and receiving station
and systems and particularly to a cryptographic
or cipher system.
which may be interconnected over telegraph line
Systems of this general type are exemplified by
through a central oñîce exchange which ha
a number of patents in the prior art, such as c: switchboard facilities. Each station has a receiv
ing telegraph printer and a keyboard controlle
Patent 1,310,719, granted July 22, 1919, to G. S.
Vernam, which discloses a transmitting distribu
transmitter and each station may have in addi
tor for transmitting signals evolved by the inter
tion to or in lieu of the keyboard transmitter
action of message signals set up by a keyboard
perforated tape controlled transmitter. The re
oeiving printer and the transmitter are connecte
transmitter and cipher signals set up by a tape
to a repeater to which the incoming telegrap
sensing mechanism, and a receiving distributor
for delivering to a live-magnet receiving printer
line is also connected. There is also associate
with the repeater a cipher unit which consist
signals evolved by the interaction of signals im
essentially of a signal responsive input relay, a:
pressed on a telegraph line, whether by local or
output relay, and a tape controlled signal gen
remote transmitting distributor, and cipher sig
erator. The signal generator has in storage
nals set up by the same tape sensing mechanism.
substantial quant-ity of previously prepared tap
Another patent which shows a cipher system em
containing signal perforations representing char
ploying notched discs instead of a tape controlled
acters preferably in an unintelligible sequencr
sensing mechanism for setting up the cipher sig
Upon the operation of the keyboard transmitte
nals is British Patent 442,602 of Creed and Com
to generate signal impulses representing a char
pany, Ltd., ñled August 17, 1934, accepted Febru
ary 12, 1936.
acter of a message the signaling impulses ar
.
applied through the repeater to the signal re
An object of the present invention is to initiate
sponsive input relay of the cipher unit. Th
code signals indicative of message material by
means of keyboard controlled contacts mechani v25 signal generator of the cipher unit is started i
response to the start impulse of the signal initiat
cally actua-ted for successive impulses and simul
ed by the keyboard to generate a ciphering cod
taneously to modify said signals impulse by im
signal under the control of the storage tape i
pulse according to cipher code signals.
Another object of the invention is to modify l - timed relation to the response of the input rela
nf,
received signals or signals initiated for transmis ull to the impulses initiated by the keyboard tran:
mitter. The output relay is controlled joint]
sion by one signal modifying instrumentality
by the input relay and by the tape cor
solely by distinguishing automatically between
trolled ciphering signal generator in such marl
transmission and reception.
ner that impulses of one type, such as spacin;
A further object of the invention is to disasso
ciate the signal modifying instrumentality from “ ’ shall be generated in response to like impulse
the signal initiating and receiving devices upon
the transmission or reception of a break signal.
The invention features a perforated tape con
and impulses of another type, such as mark
ingY shall be generated in response to unlik
impulses simultaneously received by the inpi
relay and generated by the tape controlled sign:
generator. The signals generated by the outpi
relay are impressed through the repeater on tl:
telegraph line. A relay associated with the rf
trolled signal generator operable in start-stop
manner and producing start-stop signals for
modifying received signals or signals initiated for
transmissionThe invention also features a repeater associ
peater is operable in response to the initiation t
ated with a telegraph signa1 receiving and trans»
mitting station which includes a reversing relay,
controlled in accordance with the reception of
signals or the initiation of signals for transmis
sion, for routing received signals into the signal
signals at the keyboard transmitter for routin
the signals to the input relay of the cipher un
rather than directly through the repeater to tk
telegraph line.
Signals received over the telegraph line entf
is,
modiiier from which modiñed signals are im~
pressed upon the receiving recorder and for rout
ing signals initiated for transmission into the
signal modiñer from which modiñed signals are
impressed upon the telegraph channel for trans
mission.
~ In accordance with the preferred embodiment "
_ the repeater. and the routing relay operates i
response to the receptionl of signals, as distir
guished from the initiation of signals, to rouî
the received signals to the input relay of tl
cipher unit. The received signals are those ger
erated by the output relay of cipher unit attr
Station from which the signals are being receiver
2,405,569
3
the tape in the tape controlled signal gen
ors at both stations is identical and is ad
:ed one step for each character transmitted
eceived so that identical signals are always
ented to the tape sensing elements of the
al generators. The signals received and ap
i to the input relay of the cipher unit control
output relay of that unit jointly with the
I, controlled signal generator to reproduce the
sage signal initiated by the remote trans
ler. This deeiphered signal is applied throughV
repeater to the printing recorder.
)r a complete understandingv of the invention
rence may be had to theV followingI detailed
ription to be interpreted. in the light of the
»mpanying drawings wherein:
message transmitter and recorder and thev
.er unit in accordance with the present; in
non;
g. 2 is a schematic circuit diagram showingv
repeater according to the-preferred embodi
.t off the invention;
Lg.. 3 is a diagrammatic representation of a
plete communicationsystem including a plu- ».
1y of stations of the type shown inFigs. land
be selectively interconnected through a cen
`
connected to one end of each of resistors 42 and
43 which form a potentiometer and which have
their opposite ends connected to the negative ter
minal of grounded battery 44 and»Í to ground, re
spectively.. Current flowingv in the biasing wind
ing of relay 21 seeks to drive the armature to
I spacing position but in the rest condition of the
apparatus current supplied over the telegraph
conductors 23 and 24 and through the operating
winding of relay 2.1 overcomes the effect of the
biasing winding andholds the armature in mark
y ing condition.
Upon the insertion of plug I4 into jacks I1 and
‘ '
g. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram showing.
oii'ice exchange; and
and 39 in series to the negative terminal of bat
tery 4I, the positive terminal of which is ground
ed, and the other side of the biasing winding is
'
I8, conductor 3 I4 becomes disconnected from con
ductor 29 at` thev tip contact spring of jack I1 so
that the'loop circuit between relay 26 and the
armature of relay 36 is broken. In its place a
loop is completed. through` the, tip of. the upper
plug,y transmitting contacts.. I3, tip of the lower
plug, tip contact spring of jack I18_.and„ conductors
46` and 41 to line conductor 2L Upon the opera
tion of transmitting contacts I3 under, the control
of the keyboard transmitter,v theA loop which Yin
terconnects line conductors 23A and 24 .is inter
rupted in correspondence withsignals tov be trans
ig. 4. is a schematic circuit' diagram showing a
mitted thus generating marking' and, spacing sig
lined form of cipher unit.
eferring now to the drawings and particularly
î‘ig. 1, the apparatus contained within the
nals of current >and no-current- conditions re
spectively. When the loop 'is interrupted to pro.
ducea spacing condition,.current in the operating
:en line rectangle I’I represents a combined
winding of relay~21 is»` interrupted so that the
eiving telegraph printer andL keyboard trans
biasing winding becomes effective to drive the
:er which. may be ofthe type shown in Patent
armature to the spacingl contact.. The armature
4,164,` granted April 18, 1933, to S. Morton
of relay 21 is connected through conductors 48
tl. The disclosure of this patent is incorpo
and 43' to the sleeve of jack I1 and thence through
:d herein by reference as part of the present
the. sleeve of the upper plug, selector magnet
:iñcatiom , In Fig. 1 the printer is indicated
I2, sleeve. of the lower plug to the. sleeve of the
,bolically by the selector magnet I2 and the 40 jack> I 8 which isconnected to ground. The mark
Joard transmitter for4 transmitting start-stop
ing contact of relay 21 is connected to the nega
nutati'on code signals is represented by the
tive terminal of battery 5I, the positive terminal
Ismitting contacts, I3. Theselector magnet I2
of which isA grounded, and- the spacing contact
onne'cted tothe sleeve terminals of a double
is connected through conductor 52. and the upper
5 I4 and the transmitting contacts I3 are con 45 winding ofa relay 53 to ground.. With. the arma
:ed to the tip contacts of the double plug I4.
ture of relay 21 engagingl its marking contact,
current ñows to energize selector magnet L2 which
isV the marking condition. When the armature
rig` 2.
of relay 21 goes to spacing, the circuit of' selector
hev pair of jacks I1> and I8 andthe pair of 50 magnet I2 is` grounded. at. both< ends` so that. no
¿s 2l and 22 represent the station side of the
current flows. through selector. magnet I2 or
eater; The opposite side which is the line
through the upper winding ot relay 53.4 This is
of the repeater is entered by telegraph line
the spacing condition of selector magnet I2.`
:luctors 23 and 24.v Line. conductor 23 is con
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that
;ed through the winding of a break relay 26
relay 21- serves as a line> relay to control the
through the upper or operating winding of a
operation. oil selector magnet. I2 in response to
.r line receiving relay 21 from which. a circuit
signals received over the telegraph line. com
' be traced through conductors 28 and 29, tip
prising,` conductors. 23 and` 24 and also serves as
tact spring of jack. I1 and contact spring
a local repeating: relay ‘to-repeat to magnet. I2
:h it' engages when plug I4 is not inserted in 60 signals generated locally by the transmitting
:s I1 and I8, conductors 3| and 3‘2, normally'
contacts I3. It- will be noted that.y signals gen
edv contacts ofv a relay 33which theright-hand
erated by the contacts I3 are impressed directly
ature` isoperable to open, conductor 34., arma
upon theline conductors` 23 and 214 and are not
I and marking contact of the line sending
repeatedfor transmission purposes» but- only for
y 36 which is also a polar relay, and. con 65 home. record. purposes. ItV will also be noted
bor‘ 31 to telegraph> line conductor 24. From
that` the. system provides. for signal transmission
it will be apparent that when plug I4 is4 not
in either direction over liner conductors` 23 and
rted into jacks I1 and i8, the telegraph line
24 but not tor simultaneous transmission in both
iuctors 23, and. 24» terminate in the.. repeater
directions.` The tipspring ofrjack I1 is mechani
heF loop circuit just traced without any local
cally but not electrically associated with.- a spring
'ce of signaling current.,A from which it-follows
above` it- which is» engageable with a grounded
:telegraph battery is connected at the remote
contacti wheni plug I-4visë inserted in the-jacks I1
of the telegraphline to provide current for
and` I8 and which is» connected to one side of a
aling. The lower or biasing winding. of relay
lamp 52, the other side of which is connected
ias. one. side connected through resistors,l 38 75, to. grounded battery. Thus' wheny plug I4 isen
' double plug I4, is adapted, to be inserted into
:s I1Y and L8 or 2Il and 22 of a repeater shown
2,405,569
gaged with jacks I1 and I8, lamp 52 will be
lighted to indicate that the type of message
transmission hereinbefore described is available.
Referring now to the jacks 2| and 22, a cir
cuit may be traced when plug I4 is not inserted
in the jack from ground on the spring of jack 22
which is mechanically associated with but elec
trically isolated from the tip spring of that jack
through the Contact which the spring engages
when no plug is inserted in the jack, conductor
56, back contact and inner right-hand armature
oi' relay 51, conductors 58, 59 and 60, lowermost
contact spring and tip spring contact of jack
6
circuit through the operating winding of rela
64 is opened for the start impulse and for eac
spacing impulse and is reclosed for each markin
impulse and for the stop impulse. The biasin
Winding of relay 64 is energized in a circuit be
ginning at the interconnected resistors SI an
82, the opposite ends of which are connected i
negative battery 83 and ground respectivel;
Resistors 3| and 82 form a potentiometer froi
which the circuit extends through the -biasin
winding of relay S4, conductor 55, armature c
relay 61, which at this time is held on the mark
ing contact, resistor 68 and battery B9. Th
biasing winding of relay 64, as thus energize(
2l, which engages the lowermost contact when
plug I4 is not inserted into jacks 2I and 22, con 15 seeks to move the armature to the spacing con
ductors 6I and 62, inner left-hand armature and
tact but is prevented from so moving the arma
back contact of relay 51, conductor E3, upper
ture when current flows through the operatin
or operating winding of polar relay 64, conductor
winding of the relay. However, upon the inter
66, armature and marking contact of polar relay
ruption of the circuit through theI operatin
61, and resistor 63 to the negative terminal of 20 winding due to the permutational operation c
battery 69, the positive terminal of which is con
transmitting contacts I3, the biasing winding c
nected to ground. Current flows in this circuit
relay 64 becomes eiïective to move the armatur
in the direction to hold the armature of relay
to the spacing contact.
64 on its marking contact. Conductor 56 is also
With the armature of relay 64 on the markins
connected to the sleeve of jack 22 so that when
contact, a circuit may be traced from grounder
plug I4 is inserted into jacks 2I and 22, the
battery 5I through the marking contact an<
circuit just traced is enlarged to include the
armature of line receiving relay 21, conductor
selector magnet I2 and transmitting contacts I3,
48 and 84, middle right-hand armature and bac]
and extends from ground on the sleeve of jack
contact of relay 51, conductor 86, marking con
2! through the upper sleeve contact of plug I4,
tact and armature of relay 64, conductor 81, ñxe<
selector magnet I2, lower sleeve contact of plug
contact and movable spring operable in make
I4, sleeve of jack 22 from which ground on the
before-break manner by a contact spring me
upper Contact spring is now disconnected, con
chanically operable by the tip contact spring o.
ductor 56, back contact and inner right-hand
jack I8, conductor 98, ñXed contact and movablr
armature of relay 51, conductors 53 and 59, tip 35 front contact operable by the inner right-han(
spring of jack 22, tip of the lower plug of double
armature of relay 1I, conductor 39, operating
plug I4, transmitting contacts I3, tip of the upper
Winding of polar input relay 9| of a. cipher unir
plug of double plug I4, tip contact spring of
(Fig. 1), to the potentiometer comprising re
jack ZI, conductors 6I and 52, inner left-hand
sistors 92 and 93 and through those resistors tc
armature and back contact of relay 51, operating 40 the negative terminal of battery 94, the positiv(
winding of relay 54, conductor 65, armature and
terminal of which is grounded, and to grounc'
marking contact of relay 51, resistor B8, to
respectively. It is to be noted at this point thai
grounded battery S9. From this it will be ob
the circuit just traced is interrupted at the make
served that When plug I4 is inserted in jacks 2|
before-break contacts of jack I8 when plug I4 is
and 22, selector magnet i 2 is placed in series
inserted in the jacks i1 and I9 but that a sub
with transmitting contacts i3 so as to respond
stitute circuit for holding the operating winding
directly to perm-utational operation of the trans
of cipher unit input relay 9| energized, to hold
mitting contacts, Whereas when the plug was
its armature on the marking contact, is com
inserted in jacks I1 and I8, signals genera-ted by
pleted from the negative terminal of grounded
the transmitting contacts I3 were repeated to
battery 96 (Fig. 2) through resistor 91, con
selector magnet I2 by relay 21.
ductor 98, the make contacts operable by the tip
The tip spring of jack 2i mechanically oper
spring of jack I8, conductor 83, make-before
ates two contact springs to complete by means
break contacts of relay 1I_. conductor 89, operat
of the uppermost of these'springs a circuit from
ing Winding of relay 9|, to resistors 92 and 93
ground on the left-hand armature of a relay 1I,
in parallel.
through its back contact, conductor 12, closed
The circuit from the battery 5I associated with
upper contacts operated by the tip spring of jack
the marking contact of relay 21 through the
2|, lamp 13, to grounded battery, thus lighting
armature and marking contact of relay 64 and
the lamp to indicate the type of transmission that
the winding of relay 9| is interrupted when relay
is now available, namely, cipher transmission. 60 64 responds to spacing signals generated by con
At the lower of the two sets of contacts closed
tacts I3 and the armature of relay S4 leaves the
by the operation of the tip contact spring of
marking Contact, and a substitute energizing
jack 2I, a circuit is prepared from the junction
circuit for relay 9| is completed from ground on
of resistors 39 and 39, through which current
the upper terminal of the middle Winding of relay
for the `biasing winding of relay 21 is supplied,
53 through that winding, conductor IBI to the
over conductor 14, the closed contacts associated
spacing contact of relay 64 and through the
with jack 2i, conductor 15, back contact and
armature of that relay and the previously traced
left-hand armature of relay 33, and conductor
circuit to the operating winding of relay S i. Due
16 to normally open contacts 11 which are oper
able by a locking bail for the keyboard trans- "
mitter in a manner which will be described later,
together with the function of the circuit just
traced.
Upon the operation of transmitting contacts I3
to initiate the transmission of a code signal, the
to the substitution of ground on the spacing con
tact for the negative battery connection on the
marking contact and armature of relay 21, the
flow of current through the operating winding of
relay 9| is reversed. This current also traverses
the middle Winding of relay 53 in a direction to
move the armature of that relay from the left
2,405,569:
7
8i4 `
i flowing through theA upper winding of relay
ment insulated. from the main, body or thev ring
andthe inner brush carried by brush arm |'2‘I
nd conductor 52 because that conductor ter
ates at the spacingÁ contact of relay 21 and
is in engagement with the short segment when
brush arm |2| is held at rest by the cooperation
ery |02 and the other terminal connected to
right-hand contact of relay 53 from which a
and subtends the same angle. ImmediatelyI
ahead of and behind the rest segment of. theA
outer ring are short conductive segments which
d to; the: rightehand‘ contact.. No current has
»rdingly the operation of the armature of Cl of armature lever |28 with cam |21, the segment
may be called a rest segment. The outer seg
y 53 to its right-hand contact is unopposed.
mented ring has a short segment which. is a
'lower winding of relay 53 has one terminal`
companion to the rest segment of the inner ring
iected to the negative terminal of grounded
uit- also extends through conductor |03, bias
winding of relay 61. and resistor |04 to the
ative terminal of battery 69. No current
‘s in this circuit with the armature of relay
representV the start and stopy impulses respec
tively.
The start segment is the first to beY en
gaged by the- brush after leaving> the rest segment
and the stop segment is the lasti to be engaged>
in». itsv left-hand contact becauseV batteries 09
by the brush before coming into engagement with
„ |02 are in opposition. However, with the
the rest segment. The remainder or” the> outer
inded armature of relay 53' on its right-hand
ring contains five uniformly space-d short con
bact„ circuits in. parallel are established for
ductive segments which correspond to the five
lower winding of relay 53 to battery |02 andy
the biasing Winding of relay> 61 to battery 69. 20 codeV impulses of a permutation code combina
tion and these segments are connected to the
five contact tongues |'3|, which are permitted to
move into engagement with their upperor mark
= flow of current through the lower winding of
ly 53 is in a direction to hold the armature on:
right-hand contact. The flow of current
augh. thev biasing winding of relay 61 is in a
action to holdV the armature of that relay on
marking contact so thatV it cannot be moved to
cing regardless of reversals which may occur
ing contacts when the sensing pins (not sho-wn)
by which they are controlled encounter perfora-v
tions in they tape |32, and are heldv in engage
ment with their lower or spacing contacts when
their associated sensing »pins encounter imperio
rate portions of tape |32. The start and stop
he operating winding.
l,eferring now to- Fig. l, it will be noted that
v armature of relay# 9| is- operable between 30' segments are connected to conductor HS which
extends to the left-hand` side of the operating
rking and spacingV contactsY which are con
tedthrough resistors |06l and |01, respectively,
;he negative terminal of grounded battery |08
l to ground, respectively; The armature of
ty 9| is connected by conductor |09 to one
winding of output> relay H3, as previously set
forth. The inner ring of the distributor exclu
sive of the rest segment is connected by conductor
i i3d through the‘lower winding of'input relay 9|,
which is employed as avrlocking winding, and
ner |0911 of a triangular bridge network which
iprises one side or-arm containing resistor |'| |,
econd side or arm containing resistor ||2 and
. operating winding of polar output relay> | |3',
l a third side or arm containing resistor |'|4. 40
»m- the point of interconnection of the operat
‘winding of relay ||3 and resistor' H4', desig
:ed as the bridge corner ||6a, conductor HS
ends to a set of ñve contacts» of a` tape‘trans»
iter distributor and these will be assumedì to
the spacing contacts. From the point of in~connection of resistors> ||| and ||2, designated
bridge corner> |I1a, conductorv |||1 extends to
r other live contacts of the transmitter distrib~
»r and"- these will be assumed to be the marking
itacts.
Phe tape transmitter distributor is somewhat
iilar to aA tape controlled transmitter distrib~
)r disclosed in Patent 2,055,567, granted Sep:
nber 29, 1936, to E. F. Watson, andthe dis
sure of the Watson patent is incorporated
rein- by reference as part of the present speci'
ation.
However, the distributor has a conside
rbly diiîer‘ent arrangement of signal generating
through resistors |36 and |31' in parallel to the
negative terminal of battery |39, the positive
terminal of which is grounded, and to ground
respectively.
With distributor brushY |2| in the rest position,
the two rest segments are bridged by the vbrushes
as previously stated and a circuit may be traced
from ground on the positive terminal of battery
|39V through theY battery, resistor í?il, winding of
start magnet |29 oi the distributor, closed switch
| 44, conductor |49, inner and outer rest segments
of the distributor, conductors |41 and |09, and
armature of relay 9| where negative battery |03
on the marking contact normally opposes nega
tive battery lll! and holds start magnet |29
deenergized but where ground connection is now
applied through resistor |01 and the spacingv con
tact since it has been assumed that relay 9| has
gone to spacing in response to the start impulse
of a signal combination initiated by transmitting
contact I3. Start magnet |29 therefore becomes
energized over the circuit just traced and releases
l the distributor brush i2@ for rotation.
The brushes first encounter the start segment'
60
çments, as will be described hereinafter.
where a circuit is completed from the potenti
I‘he distributor has a brush arm |2| Which is
ometer comprising resistors |39 and |91- through
rried by a rotatable shaft |22 to which rota
the locking winding of' relay 9|, conductor |34,
n is imparted from motor |23 through friction
innery ring- and start segment of the distributor,
itch |24 and gears |26. A stop cam |21 is se
‘ conductor H6 to bridge cornerl 59a and then in
red to shaft |22 and is »arranged -to be arrestedl
branching paths through resistor'v |24» to bridge
armature lever |28 of electromagnet |29 wheny
corner |09a and through the operating winding
e magnet is deenergized. Upon the energiza
of relay H3 and resistors i l2 and ||| comprising
)n of magnet |29, the end or armature lever
theV other two bridge arms to bridge corner |99a,
8 presented toward cam |21- is rocked out of
rejoining through conductor |09, armature of
:cking relation, to the cam whereby shaft |22
relay 9|, spacing contact of that relay, and re
released for rotation. Brush arm | 2| carries
sistor |01 to ground which is at the positive
>o electrically interconnected brushes which v
potential of battery |38. The flow of current is
idge outer and inner segmented rings.
through the operating winding of relay || 3 in
The inner ring of the distributor is electrically
the direction to operate its armature to the spac
ntinuous» except for a short conductive seg
2,405,569
ing contact and through the locking winding of
relay 9| in the direction to hold the armature
of relay 9| on its spacing contact during the
interval that the brush traverses the start seg
ment, so that the armature of that relay cannot
return to marking even if one of the transmitting
contacts |3 should become closed for a marking
impulse and restore current through the oper
ating winding of relay 3| in the direction to
restore the armature to the marking contact.
Current in the locking winding of relay 9| is
ing the armature to spacing, which is a dead con
tact, when relay ||3 is spacing, and restoring the
armature to marking when relay | |3 is marking.
The condition of the repeater circuit with re
spect to line conductors 23 and 24 just before the
relay 36 is operated to spacing is that a previ
ously described loop circuit is bridged across the
line conductors 23 and 24 from conductor 23
always paramount to current in the operating
winding and the armature of the relay can be
through relay 26, the operating winding of relay
21, conductors 26 and 29, tip spring contact of
jack l1 and contact now engaged by the tip spring
contact, conductors 3| and 32, closed contacts
controlled by the right-hand armature of relay
33, conductor 34, armature and marking contact
shifted under the control of the operating wind
" ing only when no current is flowing in the locking
winding. Since currentV flows in the locking wind
ing of relay 9| only during the brief interval that
the brushes traverse a segment in the outer ring
of the distributor, the locking winding will not
prevent a marking or spacing pulse of normal
length in the operating winding of relay 9| from
of relay 36, and conductor 31 to line conductor
24. Upon the operation of the armature of line
sending relay 36 to spacing position, this loop is
opened, thus placing the line conductors 23 and
24 in spacing condition.
operating the armature.
The armature of output relay ||3 is connected
through resistor |43 and the lower or locking
winding of output relay |`|3, and resistors |5|
It will be noted that upon movement of the
armature of sending relay 36 to spacing, current
is interrupted in the operating winding of receiv
ing relay 21. Reíerence is again made to contacts
and |52 which form a potentiometer, the former
being connected to the negative terminal of bat
tery |53, the positive terminal of which is
grounded.4 and the latter being connected to
ground. Current through the holding winding
10
contact of relay 53. Since the armature of this
relay is now held to the right-hand contact vby
current through the lower winding of the relay,
therewill be no current in the biasing winding
of polar relay 36 and the armature of relay 36 is
controlled solely by the operating winding, mov
30
11 (Fig. l) the closure of which will connect
ground over conductor 16, left-hand armature
of relay ||3 is always in the direction to hold
and back contact of relay 33, conductor 15, con
the armature in engagement with the contact
tacts of jack 2| now closed, conductor 14 and re
sistor 38 to one terminal of the biasing winding of
to which it has been moved and through which
relay 21. The opposite side of the biasing winding
a holding circuit has been completed from the
negative terminal of battery |49 on the marking
of relay 21 is connected to the potentiometer
contact or` from ground on the spacing contact,
which comprises resistors 42 and 43, so that cur
but current in the holding winding is subordi
rent flows in the opposite direction in the biasing
nate to current in the operating winding so that
winding of relay 21. The armature of relay 21
upon a reversal of current through the operating
is thus biased to the marking position and will
winding the armature will be moved in spite of 40 not go to spacing when relay 36 impresses a
the holding current in the lower winding and a
spacing condition on the line conductors. Con
new holding circuit will be established tending
tacts 11 are normally open but are closed by the
to hold the armature in the new position. It is
operation of a locking bail |66 which is rocked
to be noted that current is always flowing through
in counter-clockwise direction by a spring |68
45
the holding winding of relay ||3 in one direction
under th‘e control of a cam |61 associated With
the cam assembly which controls the operation of
or the other, whereas current flows in the hold
ing winding of relay 9| only when the distributor
transmitting contacts |3. Cam |61 is shown in
brushes are traversing a conductive segment in
the rest position and is rotated one revolution for
the outer ring, excluding the rest segment.
each code combination generated by transmitting
The armature of output relay ||3 is also con 50 contacts |3. This feature is more fully disclosed
nected through conductor |56, operating wind
in Patent 2,018,368, granted October 22, 1935,
ing of relay 61 (Fig. 2) , conductor |51, operating
winding of line sending relay 36 to a potentiom
eter consisting of resistors |58 and |59, the former
to R. A. Lake, and particularly in Fig. 5 of that
patent. The disclosure of the Lake patent is in
corporated herein by reference as part of the
present specification. Contacts 11 are closed dur
ing the generation of a signal combination by
transmitting contacts I3 and therefore during th’e
generation of a modified signal combination by
the output relay ||3 of the cipher unit under the
of which is connected to «the negative terminal of
battery 44 and the latter of which is connected
to ground. With' the armature of relay | |3 on
itsspacing contact, current through the operat
ing-windings of relays 61 and 36 is thus reversed.
It has been set forth previously that upon the op 80 joint control of input relay 9 | , which is controlled
by transmitting contacts I3, and the tape con
eration of the armature of relay 53 to its right
hand contact, resulting from the initiation of
trolled signal generator. This disablement of re
lay 21 is necessary when signals are being gen
signal transmission at transmitting contacts |3,
the relay 61 became biased to hold its armature 05 erated by relay 36 because otherwise relay 21
in the marking position so that reversals in its
would follow the signals so generated, and upon
movement of its armature to the spacing posi
operating winding will not drive the armature to
spacing. This is necessary in order to prevent
tion, would complete the energizing circuit for
relay 61 from reversing the biasing current for
the upper winding of relay 53 over conductor 52.
relay 64 and thus interfering with the operation
The upper winding of relay 53 when so ener
gized is superior to the lower Winding and will
of that relay under the control of transmitting
contacts |3. It will be noted that the circuit of
restore the armature to its left-hand position,
the biasing winding of relay 36 extends from the
thus changing the current in the biasing windings
negative terminal of grounded battery |6|
of relays 36 and 61 and interfering with the
through resistor |62, conductor |63, biasing wind
transmission of signals under the control of ci
ing of relay 36 and conductor |64 to th‘e left-hand 75
iii'
.
prier -uriit output relay \ is. Itfwiu be apparent
`
upon
that when
telegraph'
signals
lineY are
conductors
being il'n'pressed4
v23 and '24 'through
dir
jacks l? and I 3, the relay `21 is not prevented
from following thesevsignals and repeating them
to the lselector magnet |-2 as previously described,
' 'Vl'g'naturethe dis-5
tributor generated theY equivalent of a vspacing
condition independently Vof ¿the tape sensing
mechanism; Ydue to theV tacit vthat `v>the lstart 'seg
ment lis connected »directly 'over conductor |`I6 to
bridge corner Hört-so that -the-output relay II3
for rth'e‘reason that jacks 2l and 22 at that 'time
have ¿no plug inserted Vtherein and the Ycontacts
associated with jack 2| for interconnecting -con-V
duc'ters 'I4 and v'I5 _are opensc that `the >contacts
generated »a spacing signal. It is 'apparent f’irom
-It >Will be assumed «that following the transmis
sionof 'the start impulse, the -iìrst three message
code `‘ïir'nïpulses generated by transmitting contacts
this that when transmitting contacts 'I3 and the
distributor, alone or under the'` control of "tape
contacts 13|, generate like signals, whether
marking or spacing, lthe resulting signal trans
mitted to the telegraph line under 'the control >`of
output relay Y| I3 is o'f spacing natu-re.
It has been assumed that the second code ima
I3 ‘are marking, spacing, marking, and that the
ñrst threes'c‘ip-hering code impulses setup by the
pulse generated by »transmitting contacts I3 'is Aof
spacing nature and that »the second code vimpulse
'il «then have no eii‘ec't upon 'the biasing Winding
of'rrelay 21.
generatedrby the 'tape controlled signalgenerator
tape |32 in v'thesensin'g contacts I3f| fare marking,
mark-ing, spacing. Relay 9| Will be restored to its
ma king Contact in response to the first message
cede impulse to apply negative battery lconnection
through its armature to conductor |03. The
transmitting >contact tongue ’connected to the ñrst
code segment in the v,outer distributor ring willbe
is of marking nature. Input relay `9I of the
cipher unit moves to spacing and connects ground
‘
to vconductor |03. The circuit Afor the ‘operating
Winding of relay I'I 3 is traced‘from the potentiom
eter comprising resistors _|36 and |31 through
the locking Winding of relay 9|, conductor I 34,
the inner ring 'of the distributor through the
in engagement with its upper ‘or marking con'
tact under the controlofïits' tape'sensing pin and -N) Si brushes ’carried by brush arm I 2|, the second
code segment in the outer ring, the second trans
Willïconneot ‘that segment over conductor Hï'lto
bridg'ecorner II‘Ia. As the brushes Atraverse the
mitting contact tongue Vvvhich engages its upper
ñrst 'code »segn'ient of the outer ring ofthe disà
or marking 'Contact and thence over conductor
be Y"traced
potentiometer
ti‘iïbutor, a circuit
comprising
may resistors
|36_ 'from
'and‘g the
|37 „
I'I‘I to bridge corner Illa. The path is the saine
as that described in the "preceding paragraph,y
but the polarity on conductor `|09 iS now ground
ed positive Vinstead of negativ ' thus reversing the
through the locking Winding of relay 91x, ‘conduc
tor 134, inner rin'g ‘of `~thedistri'butor, first ‘ code
segment of the Vouter ring, -iìrs't 'tape `sensing con
tact vtong-ue and upp'erfor marking contact, “con
ductor'l-llïl and in branching _paths through re
35
flow of current through ‘the operating Winding
of relay ||3 and driving the armature to the
marking contact. The reversed current through
the locking Winding of relay 9| during the inter
sister'l-'Ifí to conductor >H19 at bridge-‘corner `I09o
val that the brushes traverse the second code seg
andthrough resistor I| |52, operating Winding of
ment locks the armature on the
' `
relay -| |53- andresistor |"|'4 tojconduoto'r`r 109, It
will be noted Vthat resistor H4 is now effectively 40 _to guard against return of the armature to mark
ing position should the "current through the op
in ’series with relay A"H3 and resistorfI |2, and re
sist-’or I H" is ¿in parallel with those `three *ele
erating’w'inding be changed at this time. The
ments. Current ilows -inthe ‘opposite ¿direction
armature of relay `||ï3 establishes a -ilow of cur
through resistors II| and ïI|4 than ‘it did When
the start >impulse was 'transmitted ¿and `accord
ingly the current in the locking’windin‘g of relay
Si during the interval 'that vthe brushes traverse
the V`first I'code segment is in 'thej'dir'ecti'o'n “to hold
rent through the locking Winding of that relay
for 'positively ’holding the ¿armature 'in the mark
- ing position after interruption
`fof theflows
current
through the operating Winding, which
only
'during the brief yinterval that the distributor
brushes 'traverse the code segment; The negative
the ;armat'ureY of that relay on its marking ’con
or marking battery applied over conductor |56
tact.` The reversal `of the flow of current Ais due , f through
>the 'operating Winding of
to the >application of vnegative battery t0 the
`
`
relay 61,'con
armature o_f relay 9| through its marking Contact
instead of the grounded vpositive connection on its
spacingV contact. Whereas in 'the case 'of ‘the
transmission of the Y
'
ì
’
ì
start
impulse,
Y_the
circuit
was` .
duotor >`l?öïlfai‘l't'fl the Operating'winding of relay
36 >‘moves the armature of the
relay'to marking position, ythus r'eolosin'gl the loop
across line conductors -23 and î24 for the trans
miss‘ion'of a marking impulse. As Vpreviously
stated relay'ßï'l does ‘not 'respond a't this time 'to
cenapletedrfover vco'r'rductor IIS tothe bridge 'cor
ner "Iï|~"6a,x_ithe circuitis now completed 'overcom
duct'or ’Hl to the bridge corner H'lc. Thus the
path ’through 'the operating Winding "of ‘relay H3
the reversal oi V’Currier-it through its operating
and the polarity of battery applied to "the arma
posiuon by kits >biasing 'winding 4from 'the arma
ture and fight-hand Contact of relay l53. 'It vis
t0 the »äi'lnature »oi relay 9| ’has been reversed '
ture ci relay 'Sil 'has Jbeen reversed so `that'the
direct-ion of ilovvof -Current through the r’operat
ing ïw'ifri'el-‘íng'oi relay 5| |13 has not "been changed
and its armature remains o_n the spacing contact
Wherefore the armature of Vrelay SSfremains on
its spacing contact and transmits 'as the ñrst Acode
obseryedffrom the foregoing that with 'a spac
ing impulse generated lb'yj‘the transmitting con
tac'tïs |73 @and a ïmarking 'i pulse simultaneously
' Vgenerated by theftape `'contr
oiled signal generator,
the-output îrelay 1rH3 of 'the -cipher unit transmits
impulse -applied to lineV conductors 23 and 2'4, a
a niarkin'gnnpulse.
spacing signal. It may therefore ~be stated 'that
It Vhas been assumed that -the third code 'irn
pulse transmitted lby the contacts |3 >is of mark
when transmitting contacts I3 generate `a mark
ing signal and the ‘tape controlled signal gen
erator generates a marking signal, fthe resulting
signal transmitted lto the >line by-ou’tput relay i I3
is a Vspacing signal. It `is also 'to be 'noted that
when >the transmitting contacts -generated. the
_
ì
_
v
ing 'nature and ‘that the signal generated through
the third code Asegment'of the ta-pe controlled 'sig
nal zgenerator is of spacing nature. Relay 9|
respondsto the marking signal Igenerated by con-
taots |23 lby moving -its 'armature -to the marking
position, thus connecting the negative terminalfof
2,405,569i
13
battery |38 to conductor |09. The circuit for
the operating winding of output relay ||3 is now
traced from the potentiometer comprising resis
tors |36 and |31 through the locking winding of
relay 9|, conductor |34, inner ring of the dis
tributor, brushes carried by brush arm |2I, the
third code segment of the outer ring of the dis
tributor, the third transmitting contact tongue,
which is assumed to be engaging its spacing or
lower contact, and thence over conductor IIS to
bridge corner | Ißa. By comparison with the cir
cuit ior the operating winding of relay I I3 traced
resent the one shown in Figs. 1 and 2. A central
office exchange which may be employed for in
terconnecting telegraph stations in the system
according to the present invention is shown in
Patent 2,237,154, granted April 1, 1941, to G. A.
Locke >et al., and the disclosure of that patent is
incorporated herein by reference as part of the
in the preceding paragraph, the circuit branch
"
14
been so labeled in Fig. 3, from which other pairs
of line conductors extend to other stations exactly
like the one shown in Figs. l and 2, one of which
has been shown at the right of Fig. 3 with the
several elements labeled in correspondence with
the elements of the station shown at the left of
Fig. 3 and the latter station is intended to rep
ing point is now bridge corner IISa instead of
present specification. Since all of the outlying
bridge corner II'la, representing a Vreversal with 15 stations are identical, it has been deemed unnec
essary to produce on additional sheets of draw
respect to relay II3, but the battery connection
at conductor |09 derived from the armatureY of
ings, a mirror image of Figs. 1 and 2 to describe
relay 9| has also been reversed so that the mag
the operation of a station in receiving signals
netic field in the relay |I3 remains unchanged
transmitted from the station shown in Figs. 1
and the armature remains on its marking con
and 2. Instead the operation of receiving a sig
tact. The third signal impressed upon the line
nal will be described with reference to Figs. l
conductors 23 and 24 is therefore of marking
and 2 as if the signal had originated at the
nature. summarizing the transmitting condi
station shown at the right of Fig. 3 for example.
tions set forth in this paragraph and in the im
An important fact to be noted regarding the
mediately preceding paragraph, when the signals 25 transmission of signals between any two stations
simultaneously generated by transmitting con
in a system such as that shown in Fig. 3 is that
tacts I3 and the tape controlled signal generator
the perforated tape |32 shall be identical at all
are unlike, the signal impressed upon the tele
graph line conductor under the control of output
relay ||3 is of marking nature. The impulses
impressed on the line conductors have been start
stations and when a connection has been set up
through the central o?ìce exchange for intercom
trolled signal generator and thereafter contacts
tape sensing pins. The manner in which a con
I3 will generate the stop impulse which is of
marking nature, thus driving the armature of
relay 3| to the marking contact. The brushes
nection is set up for intercommunication between
munication between two stations in cipher sig
nals, the perforated vtapes shall be placed in the
(spacing), spacing, marking, marking.
signal generators at the two stations with identi
The fourth and iifth code impulses will be trans
cal code combinations presented in the tape sens
mitted to the line conductors 23 and‘ìd under the
ing positions and with identical sequences of sig
joint control of contacts I3 and the tape con- 2;. nals in storage and awaiting presentation to the
two stations and the manner in which the use
thus generating the equivalent of a spacing im
pulse while the relay 9| has responded to a mark
ing impulse from contacts I3 and since these
of tapes |32 is agreed upon will be described later.
For the purpose of the following description,
it will be assumed that the station shown in Figs.
1 and 2 has ceased transmitting to a remote sta
tion and is about to receive signals from the re
mote station, that the first ciphered signal to be
received is identical with that which the station
conditions are dissimilar, the armature of relay
||3 will be moved to the marking position and
through relay 36 will impress a marking condi
tion on line conductors 23 and 2d, which is the
start impulse, a first code impulse of spacing na
ture, second and third code impulses of marking
nature, two unidentified code impulses and a stop
carried by brush arm I2I will at this time trav
erse the stop segment of the outer ring which is
connected to conductor IIS. The distributor is
40
previously transmitted, namely, consisting of a
true stop signal condition.
impulse of marking nature. This corresponds to
the signal the transmission of which by relay 36
responded to the start impulse of spacing nature,
has been described heretofore. It will also be as
relay I I3 was driven to spacing as the distributor
sumed that the signal which will be generated
by the tape controlled signal generator concur
rently with the reception of the signal over tele
graph lines 23 and 24 is identical with that, the
generation of which was previously described,
namely, a start impulse of spacing nature, first
and second code impulses of marking nature,
third code impulse of spacing nature, fourth and
fifth code impulses unidentiñed and the stop im
It will have been noted that when the relay QI
traversed the start segment, and that when relay
9| responded to the stop impulse of marking
nature, relay I|3 was driven to marking as the
distributor traversed the stop segment. It may,
therefore, be stated as a part of the theory of
operation that only the code impulses are ci
phered, as determined by the tape sensing con
tacts, and that in the case of the start and stop
impulses, the start and stop segments are so asso
ciated directly with the bridge circuit as to cause
relay I|3 to follow relay 9|.
With the relay 9| in the marking position re
sponding to the stop signal from transmitting
contacts I3, negative battery is applied over con
ductors |09 and |131 to the rest segment in the
outer ring of the distributor when the two brushes
of the brush arm I2| encounter the rest segments ’
pulse of marking nature.
'
Due to the fact that transmission from the sta
tions Shown in Figs. l and 2 merely ceased, the
relay 53 remains on its right-hand contacts, thus
leaving the relay 36 without biasing current and
the relay 61 biased in the marking direction so
as to be unresponsive to current reversals in its
operating winding. Since signals are not being
initiated, contacts -|`| are opened and normal bi
and as this battery is oppo-sed by the negative
asing current is flowing through the biasing wind
battery |39, start magnet |29 of the distributor
ing of relay 21, Seeking to move the armature t0
is not energized and the brush arm |2| is arrested.
the spacing position.
As shown in Fig. 3, the line conductors 23 and
The start impulse is received as _a no current
75
24 extend to a central oi’ûce exchange, which has
l5
2,405,589
condition on the line conductors 23 and 24, to
16
which the line receiving relay 2ï responds by
relay 57, conductor 56, sleeve of jack 22, sleeve
of the lower plug section of double plug I 4, se
moving its armature to .the spacing position. A
lectormagnet I2, sleeve of the upper plug section
circuit is -completed from ground through the
and sleeve of jack 2| to ground. The current 'in
upper winding of relay »53, conductor 52, spac
this circuit also holds selector magnet I2 ener
ing contact and armature of relay 21, conductors
gized which is the marln’ng condition. With the
48 and 84, middle right-hand armature and back
operation of the armature of relay Yiâ'l to the spac
contact of relay V57, conductor 85, marking con
ing position under the control »of output 'relay
tact and armature of relay 64, conductor 81, up
per closed contacts of jack |18, conductor 88, sta 10 I3, the ground connection on »the spacing con
tact isplaced in opposition to the ground on the
tionary contact and movable vfront contact oper
sleeve of jack 2|, thus terminating the Añow `‘of
able in make-before-'break manner by the inner
current in the circuit .lust -described including
the operating ‘winding of relay'6'4 and the selec
right-hand armature of relay 7|, conductor §89,
operating winding of cipher unit input relay 9|,
to the potentiometer comprising resistors »92 and 15 tor magnet I2. The selector lmagnet is thus de
energized which is the spacing condition. The
The current in the upper winding oi’ relay
ground connection on the spacing 'Contact of <re
53> dominates the armature in spite -of the cur
lay 67 also Vreverses the current in the biasing
rent through the lower winding vandmoves the
winding of relay 64, so that that winding now
armature to the left-‘hand contact. This re
moves the ground connection from conductor -|~û3 20 urges the armature of relay 64 to remain in 'en
gagement with the marking contact and >since
extending to the biasing winding of relay 8l',
no current -flows in the operating winding, this
leaving the battery |02 in opposition to the bat
tery 69 through the biasing winding of relay »Sl
urge is unopposed and the armature remains as
and through the lower winding of relay 53 so
stated. The disablement of relay 64 vby reversal
that no current flows in this circuit and relay 25 of its 'biasing current prevents -it from attempt
ing to `follow the signals applied through its op
67 is without bias, thus rendering it responsive
to current reversals through its operating wind
ing. Through the armature of relay 53 and its
left-‘hand contact, biasing current is restored to
the lower winding of relay 36 and this biasing 30
current is sufhcient to hold the armature of re
lay 36 on its marking contact irrespective of cur
rent -reversals through its operating winding.
VIn the relay SI the `effect of the current rsup
plied through the spacing contact of relay 2l is
to move the armature of relay 9| to the spacing
contact, thus reversing the polarity »supplied over
conductor |47 and through the rest segments oi
V35
erating winding to selector magnet I2A Were it
not for this disablement the armature of relay
64 might go to spacing thus, reoperating relay
53 to its right-hand contact, the eiïect of which
would be to disable relay 61 and to qualify relay
36 to follow and repeat to the line conductors
23 and 24 signals generated by output relay H3
and intended to operate selector magnet .|2.
Following the 'reception of the start signal, the
ñrst code impulse, which has been presumed to `be
of spacing nature, is received >and `relay 9| vre
mains on its spacing contact. The ñrst code im
pulse generated by the tape controlled signal gen
start magnet |29, to cause the magnet to been 40 erator is assumed to be marking and since this
impulse is unlike -the received impulse, .relay ||3
ergized and to release the distributor brush |25
goes to marking and reoperates relay> 61 to mark
for rotation. The outer brush traverses the start
ing, thus reestablishing an energizing circuit for
segment which as previously stated is connect
selector magnetà |\2-. The signal received by the
ed over conductor IIS to the bridge corner ïI läd,
selector magnet is the reverse of 'that received by
and relay ||3 follows relay 9| `to spacing condi
“ input relay 9| but is like the first code'impulse
tion. The armature Vof relay IIS connects
previously described as having been generated by
ground, which is the positive~ battery polarity,
transmitting contacts I3. The second received
over conductor A|5Ei through the operating wind»
code impulse has been 'assumed to be of marking
ing of relay t7, conductor |51, operating winding
of relay 36 to the potentiometer comprising re (I) nature, thus restoring relay ‘9| to its marking con
tact and the second code impulse generated by
sistors |58 and |59. Relay St is biased so as to
the tape controlled signal generator has also'been
be unresponsive to this reversal of vcurrent but
tape controlled signal generating distributor to
relay 6i now has no current in its biasing windn>
ing ‘and accordingly the reversed 'current in -the
operating Ywinding is effective to move vthe ar- l.
mature to the `spacing position. Before move
ment of the armature vof relay El to its spacing
Contact, current from negative battery âéì’t'hrough
assumed to Vloe of 'marking nature. This impulse
is like the received .impulse and accordingly relay
|'|3 goes to spacing and operates relay 61 to
spacing which applies a spacing condition to the
selector magnet I2. `The third code impulse re
ceived has ïbeen assumed tobe of marking nature,
so that relay 9| remains on its marking contact,
resistor 58, marking contact and armature'of re
lay S'I, conductor '85, biasing winding of ‘relay I’ Í The third code impulse generated bythe tape-con
trolled signal generator has »been assumed »to be
64 tothe potentiometer comprising 'resistors '8|
spacing, which is unlike the received code impulse
and 82 was in a direction Yto cause >the biasing
and accordingly relay Vl I3 is operated to its mark
winding of relay M to urge the armature to -the
ing
contact, operating relay 61 to its marking con
spacing position _but the armature Iwas dominat
ed 'and 'held in ‘the marking 'position by current
through the `operating >winding from battery 69
through resistor $8, marking contact and ~arma
tureof relay '67, conductor 66, operating Wind
ing ofvrelay 54, conductor 63, back contact ‘and
inner left-hand larmature of relay 57,' conductors
-62 and 6|, tip Contact spring of jack 2|, 'tip of
the upper plug Section of ydouble plug Iêrtrans
init-'ting conta-cts I 3, tip ci theflower plug ‘sec
tion, tip spring of jack 22, conductors »59 and 53,
inner right-hand armature and back contact of
tact to reestablish the energizing circuit for selec
tor magnet |52. The VVfourth and ñfth code im
pulses are thereafter received and selector mag
net |2 is operated under the joint control of the
cipher unitinput relay 9| and the tape controlled
signal generator. The stop impulse is yof marking
nature and'operates the relay 8l to its marking
condition. As has been previously set forth, the
VYstop segment of Vthe tape »controlled `signal gen
erator is connected directly over 'conductor >I I6
'tol'bridge corner fIIBa, to cause relay ||3 to 'be
operated to the marking position’under the Acon
2,405,569
17
trol of relay 3| and selector magnet |2 is similar
ly operated.
‘
18
ringer equipment with which each of the stations
may be provided. The attendant at the called
station answers the call by operating key |15 to
the “on” position and by inserting his double plug
It will now be understood that when a signal
into the jack corresponding to jacks |1 and I‘B
which has been generated under the control of
the transmitting contacts I3 is routed through
which aiîord unciphered signal transmission and
reception. The attendants at the two intercon
the cipher unit before transmission, the code im
pulses are modified by the code impulses of a sig
nected stations may now communicate by direct
nal generated by the tape controlled signal gen
unciphered transmission and agree upon the eX
erator and a modified signal consisting of a differ 10 act identical points in their tapes |32 which will
be placed in their cipher signal generators for
ent combination of marking and spacing impulses
the ciphering and deciphering of transmitted and
is transmitted. This modiñed signal on being re
received codes. This having been done, the at
ceived is routed through a cipher unit and is again
tendants at both stations remove the double plugs
modified by a signal identical with the ñrst modi
from the jacks |1 and I8 and insert them into
fying signal under the control of a tape controlled
the jacks 2| and 22. Thereafter message mate
signal generator whereby the signal is restored to
rial may be transmitted back and forth between
its original condition and will operate a receiv
the two stations and such message material will
ing printer to record the character or symbol or
be in cipher so that if any unauthorized person
to perform the function represented by the key
taps into the telegraph line anywhere between
lever which was operated in the keyboard trans
the two interconnected stations with an ordinary
mitter to initiate the transmission of the signal.
receiving printer, orother permutation code re
It will also be understood that the relay 53 is a
corder,'he will receive ciphered signals which will
reversing relay which is operated to one position
produce unintelligible printed copy. The lamps
or the other, in accordance with whether signals
are locally generated for transmission or are re
the operative relation of the ~
ceived, to reverse
cipher unit to the repeater. This reversing con
trol is effected by alternately disabling relay 3B
and relay 61, the former being disabled when sig
nals are being received so that signals derived
from the output relay H3 of the cipher unit will f
not be repeated back into the telegraph line and
the relay 51 being disabled when signals are be
ing transmitted so that signals derived from relay
| i3 will not be repeated back into the local printer
circuit. Auxiliary to this reversing control are
the controls exercised over the biasing windings
of relays 64 and 21 by the armature of relay 61
and the contacts 11, respectively, so that relay E4
will not interpret a spacing signal repeated by 40
relay 61 to the selector magnet |2 as a spacing
52 and 13 serve to inform an attendant at all times
whether the connections and repeater conditions
are arranged for unciphered or ciphered trans
mission and reception.
Reiay 25 (Fig. 2), which has previously been
identified as having its winding in series with the
operating winding of the line receiving relay 21,
has its armature connected to grounded battery
|1|> and its contact which is engaged by the arma
ture when marking current is flowing in the line
conductors 23 and 24 connected by conductors
|12 and |13 through the winding of a slow-re
lease relay |14 to ground. Relay 26 follows the
signals in the telegraph line and interrupts the
energizing circuit for relay |14 when responding
to spacing signals but the releasing of relay |14
is suiiiciently slow that it does not release in
signal generated by the transmitting contacts |3,
response to spacing intervals of a duration nor
and the relay 21 will not interpret a. spacing sig
nal repeated to the telegraph lines 23 and 24 by
the relay 36 as a spacing signal received from
the telegraph line.
mally occurring in signal transmission but re
Each station preferably has ringer equipment
connected between the telegraph line and the line
side of the repeater. The ringer equipment in
cludes ringer |89, condenser |10 in series there
with, and switch |15. The switch |15, when in ~
- the “oiî” or dotted line position, disconnects line
leases only in response to a long spacing signal
such as may be produced by the opening of break
key |16 which is included directly in the telegraph
line circuit and has been shown in Fig. 2 asso
ciated with line conductor 24. The long spacing
signal representing the break condition cannot be
produced by the operation of break contacts
sometimes included in series with the keyboard
controlled transmitting contacts of the teletype
conductor 24 from the repeater and connects the
ringer and condenser between conductor 24 and
ground, which is the shut-down condition, with
ringer |59 responsively associated with conductor V
writer for the reason that the long spacing signal
24. When switch |15 is in the “on” or solid line
position, line conductor 24 is connected to the
erated by the tape controlled signal generator to
repeater in short-circuiting relation to the ringer
and condenser, and ground is disconnected from
thus produced would be impressed upon the input
relay 9| of the cipher unit and would be ciphered
by that unit in accordance with the signal gen
cause the transmission by the output relay ||3
of a ciphered signal probably containing marking
the ringer.
impulses which would restore the relay 26 to
marking and prevent the release of relay |14.
By opening the key |16 at either of two inter
tion between two stations of the type shown in
Figs. l and 2 will now be described. The attend
connected stations for an interval longer than the
release time of relay |14, the relay 26 at both
stations will go to spacing and remain for a sufñ
The procedure for setting up intercommunioa
ant at the station desiring to communicate with
another station inserts double plug |4 into jacks
|1 and I8 which aiîord the transmission of un
ciphered signals as previously set forth and oper
ates switch |15 to the “on” position. An operator
at the central office exchange answers the call,
cient interval to release their associated relays
|14. At the station which has been transmitting
and has the armature of its relay 53 on the right
hand contact, the relay 21 will respond to the
long spacing signal if the transm'tting contacts
due to receiving an indication resulting from op
are then idle or when the contacts open at the
eration of switch |15 to the “on” position, ascer
tains by telegraph communication with the at
tendant at the calling station the identity of the
called station, sets up the connection and trans
mits to the called station ringing current to operate
end of the code signal then in process oi' trans
mission, and will move the armature of relay 53
to the left-hand Contact, thereby disabling relay
the steady
36 and placing relay 9| (Fig. l) in
19
2,405,569
2O
spacing condition >and causing the received long
yspacing -signal to *be .lciphered and ¿the resulting
code signal to be applied to selector magnet :l2
front contact ci relay 57|, conductor |92, and fthe
winding of relay 33 to grounded battery ¿for -en
ergizing relay 33, Relay 33 «completes a circuit
from ground through >its right-hand armature
and front contact and through conductor |93
and the holding'winding of relay `5`| for holding
that relay energized.
which :has been receiving »and has the >armature
>of‘its relay 53 on the _left~hand\contact, the cipher
unitinput relay 9| will respond >to the long spac
ing signal `under 'the control :of line receiving relay
251 v'pending the lrelease of relay 74 vand the lcipher
unit will icipher the received long spacing sign-al
Since the relays -'||, 51 Vand 33 are energized
in cascade >in that order, the operations which
they perform -will be described `in the same order.
At the inner right-hand armature of relay '1| and
front Contact, which has -make-‘before-'bneak Are»
lation Ytn a nxed contactJ the negative terminal
of battery 96 .is connected lover conductor |194 and
conductor 89 extending to the input rela-519| ci
the cipher .unit to hold that _rela-yin the nia-liking
>condition and following the »completion Ivof this
circuit, conductor 88 which »eX-tends through «oon
tacts fof Yjack :L8 and »conductor 8l t0 the `arma
ture roi _relay 64 ,is disconnected `from'conductor
89 so that ‘relay ¿9| is no »longer under the control
of Yrelay 611. This chan-ge of vcircuit connections
is the same as that whichresults from the opera
Cn
.only anni relay 114 hasmieased, as avi-libe appar
At its extreme right-hand armature Àand back
contact, -relay |14 connects ground supplied
through the break contacts of key -’|f‘|f'| and foon
ductor |18 >to îconductor |13 in :shunt relation to
tion of the contacts (associated with yjack t8 when
.the double plug M is inserted into jacks |--'| and
i8, and upon the 4occurrence -ol this change the
ciphering of the break signal, if lthat signal is still
in transmission, W-ill cease -upon l‘completion by
the tape controlled signal generator 'of the cycle
then in progress. At the left-hand armature -of
relay '1| «to groun-dconnecticn previously extended
relay |`|2„ thus yshont-'circuiting the 'relay so that
i-t will not >be energized when break key |76 fis
Y over the back contact and conductor -'|2 and
marking condition, reestablis'hing connection
.through the upper contacts controlled by jack »2|
-for lighting lamp l5., »is removed `-from that circuit
from battery |7| to `,conductor -|72 through the
armature and marking contact Vof relay 26. At
its innermost >right-hand varmature and back con
tact, ‘the relay ¿|14 >completes the energizing cir
cuit ‘fora lamp '|»8I `which becomes lighted to in
dicate that `relay `|14 has released and there
fore that .the break yoperation _has been accom
connects a closed loop from line _conductor 24,
through conductor M92, armature and >back con
tact »of relay 11.#4, conductor |83, conductor 28,
C:
and is applied over conductor .|95 to lamp 5,2
whereby the lamp becomes Ílighted and lamp 'I3
becomes extinguished.
At the `middle right-hand `>armature -of `relay .57,
the .conductive path extending from -the Iarmature
of relay A2'| lover lconducto-rs <¢|8 land 84 is `trans
ferred .from the marking .Contact of relay v(ill to
conductor 56 >over which a .circuit extends through
the sleeve of jack |22, sleeve ofthe `lower plug sec
tion of plug |44, .the .selector magnet |12, sleeve of
the upper plug section to ground .on the sleeve of
Jack .2L This places the selector magnet -|2 di
rectly under kthe control of receiving relay 27| and
removes it from series relation to the transmit
ting vcontacts l 3, thus placing the selector magnet
_l2 in the same relationto receiving relay 21 that
it has when plug i4 is .inserted into jacks il and ~
2,1 Aiis/‘hereto’ the relay 27 :remains operative to
'eceive signals .from the tel graph line .conductors
_.íß. _At the inner righ-t and leftfhan'd armatures
mt relay ».36 ‘cannot transmit signals to the line *i ~ ~
:ondu'cton
‘The relay |14 completes a circuit from ground
springs of jacks 2| and 22, vconductive paths are
hrough the >contacts controlled by jack |-`1 which
.re closed when plug -|11 is not 4inserted :in jacks
1, conductor |84, back contact and arma-ture
.to line conductor 24 „through conductor :47 and to
'diacent to the outermost rig-holland armature
frelay H11, conductors |85, |86 and |-8f'|, through
',ounded battery, for »operating relay `57. Relay
l completes a circuit from ground through vits
iter right-.hand armature and front 'contact land
rough 'conductor _|139 andthe holding ‘winding
relay '|.-| to grounded ibattery 'for holding -the
st-m-entioned >relay loperated. Relay 51 also
mpletes a circuit `from conductor >|86 through
nductor |91, the outer left-hand 'armature and
extendedcver conductors L90 andiS |, respectively,
line conductor 23 through the ti-p contact »spring
and associated Contact of jack Il, through con
ductors 29 and 28 and the operating windingçof
These two armatures of relay <51 thus
complete the segregation of the circuit of trans
mitting contacts t3 `from that of selector magnet
I2 and establish the same'relationof the trans
mittingconta-c-ts to the line conductors 23 and 24
that exists when plug |155 is inserted into jacks |"i
and A`I 8. It -will be noted that the left-,hand arma
ture and backcontact :oi relay LVM are connected
` by conductors |196 and .|91 to the conductors 59
and 6|, respectively, which extend :to the trans
mitting contacts I3 so'that the operation of trans
2,405,569
21
22
l and |91 now interconnected at the left-hand
record unciphered code signals from the other
station but it is necessary to operate the key |11
in order to transmit unciphered code signals.
Transmission back and forth between the inter
armature and back contact of relay |14. At the
normally closed contacts which are mechanically
operable by the front contact of relay 33, conduc
tor 32 is disconnected from conductol` 34, thus re Ul connected stations under these conditions may
moving the armature of relay 36 from its previous
involve requests for retransmission in cipher of
connection to line conductor 23 through conduc
portions previously transmitted in cipher or may
tor 3|, closed contacts of jack I1, conductors 29,
convey information that the station which has
28, and the operating winding of relay 21. At the
been receiving has an urgent message for the
left-hand armature and back contact of relay 33, 10 station which has been transmitting to be trans
the path from contacts 11 to the biasing Winding
mitted in ciphered code. Before the system is
of relay 21 is interrupted, so that relay 21 will not
returned to the eiphering condition, the attend
be prevented from following signals generated by
ants at the two stations should recheck as to the
transmitting contacts I3.
tapes |32 which control their ciphering signal
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that 15 generators and should agree on a resetting' of
although the double plug I4 remains in jacks 2|
these tapes as there is a possibility that the tapes
and 22, circuit'changes have been eiîected by the
at the two stations may get out of step during '
relays 33, 51, and 1| to provide for direct un
the transmission of the break signal. When all
ciphered transmission as if plug I4 had been re
such intercommunication as is considered per
moved from jacks 2| and 22 and inserted in jacks 20 missible to conduct in unciphered codes has been
I1 and I8, with the exception that due to the
completed, the attendants at the interconnected
shunt across the transmitting contacts provided
stations will restore key |11 to normal condition.
by the outer left-hand armature and back con
The restoration of the break contacts has no
tacts of relay |14, the transmitting contacts I3
eiîect on the apparatus. The restoration of the
have been rendered ineffective to generate signals. 25 make contacts interrupts the holding current for
Also lamp 13 has been extinguished and lamp 52
the relays 33, 51 and 1I. Current through the
has been lighted to indicate that the system is
relay 33 and through the operating windings of
now set up for unciphered transmission, Either
relays 51 and 1| is at once interrupted. The re
of the interconnected stations is capable of re
lays release in the reverse order from that in
ceiving signals because the receiving relay 21 is 30 which they were operated, namely, the relay 33
effectively associated with the telegraph line con
interrupts the holding circuit for the relay 51
ductors 23 and 24 but neither station is now ca
which releases and interrupts the holding circuit
pable of transmitting because of the shunt across
for the relay 1| which then releases. As the re
the transmitting contacts I3.
lays release, they reconvert the repeater connec
Transmission from either of the interconnected 35 tions from those for unciphered transmissions
stations necessitates the removal of the shunt
and reception and to those for ciphered signal
across the transmitting contacts I3 and thus the
transmission and reception and they extinguish
reenergization of relay |14. This may be accom
lamp 52 and relight the lamp 13. Due to the
plished by operating the key |11 which removes
order in which the relays 33, 51 and 1I are .re
the ground connection which has been short-cir 40 leased and due also to the make-before-break
cuiting the winding of relay |14 through its mid
relation of certain of their armatures and con
dle left-hand armature and back contact. In
tacts, no circuit continuities which would, if in
order for the signal transmission to take place in
terrupted, impress momentary spacing signals on
unciphered codes in accordance with the condi
the telegraph line conductors 23 or 24 or which
tions which have been established by relays 33,
might release the distributor of the tape con
trolled signal generator are disturbed, so that the
stations are returned to the cipher code signaling
condition with all elements and circuits prepared
to cooperate in the transmission or reception of
51 and 1 I, itis necessary to maintain these relays
energized. Accordingly, the make contacts of key
|11 are arranged to interconnect conductors |84
and |86 through conductors |98 and |99. The
make contacts, when closed, provide a substitute '
energizing circuit for relay 33 which in turn holds
relay 51 which in turn holds relay 1I. Upon the
reenergization of relay |14 from the marking con
tact of relay 25, the shunt across transmitting
contacts I3 is removed and the loop from the line
conductor 24 to the left-hand side of the operat
ing winding of relay 21 is removed, The relay 36
is not thereby enabled to impress signals on the
line conductors 23 and 24 because the armature
has been isolated at the now open contacts me
chanically operated by the front contact of relay
33. As a further result of the reenergization of
relay |14, lamp |3| is extinguished and the shunt
across the make contacts of key |11 at the back
contact and armature adjacent to the right~hand
armature relay |14 is opened so that the relays 33,
51 and 1I are being held only through the make
contacts of key |11. When key |11 is subsequent
ly reclosed, relay |14 will not be again released
because the path for shunting its winding is
opened at the middle left-hand armature and
back contact and the relay can be released only
under the control of relay 25.
It is not necessary to operate key I 11 for either
of the interconnected stations to receive and '
ciphered signals and with the tapes |32 properly
in step.
Fig. 4 shows a modified form of cipher unit in
which the modiñcation consists in depriving the
brush and segment distributor of control over the
output relay II3 in connection with the genera
tion by the relay ||3 of a start impulse, and in
stead placing the relay ||3 solely under the con
trol of input relay 9| for the generation of that
impulse.
The modification has been accom
60 plished by the addition of apparatus and circuit
connections which will be described hereinafter.
Fig. 4 fully duplicates the cipher unit apparatus
and system shown in Fig. l, and to the extent of
such duplication, but disregarding the additional
apparatus and circuit connections, the circuit
connections of Fig. 4 are identical with those of
Fig. 1 except that the distributor has no start seg
ment, so that the only segment in the outer ring
of the distributor that is connected directly to
conductor I I6 is the stop segment. This has per
mitted the lengthening of the rest segment either
by interconnecting ythe start segment and the rest
segment in the outer ring by a conductive strap or
by substituting for the rest and start segments in
the outer ring a single segment subtending the
agenten
r
23
a :spacing condition :on >the conductor 15.6.
Inthe .iirst Vdescribed embodiment fof :the rinven
‘angle which >the ítwo, Aformerly lsubtenii'ed. The
'rest >segment `Ain the inner .'ring ‘of -Íthe distributor
.has ‘not Ibeen lengthened, -from which it will be
apparent that Awhen the îinner brush leaves Vthe
rest segment, the venergizing circuit ,for start mag
tion, when the armature tof >relay 9| moved Yinto
engagement with the kspacing contact in response
to the îstart impulse., the venergizing circuit for
net Y| 2 9 will be‘interrupt'ed, as before.
the start magnet |'2‘9 of the distributor >vvas com
The apparatus by which relay ||-3 has >been
-placed solely under the control of`relay19| Íor'the
yproduction of fstart'impulses comprises polar relay
«201| 'having a single Winding, polar winding 202
having operating and biasing windings, -normally
pleted, ‘whereby the ¿distributor was 'released ‘fior
rotation, and initiated the ~>.transmissionof the
start impulse. -Since the distributor no longer
Aopen contacts 203 IcontrolledÍbya cam 204 added
’to vdistributor shaft |122, and :a Vtiming 'condenser
'1"20‘6-
n
One Aend of the 'winding >-of ’relay 20| 'is con
nected through resistor 1201 -to conductor |41, 4and
.the "other rend of the winding lis connected to one
end of each voff -.resistors >203 Vand 209, the >other
'ends ci which are 4connected to ground and to
«the negative terminal of grounded battery, Are
spectively, 'and thus form .a potentiometer. Since
conductor 141 »receives battery connection oî
negative or positive polarity »over conductor |09
as the armature 'of `relay 9| engages 'its marking
orA spacing contacts, respectively, :relay `20| will
:directly follow `relay S9 I.
The armature of relay'2‘0l 'is `connected through
resistor 24| to ground and the marking contact
«is connected to the right-hand terminal of the
operating winding of relay 202,'the other terminal .
of which is connected through resistor 212 to
has a start segment, but only a longer `rest seg
ment, :the generation .of the :start impulse by
relay ||3 is not `’controlled by the distributor
but iis ¿initiated solely under the >control -of relay
202. The charging time of condenser i216 and
thus the ktime when :the generation of 'the fstart
impulse by relay _|13 is initiated may be 'varied
by varying the capaci-ty :of `condenser 206 .so that
if desired, the start :impulse may be initiated »be
fore the distributor :brushes could have traveled
far enough to engage a start segment ¿if such
segment 'were provided on the .distributor as
in the previously described embodiment of the
invention, or even before the Ástart magnet |29
has become operated. The starting .of the :dis
tributor is ‘the same in the present embodiment
of the :invention :as >in the vembodiment first «de
scribed, namely, the reversal y'of polarity on ïthe
armature of input ‘relay '9| ¿from which 'a con~
duct'ive path for energizing start magnet |2=9 is
traced `over rconductors |09 and |’4'Lrest segments
andv brushes of the distributor, and conductor
the negative terminal of grounded battery 2|3.
|45 tothe start magnet.
Thebiasi-ng Winding of ‘relay 202 has one terminal
vCam 205» which is secured to distributor shaft
|22 presents a low portion Yto the contacts '203
of such length -that the contacts l-open about the
time that the brushes traverse the stop segment
of the distributor, remain open during the rest
‘
connected through resistor 2`|4 to the negative
terminal of battery f2|3 and the other terminal
connected to ground. Current in the biasing
winding >of relay 202 seeks 'to move the armature
condition and reclose just ‘before ’the brushes en
-of Ithat relay `to the left-hand contact, but When
counter the first code impulse segment o'f the dis
the operating Winding of relay 202 is receiving
energizing current, that current dominates the 40 tributor. One of the springs of contacts >2.03 is
connected through conductor '22| and resistor -2 |`|
armature of relay Y202 and holds it in engagement
to ground and the other `spring of contacts '203
with the right-'hand contact. The right-hand
is connected through conductor 222 lto the right
:terminal ofthe loperating Winding of relay 202 is
hand side of ‘the voperating Winding vof v»rel-ay 202.
Ialso connected through variable condenser 200
Thus when contacts 203 are «closed 4by cam i200,
and resistor 2-|6 "to ground. The armature of re
they reconnect ground to the right-hand termi
‘lay 202 is connected by conductor 2|1 to con
nal of relay 202 through conductor 222, contacts
ductor |34 which extends to the biasing Winding
203, conductor 22| and resistor 2|í| so that the
of relay 9| and to the inner ring'oi" the distributor.
operating Winding of relay '292 is reenerg-ized to
The left~hand con-tact of relay 202 is connected
by conductor 2 I8 to `conductor ||6 which extends "' move the armature of the relay out of engage
ment with its left-hand Contact, even though re
to the corner IIEA of the bridge circuit in which
lay 20`| may remain on its spacing contact under
the operating Winding of relay H3 is connected.
the control of relay 9|. The interconnection ‘be
‘When relay 9| goes to spacing in response to
tween conductcrs |l‘ì and y|30 in shunt relation
a >start signal >generated by the >transmitting con
to the spacing contact side of the tape controlled
tacts |'3 or received over the telegraph line, relay '
signal generator which the armature and’ left
20| also goes to spacing and disconnects ground
hand contact of relay 202 had established isthus
supplied through resistor 2|| from the operating
removed before the traversal of the first code
Winding of relay 202. The operating Winding
segment by the brushes of the distributor, s0
remains energized due to current which iioWs
through resistor '21S for charging the condenser 60 that relay H3 is placed under the control of the
distributor during 'the traversal of the code seg
2706. When the condenser has become charged,
ments and relay 202 is prevented from reoperat
the current -in the 4operating `Winding of relay 202
ing to its left-hand contact although relay 20|
dies out and the current in the biasing winding
continues to follow relay 9|. `When the distrib
becomes effective to move the armature into en
gagement with the left-hand contact of the relay. 05 utor brushes reach the stop segment, at which
time relay 9| -is 'in the marking condition, -con
This establishes a conductive path from the
tacts 203 reopen, thus restoring relay 202 to Acon
potentiometer comprising resistors |36 and |31
trol by relay 20| which being at this time in the
through 'the biasing winding of relay 9|, con
marking condtion holds the voperating 'Winding of
ductors |34 and 2|'|, armature and left-hand
the relay 202 energized, and the >system is thus
contact of relay 202 and conductors 2|'8 and IlfB
prepared for the transmission of -the next start
to the -corner |f|`6A of the bridge circuit, Since
impulse.
«the relay 9| is at this time in the spacing con
Although particular embodiments of 'the inven
dition, the polarities applied across the bridge
tion have been disclosed ïin the ydrawings and de
circuit are such that the armature of relay
|13 is moved to the spacing contact to impress 75 scribed in the foregoing specification, it will be
2,405,569
understood that the invention is not limited to
such speciñc embodiment but is capable of modi
fication and rearrangement without departing
manner by said second-mentioned relay for asso
ciating said combining means in signal receiving
relation to said line and in signal transmitting
from the spirit of the invention and within the
scope of the appended claims.
What is claimedis:
l. In a telegraph system, a íirst signal genera
tor, a second signal generator operable concur
rently with said first signal generator, means for
relation to said recorder.
5. In a telegraph system, a ñrst source of sig
nals, a second source of signals, a third source
interactively combining signals generated by said
two signal generators to produce signals diiîerent
from lboth off the interactively combined sig
nals, a telegraph signal receiver, a telegraph line,
recorder, means controlled by said combining
and means for alternatively associating said corn
bining means with said line and said receiver
Vin receiving and transmitting relation respec
tively or with said lirst signal generator and said
line in receiving and transmitting relation respec
tively.
2. In a telegraph system, a message signal gen
erator, a storage type of signal generator having
a sequence of non-message signals in storage
of signals, means for interactively combining sig
nals from said first source or said second source
and signals from said third source, a signal
means for controlling said recorder, a telegraph
line, means also controlled by said combining
means for controlling said recorder, a telegraph
line, means also controlled by said combining
means for impressingsignals on said line, and
means controlled’by signals from said first source
for disabling said recorder controlling means and
alternatively controlled by signals from said sec
ond source for disabling said signal impressing
means.
6. In a telegraph system, a station, a ñrst source
of signals thereat comprising a keyboard con
trolled signal generator, a second source of sig
nals comprising a telegraph line, a third source
thereinl a telegraph line, a repeater connected
between said message signal generator and said
line having a relay responsive to signals generated N of signals comprising a storage type of signal
5
by said message signal generator and a relay re
generator at said station, means for interactively
sponsive to signals received over said line, means
combining signals from said iirst source or said
for interactively combining signals generated by
second source and signals from said third source,
said storage type of signal generator and signals
a signal recorder at said station, means controlled
yimpressed upon either of said relays to produce
by said combining means for controlling said re
signals dilîerent from both of said interactively
corder, means also controlled by said combining
combined signals, and means controlled Yby either
means for impressing signals on said telegraph
of said relays upon response to signals for revers
line, and means controlled by signals from said
-in the cooperative relation of said combining
first source for disabling said recorder control
'means to said repeater.
3. In a telegraph system, a message signal gen
erator, a storage type of signal generator having
a sequence of non-message signals in storage
therein, a telegraph line, a repeater connected
between said message signal generator and said
line having a relay responsive to signals gener
ated by said message signal generator and a re
lay responsive to signals received over said line,
means for interactively combining signals gener
35 ling means, and alternatively controlled by sig
nals from said‘second source for disabling said
signal impressing means.
7. In a telegraph system, a message signal gen
erator, a storage type of signal generator hav
O ing a sequence of non-message signals in stor
age therein, a telegraph line, means for interac
tively combining signals generated by said two
signal generators to produce signals different
from both of said interactively combined signals,
ated by said storage type of signal generator and 45 means controlled by said combining means for im
signals impressed on either of said relays to pro
pressing said different signals on said line, means
duce signals different from both of said interac
for impressing a break signal on said line, and
tively combined signals, and means operable in
means responsive to said break signal for dis
one predetermined manner by said first-men
associating said combining means from said mes
tioned relay for associating said combining means 50 sage signal generator and for disabling said
in signal receiving relation to said first-mentioned
message signal generator.
relay and operable in a different predetermined
8. In a telegraph system, a message signal gen
manner by said second-mentioned relay for asso
erator, a storage type of signal generator having
ciating said combining means in signal receiv
`a’sequence of non-message signals in storage
ing relation to said second-mentioned relay.
therein, a telegraph lineI means for interactively
4. In a telegraph system, a message signal
combining signals generated by said two signal
generator, a storage type of signal gener
generators to produce signals different from both
ator having a sequence of non-message signals
>of said interactively combined signals, means for
in storage therein, a telegraph recorder, a tele
impressing said different signalsA on said line,
graph line, a repeater connected between said
means for impressing a break signal on said
message signal generator and said recorder on one
line, and means responsive to said break signal
>side and said line on the other side, said repeater
for disassociating said combining means from
having a relay responsive to signals generated
said message signalv generator, for associating
by said message signal generator and a relay re
said message signal generator directly with said
sponsive to signals received over said line, means 65 line and for temporarily rendering said message
for interactively combining signals generated by
signal generator incapable of generating signals.
said storage type of signal generator and signals
9. Ina telegraph system, a message signal gen
impressed on either of said relays to produce
erator, a storage type of signal generator having
>signals different from both of said interactively
a sequence of non-message signals in storage
,combined signals, and means operable in one 70 therein, a telegraph line, means for interactively
predetermined manner by said first-mentioned re
combining signals generated by said two signal
lay for associating said combining means in sig
generators to produce signals different from both
nal receiving relation to said first-mentioned re- .
of said interactively combined signals, means for
lay and in signal transmitting relation to said
impressing said diiîerent signals on said line,
line and operable in a different predetermined 75 means for impressing a break signal on said line,
2,405,569'
2:7
Y means responsive. to. said. break signali for dis
vassociating. said combining4 means. from said mes.
sage signal generator, for associating said mes.
sage signal generator directlyl with said line and
for temporarily rendering said;- message signal
generator incapable of generating signals,` and
manually operable means for restoring signal
generating capability to said message signal gen.
28
recorder with said: linev through said repeater,
andv alternatively usable'. means for associating
said- message. signal; generator and said recorder
in. seriesv therewith. with said combining means
through said repeater and for associating said
combining means with said line» through said
repeater.
‘
14. In a telegraph system, a. message signal
generator, a telegraph line, a repeaterl associated
.
.
l0. In a telegraph system, a. message signal 1.0 with said line, a. recorder, and. switching< means
for associating said message signal generator' di
generator, av storage type». ot signal generator
rectly with said' line andv saidf` recorder with said
having a sequence .'of. non-message signals in
line through saidi repeater and for alternatively
storagetherein., a telegraph line, means for in
erator.
associating said message signal generator_ and
teractively combining signals generated by said
tivo Signat generators toproducesignals different 15 said- recorder in series therewith with saldi line
through. said repeater.
from both. of. said interactively combined. signals,
means. for impressing said: difîerent- signals on
said line, means for impressing a break signal-'on
said line, means; responsive to4 said. break signal
15. In a telegraph system, a. message signal
generator, a storage-type» of signal generator’hav
ing a sequence of Ynon-message signals in. stor
said. message signal’> generator, Íonassociating
age. there-in, means. for interactively combining
signals generated. by.- said two. signal` generators
said message. sìgnalgerrerator directly: with said
line and for temporarily rendering: saidA message
to. produce signals different. from both of." said
interactively combined signals, a telegraph. line,
signal generator incapable ci? generating: signals,
a repeater associated with said line, a. recorder,
for disassociating said combining means. from
and manually operable means for' restoring: sig A25 means- for associating saidì message` signal gen
erator directly with` said line and said recorder
nal generating capability to. said message» signal
with- said» line through. said: repeater, alternatively
generator, said.I manually: operable, means- being
effective uponv restoration to'. normali to. reasso
ciate. said: message signal. generator with». said
combining means.
l‘l.. In. a, telegraph. system, a. message signal
generator,` a storage. type. off signal generatorl hav
ing:- a sequence of non-.message signals in stor
age. therein, means. for» interactively. combining
usable means for associating saidA message» signal
generator and saidi. recorder in. series therewith
with` said combining means> through saidY repeater
andi for associating said-` combining means; with
said. line through» said» repeater, means' for im
pressing a break.v signalï on said.V line,l and means
responsive to- saidï break signal. when. said. alter
signals generated by.' saidi two» signalf. generators 35 natively usable means is in-use=f~or dissassociating
to. producel signals. different. from. both'. of said
, said combiningv means from: said messageL signal
interactively combined signals,_ a telegraph line,
„ generatork andi from4 said. line and; for associating
a repeater associated with said. line, means for
said message signal: generator directly4 with. said
lineand said recorder with said linethrough-said
associating said message signal generator directly
with said; line,
alternative-lv usable: means
vforv associating saidrnessage` signal. generator
Withsaid combining means through said'. repeater
161.111. a telegraph. system, a messageA signal
,A genera-tor, a telegraph line, arepeater associated
and> for associating said: combining». means with
with .said line, a recorder., means for- associating
said line through s_aidrepeater.
repeater. ’
saidi message'l signal'. generator' directly.` with said
12;. In a` telegraph .systemr av message signal
. line and' saith recorder with; said. line through.` said
generator', .astoragetype of= signal generator hav
ing; aßequenceof pong-.message signals; in., storage
' ciating sai'd?. message signal generator and said
therein, means for interactively combining sig
nais> generated by;- said` two. signal generators. to
produce. signals different fromboth off said inter- -
actively combined signals,` ag, telegraph line, a
repeater associated with said line,- means. for
associating saidV message _ signal. generator directly
with said; line. alternatively usable means for
associating Said message: signal> generator with
Saidì Combining. means; through; said- repeaterv and
for associating saidV Combiningl means. with said
line, through said repeater, meansfor impressing
abrealç,f signal on said line, and means; responsive
to said break~ signal when~ said.. alternatively A
usable means is in use for disassociating said
combining means fromY said; message4 signalv gen.
erator and from,l said line and. for.; associating
said message signal> generator directly: with said
repeater, alternatively.v usable means, for asso
record’enin' serìestherewith‘with saidline=through
saidî repeater, meansifor» impressing a break sig'
ria-1LV on.` saidä line, and'.` mean-s: responsive` to. said
break signal. when. said. alternatively> usable
meansisain».l use: for" associating.1 saidi message. sigi
nal: generator. directly.Y vvitl'r` said?. line; andy said
recorder“ with said: line through. said: repeater.
17. InA atel'egraph- system, a. message; signal
generator for generating.. startestop telegraph
signals element by elementrjnisuccession‘, astor.
age; type:>
signal:4 generator.- havingi a. sequence
ofinommessage signals-,imstoragetherein for gen.
eratingf telegraph: signals . element by. element in
succession, a> telegraph line, means.A for interac
tively.) combining: signal'A elementsggeneratedï by
saidïtwol Signal'. generators; andi means. corr
line.
143'.> In:v a„_ telegraph system, a. message signal
trolledi by.: said combining; means; fer" activating
said. storage. typeL of signal? generatorh inI start
stop~mannen for» each; signal. generating: cycleL of
generator, a storage typey of: signal generator
saidë message» signal» generator: .
havin-g ak sequence'v ofv nom-message signals in
storage therein, means for interactively combin
generatorl` for.- generating startestop; telegraph
ing, signals generated by said two.signa1f gener
atorsto. produce signals different from both of
said interactively combined signals, a- telegraph
line, a. repeater associated with said line, a
recorder, means. for associatingr` saidmessage sig
nal. generator. directly` With said line» and' said
18’. In a telegraphk system; al message signal
signals elementy by) element: in succession; a fir-st
singleà relayI responsive to- saidA` signa~1`~ elements,
a storage-- type` of;` signalA generator having; a
f sequenceof‘non-message »signal’svin'storagethere
in» f-or-v generatingf» signals- element by element' in
succession; a» secon-dL single relay` controlled` joint-’
2,405, 569
29
ly b-y` said iirst single relay and said storage
30
type of signal generator for interactively com
said start impulses relative to the activation of
said storage type of signal generator.
bining signal elements generated by said mes
sage signal generator with signal elements gen
generator for generating start-stop telegraph
erated by said storage type of signal generator,
and means controlled by said ñrst single relay for
activating said storage type of signal generator
in start-stop manner for each signal generating
cycle of said message signal generator.
19. In a telegraph system, a message signal
generator, a storage type oi signal generator
having a sequence of non-message signals in
23. In a telegraph system, a message signal
signals element by element in succession, a first
single relay responsive to said signal elements,
a storage type of signal generator having a se
quence of non-message signals in storage therein
for generating signals element by element in suc
cession, a second single relay controlled jointly
by said ñrst single relay and said storage type
of signal generator for interactively combining
signal elements generated by said message signal
generator and signal elements generated by said
storage therein, a telegraph line, means for in
teractively combining signals generated by said
two signal generators to produce signals diñer 15 storage type of signal generator, means con
ent from both of said interactively combined
trolled by said ñrst single relay for activating
signals, means for impressing said diiîerent sig
said storage type of signal generator in start
nals on said line, means for impressing a break
stop manner for each signal generating cycle
signal on said line, and means responsivey to
of said message signal generator', and means
said break signal for disassociating said combin 20 controlled by said first single relay for causing
ing means from said message signal generator,
said second single relay to generate the start
for connecting said message signal generator di
impulses of said different signals independently
rectly to said line and for temporarily shunting
of said storage type of signal generator.
said line against control by said message signal
24. In a telegraph system, a message signal
generator.
25 generator for generating start-stop telegraph
20. In a telegraph system, a message signal
signals element by element in succession, a ñrst
generator, a storage type of signal generator hav
single relay responsive to said signal elements,
ing a sequence of non-message signals in stor
age therein, a telegraph line, means for inter
a storage type of signal generator having a
sequence of non-message signals in storage there
actively combining signals generated by said two 30 in for generating signals element by element in
signal generators to produce signals different
succession, a second single relay controlled joint
from both of said interactively combined signals,
ly by said ñrst single relay and said storage type
means for impressing said different signals en
of signal generator for interactively combining
said line, means for impressing a break signal on
signal elements generated by said message sig
said line, means responsive to said break signal 35 nal generator and signal elements generated by
for disassociating said combining means from
said storage type of signal generator, means con
said message signal generator, for connecting
trolled by said first single relay for activating
said message signal generator directly to said
said storage type of signal generator in start
line and for temporarily shunting said line
stop manner for each signal generating cycle of
against control by said message signal genera 40 said message signal generator, means controlled
tor, and manually operable means for disabling
by said iirst single relay for causing said second
said shunting means.
single relay to- generate the start impulses of
21. In a telegraph system, a message signal
said different signals independently of said stor
generator for generating start-stop telegraph
age type of signal generator, and means for
signals impulse by impulse in succession, a stor
varying tbe time of control of said second single
age type of signal generator having a sequence
relay by said last-mentioned means relative to
of non-message signals in storage therein for
the time of activation of said storage type of
generating signals element by element in suc
signal generator.
cession, a telegraph line, means for interactively
' 25. In a telegraph system, first means for gen
combining signals generated by said two signal 50 erating signal combinations each comprising a
generators to .produce signals different from both
succession of impulses, second means for con
of said interactively combined signals, means
currently generating signal combinations each
controlled by said combining means for activating
comprising a succession of impulses, means for
said storage type of signal generator in start
interactively combining corresponding impulses
stop manner for each signal generating cycle 55 of said concurrently generated code combina
of said message signal generator, and means
tions, a telegraph line, and means for causing
for causing said combining means to produce the
impulses resulting from said interactive com
start impulses of said different signals independ
bination of impulses to be impressed on said
ently of said storage type signal generator.
line.
22. In a telegraph system, a message signal 60
26. In a telegraph system, means for gener
generator for generating start-stop telegraph sig
nals, a storage type of signal generator having
a sequence of non-message signals in storage
therein, a telegraph line, means for interactively
combining signals generated by said two signal
generators to produce signals diiierent from both
of said interactively combined signals, means
controlled by said combining means for activat
ing said storage type of signal generator in start
stop manner for each signal generating cycle 70
of said message signal generator, means for
causing said combining means to produce the
start impulses of said diiîerent signals inde
pendently of said storage type signal generator,
ating signal combinations in a sequence oom
prising a message, each signal combination com
prising a succession of impulses, means for con
currently generating signal combinations in a
random sequence, each signal combination com
prising a succession of impulses, means for in
teractively combining corresponding impulses of
said concurrently generated code combinations, a
telegraph line, and means for causing impulses
resulting from said interactive combination of
impulses to be impressed on said line.
27. In] a telegraph system, first means for
generating signal combinations comprising im
pulses succeeding one another at predetermined
and means for varying the time of initiation of 75 intervals, second means for generating signal
encaisse
311i
Jmbinations comprising impulses succeeding one
nother at predetermined. intervals. means for.
iteractiyely combining; impulses generated in
crresponding intervals by' said ñrst and second
:gnat` generating means. a` telegraph. lina. and
leans for causing> impulses resulting from said
iteractive. combination of: impulses> to bev im
ressed on said line.
,
28..In a telegraph system, means for- gener.
ting> signal combinations inasequence comprise
1g; a message,- each signal'. combination compris
.'ig impulses.v succeeding oney another at. prede
ermined intervals, means for: generating signal
ombinations in a random sequence; eachsignal
ombinati'on comprising impulses succeeding, one
nother- at predetermined. intervals,l means for
ateractiyely combiningl impulses generated in
orresponding intervals by' said. two. signal gen
rating means,. a. telegraph line, and, means for
ausing impulses. resulting from said. interactive
ombination oi impulses td be; impressed on said
32
to be; connected to the. mida-«point of said bridge
circuit“, a second telegraph signal generator
adapted. to connect; a return path for' said'. elec
trical potential to- either of the: common ter
minals of, said operating winding and said bridge
circuit,_ and means. controlled byA said: relay for
impressing signaling. impulses on said line.
32. In a telegraph system,. a. telegraph'. line, a
polar relay having: anoperating winding, a bridge
circuit connected across. said Winding, means for
generating telegraph signals representing a mes'
sage. adapted to cause an electrical potential of
either of tivo- polarities to, be connected to the
mid-point: of said. bridge circuit,- means- for gen
eratin'g telegraph signals representing a. random
sequence of codes adapted. to connect a return
path foi-‘said electrical potential to either of the
common terminals ot said operating winding and
said; bridge: circuit.. and means controlled by' said
20S relay>> for impressing signaling? impulses' on. said
lines..
'
335.~ In. a telegraph system„ a telegraph line,
a, polar relay having an operating Winding a
29. In atelegraph system, ñrst means,- for gen
bridge circuit connected across said operating
rati'ng signal combina-tions; comprising impulses
Winding, a source of electrical potentialof either
ucceeding one` another at predetermined inter
of tWo polarities and a returny path therefor,
fals', second means for generating signal com
selectively operablemeans. for causing current to
»inations comprising impulses succeeding. one` an
flow at either'o'f said polarities through said oper
»ther at predetermined intervals, means for in
ating Winding and bridge circuit and return path,
era-ctively combining impulses generated in cor
yesponding intervals by said. iirst and second . ¿ selectively- operable means for causing' each of.
said currents to iiow in either direction through
ignal generating means. during the: generation
said operating Winding, and means, controlled by
if; said impulses, a telegraph line, and means
said relay forv impressing signaling impulsesy on
'or causing impulses resulting from. said. ínter
said line'.
ictive combination of impulses. to. be impressed
Lne.
»n said line.
'
30. In. a. telegraph system, a. telegraph. line, a
golargrelay having an operating. Wind-ing',.a bridge
34. In a telegraph systenn a Atelegraph line, a
polar relay having an operating winding, a bridge
circuit connected across said operating Winding',
a source of. electrical potential of either of two
pclarities and. a return path therefor, means for
neans for selectively> connecting an electrical
)otential of either of two. polarities to the mide 40' generating telegraph signals representing a mes~
sage` adapted to cause current to flow at either
aoint of; said- bridge; circuit, means for selectively
tircuit connected across said. operating Winding,
:onnecting the return path for said electrical
potential to either of the common terminals of.
of said polarities through said> operating Winding
;aid operating winding and said bridge circuit,
and bridge circuit and return path', meansl for
generating telegraph signals- representing a ran'.
ind meansV controlled by said relay for'impressing
dom` sequence of codes adapted to cause each of
;ignaling impulses on said line.
said: currents to` iiow in either direction through
said operating Winding. and means controlled
3l. In a telegraph system,. a telegraph; line, a
_colar relay having an operating Winding-„a bridge
byÀ said relayl for impressing signaling impulses
circuit connectedv across said operati-ng- winding,
a; telegraph signal generator adapted tof cause
an. electrical potential of either' of two-polari-ties
on. said. line.
KARL E. FITCH.
GEORGE A.y LOCKE.
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