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Патент USA US2405570

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Aug. _13, 1946.
J. w. DEHN
2,405,570
CRYBTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Filed oct. 12, 1942
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
/N VEN TOR
J. W DEHN
B59 <9
A T'TORNE Y
Aug. 13, 1946..
J. Aw. DEHN
CRYPTOGRAPHIG TELEGRAPH SYSTEMv
yFiled Oct. 12. 1942
2,405,570
7 Sheets-Sheet 2
'
/NVENTOR
BYJ. W DEHN -
Cf?
ATÍTO NEV
‘
13, 1946.
J. w. DEHN
Filedpct. 12, 1942
2,405,570
7' sheets-sheet s
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/NVENroR
J. W DEHN
Bâa
Aug. 13, 1946.
2,405,570
J. w. DEHN
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
,Filed 061'.. 12, 1942
7 Sheets-Sheet 4
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/NVENTOR
BYJ. W. DEH/V »
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Àug. 13, 1946.
2,405,570
J.`W. DEHN
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 12, 1942
`
‘7 Sheets-Sheet 6
ATÍOR EY
Aug. 13,1946.
J. w. DEHN
2,405,570
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Filed oct. 12, 1942
-7 sheets-sheet 7
/Nl/ENTOR
J. I4’. DEHN
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ATTO@ EY ‘
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
2,405,570
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,570
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Joseph W. Dehn, Great Neck, N. Y., assigner to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
n
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application October 12, 1942, Serial No. 461,731
34 Claims. (Cl. 1782-422)
1
2
This invenftion relates to cryptographic tele
graph systems and methods and particularly to
apparatus for generating cipher codes to be used
text signals to be ciphered and transmitted or
alternately receives ciphered signals to be deci
phered and impressed’upon a receiving printer.
An output relay generates the ciphered signals
in ciphering text codes to be transmitted and in
deciphering received codes to derive message text LD to be transmitted or alternatively generates the
codes therefrom.
`
An object of fthe invention is to generate a ran
dom sequence of codes for ciphering and deci
phering transmitted and received code signals.
Another object of the invention is to determine
the character of each impulse of a cipher code
combination in accordance with the operation of
a plurality of selectively operable instrumentali
ties.
Another object of the invention is to control
the operation of the selectively operable instru
li)
deciphered signals to be recorded. Th'e operat
ing circuit of the output relay, which is polar, is
completed from the marking or spacing contacts
of the input relay, which have battery connec
tions of opposite polarity, over either of two paths
and through the segments of a transmitting dis
tributor or through' counting and distributing re
lays of a relay distributor.
The operation of the
output relay to its marking or spacing position
will be dependent upon which of the .two paths
is completed to eiîect the energization of the re
mentalities from multiple bank switching devices.
lay, the paths entering the operating winding
Another object of the invention is to control
the operation of the switching devices from cer
tain of the selectively operable instrumentalities.
Another object of the invention is to provide
phered and deciph'ered signals.
from opposite sides of the relay, and which of the
two contacts the armature of the input relay en
gages at the time that the path is completed.
The completion of one or the other of the two
paths is determined by a plurality of sets’of ci
pher coding relays, there being a set for each se
lecting impulse of a permutation code signal com
bination. The armatures of the cipher coding
relays control various chain circuits for complet
ing connections' from either of the output relay
operating path conductors to the segments of the
distributor or to the counting and distributing
relays. Each of the cipher coding relays is con
trolled from a switch bank which has approxi
mately one half of its contacts connected to the
associated relay through a multiple contact jack
or socket and associated plug. There is a full set
of connections from each switch bank to its jack
and the selective extension of paths from about
one half of the switch bank contacts to the relay
is determined by the electrical interconnection of
about h'alf ofthe prongs of the plugs. Plugs hav
ing various arrangements of interconnection of
The invention features a multiple contact jack
or socket associated with the contacts of each
their prongs are employed so that the selective
control of the coding relay from its bank may
bank of the multiple bank switching devices in
different connective arrangements from each
other bank and multiple contact jack or socket,
and a plurality of multiple prong plugs having
different combinations of prongs interconnected,
be varied by the substitution of plugs.
The switch banks which control the cipher cod
other switching devices for variously rearranging
the operative relation between said certain se
lectively operable instrumentalities and the
switching device operating means.
Another object of the invention is to control
the operation of at least one of said other switch
ing devices according to a predetermined ch'ar
acteristic of certain ones of the message text
codes.
Another object of the invention is to provide
means for quickly and easily rearranging the se
lective control of the selectively operable instru
mentalities by their respective switching devices.
Another object of the invention is to provide
means for adjusting the switching devices to any
desired position to serve as starting points.
Another object of the invention '1s to provide a
relay distributor for timing the generation of ci
ing relays comprise multiple bank stepping
switches so arranged that each switch has one
contact bank assigned to control a relay in each
of the sets of cipher coding relays, from which
any such plug being usable in any one of the
it follows that each of the relays in a set is con
jacks.
The invention also features a plurality of jacks 5 t) trolled from a diiîerent stepping switch.
In addition to determining which of the two
and patching cords which' in cooperation with se
lectively operable keys establish variable starting
paths will be completed for operation of the out
points for the switching devices.
put relay, certain of the cipher coding relays also
In accordance with the preferred embodiment
selectively provide ground connections for a
of the invention, an input relay receives plain 55 number of conductors equal to the number of
‘f
9,405,976
j ’ ‘j "
3
4
stepping switches which control the cipher cod
ing relays. These conductors extend Áto the con
tact brushes associated with an equal number of
automatic advancement of the stepping switch
will be discontinued. When all of the switches
have come to rest, the manually controlled relay
may be released whereby the energizing circuit
contact banks of another stepping switch. The
conductive paths to the contact brushes of the
for the stepping magnet will be interrupted and
last-mentioned stepping switch are completed
the brushes of the stepping'switches will be in
through a mixing jack with which several dif
starting positions as selected in accordance with
ferent plugs may be employed for varying the
connections between the conductors and the
the jacks and in accordance with- the- particu
thefpositions of the patching cords relative to
lar manually operable keys which had been op- Y
brushes. The contacts of the banks of the last
mentioned stepping switch are connected in vari
erated.
For a complete understanding of the invention
ous combinations to five conductors which extend
to the brushes of still anotherstepping switch.
reference may be had to the following detailed
description to be interpreted in the light of the
The contacts of the banks of this stepping switch
i
are connected in different combinations to five 15 accompanying drawings wherein:
conductors which extend to the normally released
Figs. 1 'to 6, inclusive, are diagrammatic views
showing parts of a cryptographic telegraph sys
armatures of a timing relay. From the front con
tacts of the timing relayn `conductors extend
tem in accordance with the present invention;
through another mixing jack and plug combina
Fig. 7`is a diagrammatic view showing how
tion tothe lstepping magnets of the stepping 20 Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, are to be arranged to rep
resent a complete telegraph station capable of
switches which control the cipher coding relays,
so'` that »the operation of the stepping magnets
ciphering and deciphering telegraph messages;
forV theV Ystepping Vswitches which control the
and
ciphercoding relays will depend upon the se
Fig. Sis a diagrammatic view showing an al
lective application of ground to the conductors
ternative embodiment of the portion of the sys
extending to the brushes of the first transposing
tem shown in Fig. 1.
,
stepping switch and the manner in which the
Fig. 1 is largely similar to Fig.> 1 of the patent
twotranspcsing stepping switches transpose the
conductive paths to the several stepping magnets.
One of the transposing steppingv switches is ad
vanced one step for each signal combination
transmitted or received.
The advancement of
theother transposing stepping switchv is depend
concurrently granted on copending application,
Serial No. 435,178, ñled March 18, 1942, by K. E.
. Fitch et al. Fig. 2 of Fitch'et al. discloses a spe
cial repeater >which cooperates with the appa
ratus of Fig. 1 of that application and arepeater
identical withkthat shown in Fig. 2 of the co
pending application is intended to cooperate
s similarly with Fig. 1 accompanying the presentY
speciñcation. For the purpose of simplifying the
entîupon two factors. One is theV preparation of
a ground connection for the stepping magnet of
the second transposing stepping switch through a
present specification and avoiding duplication of
chain circuit controlled bycertain of the cipher
coding relays. The'other condition is the ap
disclosure, the drawings accompanying the pres
pearance .of marking as the'nature of aparticu
ent speciñcation do not include the repeater, nor
lar >one of the impulses >of the plain text codes. 40 does the specification contain detailed descrip
When- these two conditions appear concurrently,
tion of such repeater. In View of » this the dis
closure of the copending application and par
v the second transposing second switch is advanced
one step. .
ticularly Fig. 2 and the descriptive material per
_ The -`appearance of the marking-condition forY
taining thereto of the copending application is
a particular impulse of the text code signals isY 45 incorporated herein by reference as part ofthe
detected'by a' relay Which'iscontrolled directly
bytheinpútrelay in the case of signal transmis
sion, because the plain text codes are impressed
present specification.
_
`
7
Referring now to the drawings and particu
larlyrto Fig. 1 the apparatus Vcontainedwithin
directly upon the input relay under those circum
the broken_1ine rectanglel II represents a com
stances, and is controlled in accordance with the 50 bined receiving telegraph printer and keyboard
_operation ‘of the output relay in the case of the
transmitter which may be of the type `shown in'V
received signals since the input relay is then
Patent 1,904,164, granted April 18, 1933, Vto S.;
responding> to ciphered signals and the output
Morton et al. The» disclosure `of kthe Morton pat
relay operates in accordance with the deciphered
ent is incorporated herein by reference as part
of the present specification; In Fig. 1 the printer
'Each ofv the. stepping switches which control
is indicated symbolically by the selector magnet
the cipher coding relays has one more bank of
I2 and the keyboard transmitter for transmitting
start-stop permutation code signals is repre
contacts than the number of sets of coding relays
and leach of the two transposing stepping relays
sented by the transmitting contacts I3. The se
plain text signals.
Y
'
-
’
i
'
has an extra contact bank. By means of a sys-`
tem of jacks, patching cords and manually oper
able keys, circuits may be prepared for energizing
the Vstepping magnets of the stepping >switches
through the contact brush and any contact in the
extra bankV of contacts. After the circuits have
been thus prepared, a manually controlled relay
is operated to complete the circuits of the step
ping magnets through their interrupter contacts
whereby the switches will .be advanced by inter
rupter or buzzer action. When'each stepping "
lector magnet I2 is connected to the sleeve ter
minals of a double plug I4 andthe transmitting
contacts I3 are connected to the tipterminals
of the -double plug I 4. The double plugld is
adapted to be inserted into either of two pairs
of jacks associated with the repeater circuit
shown 'in Fig, v2 of the copending application,
depending upon whether it is desired to transmit
straight unciphered message text signals or ci
phered signals.
`
‘
'
A ciphering and deciphering relay system is Í
switch reaches the contact to which a conductive
shown -in the lower right-hand portion of Fig. 1
path for energizing the steppinggmagnet has been
comprising relays I6 and yI'I. Relay I6 is adapt
ed t0 receive signals from the repeater circuit,
extended, the stepping magnet will be held ener
gizedY over a path in shunt relation to the path
through -the interrupter contacts whereby the-
' (not shown) and has one terminal of its upper or
operating `winding connected to conductor I8.
2,405,570
5
which extends into the repeater circuit and the
other terminal of the 'operating winding is con
nected through resistor I9 to ground and through
resistor 2| to the negative terminal of battery 22,
the resistors I9 and 2| forming a potential di
vider. In the repeater, conductor I8 receives
negative battery connection in the idle condition
Which causes current to flow in the operating
Winding of relay I6 in a direction to hold the ar
mature on the marking contact, which has a
negative battery connection. When the repeater
` connections as will be described later.
From the
point of interconnection of resistors 39 and 42,
designated as bridge corner 48, conductor 43 ex
tends into Fig. 2 and has various connections in
that ñgure. From the bridge corner 38 con
ductor 5I extends to the rest segment 52 in the
outer ring of distributor 3|.
The distributor 3| is somewhat similar to a
tape controlled transmitter distributor disclosed
in Patent 2,055,567 granted September 29, 1936,
to E. F. Watson, and the disclosure of the Wat
receives a spacing signal either from the local
son patent is incorporated herein by reference as
transmitting contacts I3, which generate straight
part of the present speciñcation. However, the
text signals, or from a remote station, a ground
connection on conductor I8 is substituted for the
distributor has a considerably diiïerent arrange
ment of signal generating segments and there
are no tape-controlled contacts, the segments re
ceiving their potentials from other sources as
will be described hereinafter.
The distributor 3| has a brush arm 53 which is
carried by a rotatable shaft 54 to which rotation
is imparted from motor 56 through friction
clutch 51 and gears 58. A stop cam 59 is secured>
to shaft 54 and is arranged to be arrested by the
armature lever 6I of electromagnet 62 when the
negative battery connection, which causes cur- '
rent to flow in the opposite direction through the
operating winding of relay I6 and drives its
armature to spacing which has ground connec
tion. Relay I6 has a holding or locking winding,
one terminal of which is connected through re
sistor 26 to ground and through resistor 21 to
negative battery 23, the resistors 26 and 21 corn
prising a potential divider, and the other termi
nal of the holding winding of relay I6 is con 25 magnet is deenergized. Upon the energization
of magnet 62 the end of armature lever 6| pre
nected over conductor 29 to the collector ring of
sented toward cam 59 is rocked out of. blocking
a cipher code generating distributor 3| which will
relation to the cam whereby shaft 54 is released
be described later.
for rotation. Brush arm 53 carries two electri
The transmitting relay I1 has its armature
cally interconnected brushes which bridge outer
connected to a conductor 32 Which extends into
and inner segmented rings.
the repeater, its marking Contact connected to
The inner ring of the distributor is electrically
negative battery and its spacing contact con
continuous except for a short conductive segment
nected to ground. When the armature of relay
63 insulated from the main body of the ring, and
I1 is on the marking contact a marking signal is
the inner brush carried by brush arm 53 is in en~
transmitted into ythe repeater and when the
gagement with the segment 63 when brush arm
armature of relay |1 moves to the spacing con
53 is held at rest, the outer brush then engaging
tact a spacing signal is transmitted into the re
rest segment 52 which subtends the ‘same angle
peater. Relay I1 is operable under the joint
as the segment 53. The stop segment 4E is trav
control of receiving relay I6 and cipher code gen
erating distributor 3|. When relay I6 responds 40 ersed by the outer brush of arm 53 just before
reaching rest segment 52 and the start segment
to a plain text code generated by transmitting
41 is traversed by the outer brush immediately
contacts I3 and causes the operation of relay I1,
after leaving segment 52. The remainder of the
the signal transmitted by relay I1 is a ciphered
outer ring contains five uniformly spaced short
signal and is repeated by the repeater into a line
conductive segments Which correspond to the five
extending to a remote station. When relay I6
code impulses of a permutation code combination
responds to a ciphered code received from a re
and these segments are connected to conductors
mote station, the operation of relay I1 in re
66, 61, 68, 69 and -II ywhich extend into Fig. 2.
sponse thereto is to decipher the code and the
The inner ring of the distributor, exclusive of the
signal transmitted by relay I'I into the repeater is
repeated to the selector magnet I2 of the receiv- . rest segment 63, has one end in registry with the
beginning of start segment 41 and the other end
ing printer. The armature of relay I'I is also
in registry with the end of stop segment 46 and
connected to one terminal of the holding or lock
thus is arranged to complete conductive paths
ing Winding of that relay, the other terminal of
from the start segment, the five code segments
which is connected through resistor 33 to ground
and the stop segment over conductor 29 to the
and through resistor 34 to negative battery 36.
locking Winding of input relay I6.
The holding winding thus may be traversed by
With distributor brush 53 in the rest position
current in either direction from the marking and
the two rest segments 52 and 63 are bridged by
spacing contacts of relay I1 and serves to hold
the armature in the position to which it is oper
ated by the operating winding until the operat
ing winding, which is paramount to the holding
Winding operates the armature to the opposite
position.
The armature of input relay I6 is connected by
conductor 31 to one corner 38 off a triangular
bridge network which comprises one side or arm
containing resistor 39, a second side or arm con
taining resistor 4I, and a third side or arm con
taining the operating Winding of output relay I1
and resistor 42> in series therewith, From the
point of interconnection of the operating winding
of relay I1 and resistor 4|, designated as the
bridge corner 43, conductor 44 extends to the stop
segment 46 and to the start segment 41 of dis
tributor 3| and into Fig. 2 -where it has various
the brushes as previously stated and a circuit
may -be traced from ground on the positive ter
minal of a battery 12 through the battery, re
sistor -I3, Winding of start magnet 62, conductor
14, inner rest segment 63, brushes carried by dis
tributor arm 53, outer rest segment 52, conductors
5| and 31, armature of input relay I6, and mark»
ing contact of that relay to negative battery, the
positive terminal of which is connected to ground.
The negative battery connected to the marking
Contact of relay I6 opposes the negative battery
connected to start magnet 62 so that the magnet
is deenergized.
When input relay I6 goes to
spacing in response to the 'start impulse of a sig
nal combination received over conductor I6 the
opposing negative battery connection on the
marking contact of relay I6 is removed from the
2,405,570
8
circuit of start magnet B2 and a ground connec
with the switch bank 83C by the reference nu
tion on the spacing contact is substituted so that
merals 83CJ and 83CP, respectively. Each of the
the magnet becomes energized and retracts arma
twenty-ñve stepping switch vbanks which controls
ture lever 6I from blocking relation to start cam
a relay has a set of connections from its twenty
59 thus permitting distributor -shaft 54 and brush
two contacts to twenty-two jack springs of its
arm 53 to be rotated.
multiple jack which differs from the arrangement
Referring now to Figs. 2 and 3 the apparatus
of connections between the remaining twenty
for setting up cipher codes will be described. It
four switch banks and their multiple jacks, and
may be stated generally that this involves selec
each of the multiple plugs of which thereis a min
tive determination of the completion of conduc 10 imum .of twenty-ñve has a different combination
tive paths over conductors 44 or 49 which extend
of strappings from the uppermost prong to about
from the bridge network corners ¿i3 or d8 and thus
one half of the remaining twenty-two prongs of
from the opposite ends of the winding of output
the plug. Any one of the plugs may be used in
relay I1, to the five code segments of distributor
any one of the jacks to establish selectively vari
3|. In the lower portion of Fig. 3 are shown the 15 able paths for the energization of the relays. The
stepping magnets Sl, 82, 83, 84 and'B’â 'of ñve
multiple plugs, the number of which may con
’stepping switches each of which has six banks
siderably exceed twenty-ñve, because a large
of contacts. The Contact bank-s associated with
number of different strapping combinations may
the stepping switch operated by stepping magnet
be made, may be marked with distinctive identify
8| are designated 3 IA to 8 IF, inclusive. Similarly, 20 ing symbols so that they may be placed in con
the banks of contacts associated with the step
ductive association with the multiple jacks in pre
ping switches controlled by the stepping magnets
determined arrangement according to charts or
82 to 85, inclusive, are designated 82A to B5F,
other instructions.
inclusive.
Each of the relays controlled by the stepping
Associated with the stepping switch banks SIA 25 switch bank has a sufficient number of armatures
to 8IJE are individual relays 8 IAR to BIER. Sim
and contacts to provide two normal paths and two
ilarly, the stepping switch banks 82A to 82E have
off-normal paths, the normal paths being those
relays SZAR to SEER, respectively, the switch
that are established through back contacts and
banks 83A to 83E have the individual relays 83AR
the oir-normal paths being those that are estab
to BSER, the banks 84A to 84E have relays MAR ,30 lished through front contacts. `In the majority
-to MER, and the switch banks 85A to 85E have
cf instances this could be accomplished by pro
the relays BSAR to BEER. The switch banks bear
viding relays having two armatures each opera
ing designations A to E, inclusive, include uniform
ble between a back contact and a front contact.
» numbers of contacts, such as 22, and the brush
However, in Figs. 2 and 3 the relays have been
associated with each of these banks is connected 35 shown as being provided with four armatures
to ground. The association of a relay with its
two of which cooperate only with a back contact
switch bank is 'shown in full detail in the case
and the other two of which cooperate only with
of bank 85E land relay MER in Fig. 3. The
a front contact. In some instances only one back
twenty-two contacts of 'switch bank 85E are con
contact is used and, accordingly, one of the ar
nected to individual single contact'spring jack 40 matures is not used. However, in systems of this
elements of a multiple jack SSEJ which has a
type it is desirable to >use similar relays through
minimum of twenty-three individual jack spring
out where they perform similar functions even
elements. Successive contacts of lbank 85E are
though some of the armatures and contacts may
not connected to successive jack spring elements
not actually be used. The reason for this is that
of the multiple jack> 85EJ but are scrambled or 45 it may be desirable to rearrange some of the
connected in purely random fashion. The upper
permanent connections from time to time and if
most jack spring element of jack 85EJ is con
all of the relays have full complements of arma
nected to one terminal of relay EEER the other
tures and contacts the rewiring may be done with
terminal of which is connected to grounded vbat
out the necessity of removing and substituting
tery. There is provided for cooperation with jack 50 relays.
B5EJ a multiple plug 85EP having a minimum of
As previously stated the conductors 44 and 49
twenty-three independent contact prongs. The
connected to the opposite ends of the winding of
uppermost prong is connected by conductive
output relay I7 extend into Fig. 2. In branch
straps to about one half of the other twenty-two
ing relation to conductors 44 and 49 the con
prongs, selected at random. With the plug 85E? 55 ductors 44A and 49A extend to armatures of re
inserted into jack 85EJ, when the brush asso
lays BIAR and BSAR. VConductor 44A is connect
ciated with switch bank 85E co-mes into engage
ed to armatures l and 4 of both relays, which
ment with contacts of the bank from which con
have off-normal and normal relation respectively
ductive paths extend through springs of jack
to their contacts. Conductor 49A extends >to the
85EJ to prongs of plug 85EP that are connected 60 armatures 2 and 3 of both relays 8|AR and 83AR.
to the uppermost prong, the circuit of relay 85ER.
Of these armatures the armature 2 has normal
will be completed and the relay will be energized.
relation to its contact and the armature 3 has off
With the specific arrangement of connections be
normal relation to its contact. The contacts'of
tween switch bank ß'âE and jack 35EJ, and with
the armatures l and 2 of relay BIAR are con
the specific strapping of prongs of plug 85E? to 65 nected to the armature l of relay 82AR. The
the uppermost prong the circuit of relay 85ER
contacts of the armatures 3 and 4 of relay ¿HAR
will be completed Iwhen »the stepping switch brush
are connected to the armature 2 of relay BZAR.
engages the ñrst, fifth, sixth, eighth, ninth,
The contacts associated with the armatures I
eleventh, fourteenth, twentieth, twenty-first and
twenty-second contacts of the bank,
Fragments of other multiple jack and multiple
plug arrangements are indicated 85D] and ßäDP,
respectively, in Fig. 3 and in Fig. 2 in association
with switch bank SiC by the reference numerals
8ICJ and 8|CP, respectively, and in association
and 2 of relay 82AR are connected to the arma
ture I of relay BSAR. The contacts associated
with the armatures l and 2 of relay 83AR are
connected to the armature I of relay MAR and
the two contacts associated with the armatures
3 and 4 of relay 83AR are connected to the ar
mature 2 of relay 84AR. The two contacts asso
2,405,570
9
ciated with the armatures I and 2 of relay 84AR
are connected to the armature 2 of relay BEAR.
The contacts associated with the armatures I
. Conductor 61B extending from the contacts of
the armatures l and 2 of relay SEBR extends
to the back contact of the inner left-hand arma
ture of relay 9| and to one terminal of the upper
most winding of relay 92, the other terminal of
tor 66 to the No. l code segment of distributor 3|.
which is connected to the front contact associat
With relay armature and contact connections as
ed with the same armature. The armature is
described above, there are two chain circuits, one
connected to conductor 61> which extends to the
comprising the armatures and contacts of relay
No. 2 code segment of distributor 3|. When relay
8|AR and the upper two armatures and contacts
of relay 82AR and the other comprising the ar 10 9| is deenergized, conductors 61 and 91B are in
terconnected directly and the circuit of the up
matures and contacts of relay B3AR and the
permost winding of relay 92 is open. When re
upper two armatures and contacts of the relay
lay 9| is energized, conductors B'I and 61B are
84AR, these two chains leading into the upper
interconnected through the uppermost winding of
two armatures of relay BEAR. Conductors 44A
'
_
and 49A enter both of these chain circuits. When 15 relay 92.
The operation of relay 9| is controlled by con
relay 85AR is deenergized the chain circuit corn
tacts I93` shown in Fig.` 1. Contacts 99 are nor
prising relays 83AR and ‘84AR will be effective
mally open but are closed'by the operation of a
to control connections from conductors 44A and
locking bail arm 94 which is rocked in counter
49A to conductor 66. With both of the relays
clockwise direction by a spring 96 under the con
83AR and 84AR energized Or both deenergized,
trol of a cam 91 associated with the cam assemf
conductor 44A will be connected t0 conductor 66.
bly which controls the operation of transmitting
With either of these relays energized and the
contact |3. Cam l9'! is shown in the rest posi
other deenergized conductor 49A will be con
tion and is rotated one revolution for each code
nected to conductor 69. When relay 85AR is
Combination generated by transmitting contacts
energized the chain circuit controlled by relays
|3. This feature is more fully disclosed in Pat
8|AR and 82AR will be eiïective. With both of
ent 2,018,368 granted October 22, 1935, to R. A.
these relays energized or both deenergized, con
Lake and particularly` in Fig. 5 'oi' that patent.
ductor 44A will be connected to conductor 66 and
The disclosure of the Lake patent is incorporated
with either of these relays energized and the
other deenergized, conductor 49A will be con 30 herein by reference as part of the present speci
iication. One of the contacts 93 is connected to
nected to conductor 66. As the ñve relays are
ground and from the other contact a conductor
selectively operated singly or in combinations,
98 extends into the repeater circuit (not shown)
they cooperate in sets of three, namely, SIAR,
for effecting a control fully disclosed in the co
BZAR and BEAR, or 83AR, 84AR and 85AR to
and 2 of relay 85AR are connected over conduc
determine which of the two conductors 44A and .
pending application. A branching conductor 99
49A shall be connected to conductor 66. The chain
circuits are so arranged that it is not possible for
both of the conductors 44A and 49A to be con
nected to conductor 66 simultaneously.
extends from conductor 98 toone terminal of re
The relays BIBR, 82BR, 83BR, 84BR. and 85BR control chain circuits identical with those con
repeater circuit, so that when contacts 93 are
trolled by the relays BIAR to BSAR. It is not
necessary that these two chain circuit systems be
lay 9| (Fig. 2) the other terminal of which is
connected to grounded battery of the same polarity
as the battery connected to conductor 98 in the
closed, relay 9| will be energized and when con
tacts 93 are open no energizing circuit for relay
9| will be completed through conductor 99 into
the repeater circuit. From the foregoing it will
the same, as there are many ways in which the
chain circuits may be arranged, and other sets 45 be apparent that relay 9| will be energized only
during the transmission of signals generated by
of relays controlled by the stepping switches con
transmitting contacts lf3. When signals are be
trol difïerent arrangements of chain circuits, as
ing received from a distant station over conduc
will be described later. The conductors entering
tor I9 the local transmitter will not be oper
the two chain circuits at the armatures of re
lays `BIBR and 83BR have been designated by 50 ated, contacts 93 will remain open and relay 9|
will remain released.
,
the reference numerals 44B and 49B. The con
Before proceeding with the description of fur
ductors 44B and 49B do not connect directly to
ther features and elements of the apparatus, the
conductors 44 and 49, respectively, as do the
operation of the apparatus heretofore described
conductors 44A and 49A, respectively, but con
nect instead to the outer left-hand armature and 55 in ciphering signals to vbe transmitted to a dis
tant station and in deciphering signals received
to the right-hand armature, respectively, of a re
from a distant station, will be described. The
lay 9I. The back contact of the outer left-hand
ciphering of a signal to be transmitted will iirst
armature of relay 9| is connected through the
be considered. Upon the operation of transmit
second winding, counting from the top, of a re
lay 92 to conductor 44. Similarly, the back con 60 ting contacts I3 to transmit a signal, the first
impulse is the start signal which is of spacing
tact of the right-hand armature of relay 9| is
nature and this causes the relay | 6 to go to spac
connected through the third winding of relay 92
ing, thus completing the energizing circuit for
to conductor 49. The front contact of the outer
start magnet 62 over a circuit previously traced.
left-hand armature of relay 9| is connected di
The start magnet permits brush arm 53 to be
rectly to conductor 44 and the front contact of
driven and the brushes iirst encounter start seg
the right-hand armature of relay 9| is con
ment 41. This segment is connected to conduc
nected directly to conductor 49. Thus when re
tor `44 so that conductor 44 becomes connected
lay 9| is deenergized conductors 44 and 44B are
to conductor 29 through the brushes of the dis
interconnected through a winding 0f relay 92 and
tributor while the outer brush is traversing the
conductors 49 and 49B are interconnected through
start segment 41. Conductor 49 has no direct
another winding of relay 92 whereas when relay
connection to any segment of the distributor 3|
9| is energized conductors 44 and 44B are inter
but extends directly to the cipher coding relay
connected directly and conductors 49 and 49B
system in Figs. 2 and 3, the return leads of which
are interconnected directly, the two windings of
are to the code segments of the distributor, so
relay 92 being open.
`
'
2,405,570
the battery on the-,marking .contact of relay IB
through the armature of that relay, conductor .31
through the branching paths of the bridge net
Work including the operating winding of relay
I1 then through conductors «44 and 44A, armatures
and contacts of relays BIAR to BSAR, conductor
that no circuits can .be completed over conduc
tor 49 while the brushes »are .traversing the start
segment. Accordingly, a circuit is traced from
ground .on the spacing contactof relay `I 6 through
>.the armature of the relay .and conductor 3.1 to
the bridge corner l38. At this point the cond-uc
tive .path divides, part of _the current flowing over
resistor 4I Íto the bridge corner E3 and the .re
mainder flowing through resistors ‘39, 4'2 and
operating winding of .relay I1 from right to left
to _the bridge _corner 4.3. r.îîhe path reunites at
the bridge corner 4'3 and .continues over conduc
tor 44 tothe start segment 4_1 then Vto the inner
ring of Ythe distributor, _conductor 29„ locking
6B, the N o. 1 _contact of distributor 3|, the _brushes
and inner ring of that distributor, conductor 29,
locking winding of relay I S'and resistor Zâ yto
.11 (i ground. Except for the .addition of conductor
44A, contacts and .armatures `of relays BIAR to
8_5AR and conductor B6, this ,is .the same ,path
that was traced inconnection with the _transmis
sion _of ~,the start signal. However., `the polarities
Winding of relay I6 and the resistor 21 through
have been reversed because the _armature A_of re
battery 28».to ground. Output relay I] is _polar
lay l'ë now receives >battery .connection _instead of
ground connection. Thereversal of polarity »on
the bridge ,network and through .the operating
and with ground .on the armature of relay I6 >and
the circuit .of the operating Winding of relay I1
extended ~over conductor .44, current flows
through the .operating Winding of relay I1 in the _
direction to drive the armature >of that relay to
spacing. _The current _through the locking wind
ing of relay _IS is Vin the direction to 4hold relay
|_6 .in _thespacing condition even though the start
impulse of spacing nature received over conduc
tor l8should cease and a marking impulse should ~
lbe substituted before the .brushes have left .start
segment 41.. From this it vfollows that .the lock
ing windingof relay 'I 6 is paramount to the oper..
ating Winding. With relay
I1 in the spacing l
winding ~of .relay l1 causes the _armature of that
relay to ,be moved to its markingcontact _to effect
the transmission ojf a marking signal overcom
>ductor 32 _and to com-plete „a „circuit .from 4the
marking contact through «the locking winding of
relay I1 to hold the armature on themarking con
tact. If the first impulse _of the code .combination
had been spacing the polarity applied _to the
bridge circuit network would -have been the same
.as that applied in response to .the ,start signal
and with the circuit completed to conductor .29
over conductor M_, the _armature of _relay I1 would
condition a _spacing impulse is transmitted over
have remained on the spacing contact, `
conductor 32 to the repeaterJ wherein it is repeat
ed to _the Aline extending to the distant station,
Assume now that the No. 1 impulse of the code
combinationis marking, Which Was the condition
and current is .supplied from the spacing con
originally assumed, but that the relays BIAR. to
tact of relay I1 ¿through .the ’locking winding of
that relay in the direction to hold the relay in
BSAR are energized in such combination that they
complete va conductivepath to conductor 6_6 over
conductor 49A from conductor 49. There are
the spacing condition.
As soon as the brushes
leave vthe .start .segment y4'! the circuit through
four conditions of the relays under which this can
the operating winding _of output relay I1 _and
occur. If relay 85AR is deenergized the connec
through 'the flocking Winding of input 'relay 16 40 tion will be made if either Iof the _relays BSAR or
is interrupted _but the circuit through the lock
84AR is energized and the other is .deenergized
ing winding of .relay I1 remains. Relay I 6 is noW
the relays ß‘lARand BZAR having no effect. On
free 'to be operated in response to the first code
the other hand, if the relay BSAR is energized,
impulse of the signal but the ‘locking Winding of
the circuit will be completed if either of the relays
relay I1 assures .that the start signal shall en- _. ‘SIAR or 82AR _is energized and the other is
dure until a circuit through the operating Wind
deenergized, the relays _83AR and BIIAR having
ing of relay l1 is again completed, which cannot
no effect. The circuit is traced from .ground
occur until the brushes reach the No. >1 code seg
through the battery -on 'the lmarking contact of
ment ofthe distributor. The .operating `Winding
relay IS through the armature andconductor 31
of relay I1 is paramount to .the locking Winding
tothe bridge'corner 38. The .current now .divides
and can move the armature of the relay When
in a different manner, one path being traced
ever .the operating winding becomes energized,
through _resistor 39 ,to bridge corner 48 and the
although the locking Winding _is seeking to hold
l other _being traced through resistor 4I, operating
the armature _in Vthe position to yWhich it had last
Winding _of relay I1 from leftto right and resistor
»42 t'o'bridge corner 45. From this `point the cir
been moved.
.
Assume that the _first _code impulse of the sig
nal generated by contacts I3 'is of marking nature,
as a result vof which a marking signal will be re
ceived b_y .relay I6 over conductor I8 and the
armature will .be restored to the marking posi
tion. Assume alsothat the relays SIAR to BEAR
` cuit-continues over conductors 49 and 49A, the
armatures and contacts of relays MARIO 85AR,
conductor _66, the No. 1 code segment, brushes
and inner ring of distributor 3|, conductor 29„
locking winding of relay I6 and resistor 26 to
ground. With the circuit completed from bridge
are lenergized in such combination that 'a con~
corner v118 instead of bridge corner 43 the current
ductive path will be extended over conductors M
and 44A to conductor 66. For this .condition there
'are ’four possibilities. vIf relay 85AR is deener
gized the connection will be established with both
of the relays BSAR and .84AR also deenergized or
with both of 'the ’relays BSARv and MAR ener
through the operating Winding of relay I1 is in
the `reverse of the direction in which it ilowed
gized, the relays '8,IAR and >82AR having no ef
feet. If, on the kother hand the relay SSA'R is
energized, the connection will be established with
both >of the 'relays BIAR and 82AR alsofenergized
or With the relays 8IAR 4and BEAR both deener
gized, the relays .BBAR and MAR having no ef
when with the armature of relay >I6 on .the mark
ing contact the circuit was completed through
conductor `MLso that the armature .of relay I1 .is
driven to the spacing contact to transmit _a spac
ing signal over conductor 32 and the current
through _the locking winding-of relay »I 1 holds the
armaturev on the _spacing contact. There has
been no reversal of the direction of current
through the locking Winding of .relay |76 so that
its .armature remains on the marking con-tact. If
fect. The .circuit is traced from ground through
instead of being of marking nature the first vcode
2,405,570
13
i
impulse generated by transmitting contacts I3
had been of spacing nature, with the path to the
14
stations and the brushes of the stepping switches
are adjusted to the same starting points and are
advanced together by local control individual to
the stations, so that the cipher coding relays at
locking winding of relay I6 extended over con
ductor' 49 as just described there would have been
a reversal of the polarity on the operating wind 5 the receiving station establish the same connec
tions from the conductors 44 and 49 to the dis
ing of relay Il which over the same conductive
tributor code segments as are established at the
path would have caused the armature of the relay
transmitting station. It has been shown that
to assume the marking position.
the cipher coding relays have no effect upon the
By Way of recapitulation there are four possible
output relay I'I when the input relay I 6 responds
conditions of signal transmission. When relay I6
to the start signal of spacing nature and there
responds to a spacing signal and the circuit is
fore thatthe output relay follows the input relay
completed over conductor 44 a spacing signal will
to spacing condition. When the start signal of
be transmitted over conductor 32. When relay
spacing nature is received from the distant sta
I6 responds to a marking signal and the circuit
tion it is repeated by the repeater to the input
is completed over conductor 49, a spacing signal
relay I E which completes a circuit over conductor
will be transmitted over conductor 32. When
litandthe start segment of the receiving dis
relay IB responds to'a's'p'acin’g signal and the'c'ir
tributor, which was released for rotation when the
cuit is completed over conductor 49 relay I1
start signal was received, to the locking winding of
will be operated to marking to cause the trans
mission of a marking signal over conductor 32. 20 input relay I6 and the output relay I‘I goes to
spacing.
When relay I5 responds to a marking signal and
The first message code impulse was previously
the circuit is extended over conductor 44, relay
I1 will be operated to marking and a marking
assumed to be of marking nature with the cipher
code circuit established over conductor 44 and it
signal will be transmitted over conductor 32. The
further summarizing statement may be made 25 was found that the output relay transmitted a
marking signal. Accordingly, the input relay of
that relay Il. operates in correspondence with
a receiving station would go to marking condition
and would complete a circuit over conductor 44
ductor 44, and operates in reverse relation to relay
identical with that which was described when the
I6 when the circuit is completed over conductor
49.
30 first impulse of text code was assumed to be mark
ing. The polarity on this circuit is such that the
After the brushes have traversed the ñve code
output relay I1 is operated to the marking con
segments and the ciphered impulses have been
dition and impresses a marking signal on con
transmitted, the brushes traverse the stop seg
ductor 32 which is repeated to the selector magnet
ment 4t. At this time the relay IG receives the
I2. In this way the original text marking signal,
stop pulse, of marking nature, generated by con
which was treated in such a way by the cipher
tacts I3. 'I'he circuit is completed from the mark
code relays that it was transmitted unchanged as
ing contact of relay IE through the bridge net
a marking signal, is received and similarly treated
work including the operating winding of relay I'I,
through an identical arrangement of the cipher
over conductor 44, stop segment 4S, inner ring of
the distributor, and conductor 29 to the locking 40 code relays and is repeated unchanged as a mark
ing signal which is used to control the receiving
Winding of relay IS. This corresponds to the
printer. Corresponding deciphering operations
fourth condition recited in the preceding para
occur with reference to the other three possible
graph of recapitulation and relay I'I will be op
conditions. Thus with a text code impulse of
erated to the marking condition to transmit a
spacing nature controlling output relay I'I over
marking signal, which is the true stop impulse.
It is to be noted that the cipher coding relays
conductor 44 and causing the relay to transmit
a spacing signal, the received spacing signal, con
SIAR to 85ER in Figs. 2 and 3 have no effect
trolling relay I'I over conductor 44 causes the
upon the transmission of the start and stop sig
output relay Il to generate a spacing signal which
nals. The circuit through the operating winding
of relay Il is completed through conductor 44 in ' is repeated to the printer magnet I2. A text code
marking impulse, controlling the output relay I1
both cases, but relay IE is spacing for the start
signal and marking for the stop signal, and re
over conductor 49 to cause the relay to transmit
a spacing signal, is received in cipher as a spacing
lay I'I is correspondingly driven spacing for the
signal which, controlling output relay I‘I over
start signal and marking for the stop signal.
conductor 49 causes the relay to generate a mark
After the brushes leave the stop segment they
ing signal which is repeated to the selector mag
encounter the rest segments and are arrested,
net I2. Finally a text code signal of spacing na
since the start magnet 62 was released when the
ture controlling the output relay I 'I over con
brushes left the rest segment and presumably
ductor 49 to cause the relay to transmit a mark
the relay I6 will still be responding to the stop
ing signal is received as a marking signal by the
signal when the brushes reach the rest seg
relay I6 when the circuit is completed over con
input relay I6 and, controlling output relay I‘I
ments, so that the start magnet will remain re
leased. When the relay IB responds to the start
signal of the next code combination, magnet 62
will again be energized and Will release the shaft
54 for another cycle of rotation.
There will now be described the operation of
deciphering received code combinations. The code
spacing signal which is repeated to the selector
magnet I2. From this it will be apparent that
the deciphering of received signals in order to
combinations are transmitted from a distant sta
same conditions that were employed at the trans
tion having ciphering apparatus of the same type
as that disclosed in the drawings accompanying
mitting station to convert the text code signals
into ciphered signals.
the present speciñcation and it is a characteristic
Reference has been made previously to the fact
that the chain circuit arrangements of arma
of_ the system that when ciphered messages are
being transmitted identical arrangements of con
nections between the cipher coding relays and
the stepping switch banks are established at both
over conductor 49, causes the relay to generate a
derive the plain text codes therefrom is accom
plished by ciphering received codes under the
tures and contacts of the cipher coding relays
may differ from the arrangement of the contacts
and armatures of relays BIAR toV B5AR and of
2,405,570
17
18
connected to the brushes associated with con
tact banks |3|A to |3|E, respectively, of a step
ping switch which is operable by stepping mag
net |3| and which has a sixth contact bank desig
nated |3|F. The contacts of the five stepping
parent that the stepping magnet in Fig. 3 will
be energized prior to the transmission of the first
switch banks |3|A to |3|E are connected in a
manner similar to the contacts of stepping switch
banks |215A to |25E, but in different combina
code impulse of a code combination and will be
released to effect the advancement of the step
ping switch brushes after the transmission of the
last code impulse of a code combination has been
initiated, so that the cipher coding relays will
not be disturbed during the ciphering or de
ciphering of a code.
tions, to ñve conductors |36, |31, |38, |39 and
|40 which extend to the inner right-hand arma l0
The outer right-hand armature of relay |4|
ture and to the four left-hand armatures of a
cooperates with a front contact which is con
relay |4l. These five armatures cooperate with
nected to ground and the armature is connected
front contacts from which ñve conductors |46,
by conductor |32 to one terminal of the winding
|41, |48, |49 and |50 extend to the lowermost
of stepping magnet |25 the other terminal of
group of ñve single circuit jack spring elements
which is connected to grounded battery. Thus
of multiple jack H8. A multiple plug |5| has
each time the relay |4| is energized theenergiz
ing circuit of stepping magnet |25 will be com
pleted and upon the release of relay |4| stepping
magnet |25 will be released to effect the advance
upper five prongs of that plug. Several plugs 20 ment of the brushes associated with stepping
having diiTerent connections as between the lower
switch banks |25A to |2511', concurrently with
five and the upper ñve prongs may be employed
the advancement of the brushes of the stepping
for varying the connections between conductors
switches shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
|46 to |50 and the third group of ñve jack ele
The stepping magnet |3| has one terminal con
ments of multiple jack I8, counting the groups 23 nected to grounded battery and the other terminal
from the top. From these five jack elements
connected to the middle right-hand armature of
conductors |6|, |62, |63, |64 and |65 extend into
relay |4|. From the front contact with which
Fig. 3 and connect individually to one terminal of
this armature cooperates conductor |33 extends
each of the stepping magnets 8| to 85, the other
through Fig. 1 into Fig. 2 to the front contact of
terminal of which is connected to battery. It
a relay |34, the armature of which is connected
will be apparent that as conductors |33, |04, |09,
to ground. One terminal of the winding of relay
| |4 and ||1 receive ground connection selectively
|34 is connected to grounded battery and the
under the control of certain of the relays con
other terminal is connected by conductor |66
trolled by the stepping switch banks in Figs. 2
extending into Fig. 1 to one contact of a nor
and 3, such ground connections will be extended 3.A mally open pair of contacts |61. Contacts |61
to certain ones of the conductors | 2|, |22, |23,
are closed at the same time as contacts |43 by
|24 and |25 depending upon the arrangement of
cam |44. The other contact of the contact pair
interconnection of the prongs of plug H9, then
|61 is connected by conductor |68 extending into
to certain ones of the conductors |26, |21, |28,
Fig. 2 to one terminal of the lower winding of
|29 and |30, depending upon the position of
relay 92, the other terminal of which is con
the brushes associated with stepping switch
nected to the single contact with which the ar
banks I25A to |25E, then to certain ones
mature of the relay cooperates. The armature
of the conductors |36, |31, |38, |39 and |40,
of relay 92 is connected by conductor |69 ex
depending upon the position of the brushes
tending into Fig. 3 to the front contact associ
associated with the stepping switch banks
ated with an armature of relay SEER. This
|3|A to |3|E, through the inner right-hand and
armature is connected by conductor |'|| to the
the four left-hand armatures of relay |4| when
front contact associated with an armature of re
that relay is energized, through conductors |46,
lay 84ER. This armature is connected by con
|41, |48, |49 and |50 to certain ones of the con
ductor |12 t0 the front contact associated with
ductors |6|, |62, |63, |64 and |65, depending 50 an armature of relay 83ER which is connected
to ground.
upon the arrangement of interconnection of the
prongs of multiple plug |5l, through the wind
From the foregoing it will be apparent that
ings of certain ones of the stepping magnets 8|
when relays 83ER, 84ER and BEER are energized,
to 85 (Fig. 3)1, to battery to cause the energiza
ground connection will be extended over con
tion of the stepping magnets. The energization 55 ductor |69 to the armature of relay 92. If
of the stepping magnets will occur upon the en
the armature of relay 92 is operated into
ergization of relay |4|, and the release of the
engagement with the right-hand contact, the
stepping magnets upon the release of relay | 4|
ground connection will be extended through the
will cause the stepping switch brushes controlled
lower winding of relay 92 and over conductor
thereby to advance one step, since these stepping
|68, through the contacts |61 when closed and
over conductor |66 and the winding of relay |34
switches are of the type which advance the
brushes on the back stroke or release of the
to grounded battery so that relay |34 will be en
stepping magnet.
ergized in series with the lower winding of relay
One terminal of relay |41 is connected to
92, which is a holding winding. With relay |34
grounded battery and the other terminal is con
energized ground connection is extended over
nected to conductor |42 extending into Fig. 1 and
conductor |33 to the middle right-hand front
there connected to one contact of a normally
contact of relay |4| which will be energized since
open contact pair |43, the other Contact of which
when contacts |61 are closed, contacts |43 are
is connected to ground. Contacts |43 are oper
also closed, and through the middle right-hand
able by a cam |44 carried by the driving shaft - armature of relay |4| and the winding of step
54 of distributor 3| and the cam |44 is arranged
ping magnet |3| to grounded battery. When
to close contacts | 43 after the brushes have trav
contacts |43 reopen and relay |4| is released the
ersed the start segment 41 and t0 permit the conenergizing circuit for stepping magnet | 3| is
tacts |43 to open just before the brushes encounter
opened and the magnet advances the brushes
the rstop segment 46. From this it will be ap 76 associated with the stepping switch banks |3|A
ten prongs which enter the ten lower jack ele
ments of multiple jack | I8 and each of the lower
ñve prongs of plug |5| is connected to one of the
2,405, 570
le
20
to ISIF to the next contacts. The operation of
stepping magnet I_3I to effect the advancement
of its associated brushes is thus observed to be
dependent upon two factors which do not have
cyclic occurrence, namely, the operation of the
armature of relay 92 into engagement with its
of distributor 3l, conductor 29, locking winding
of relay I5 and resistor 26 to ground. The wind
ingsv of relay.92 are >polar and Whenthe `circuit
is as traced With theupper terminal of the upper
Iwinding of relay 92 at the marking battery po
tential and the lower terminal connected to vthe
right-hand contact and the energization of re
path to ground, the Awinding is energized in the
lays BSER, 3ft-ER and SEER. Other factors also
direction to drive the armature to the single
involved which do have cyclic occurrence and
right-hand contact to complete the energizing
are introduced for timing purposes are the prep l0 circuit for relay |34. The circuit includes the
aration of the energizing circuit of relay |34 at
lower or locking winding of relay S2 which `be
the cam-operated contacts IST and the com
comes energized to .hold the armature on the
pletion of theV energizing circuit of relay I 4I at
right-hand contact. The locking winding of re
lay 92 is subordinate to each ofthe `other three
the contacts |43.
,
The operation of relay 92 to complete the en
windings so that upon the energization Vof one of
them in the direction to restore the armature to
ergizing circuit for relay |34 is dependent upon
the occurrence of a marking impulse as the sec
its left-hand position, the locking winding will
not prevent such restoration. It'merely holds the
ond code impulse of plain text code signals, by Y
which is meant code signals before being ciphered
or after being deciphered, The requirement that
relays 83ER, MER, and BSER be energized in
armature on the .right-'hand contact to hold relay
order to extend a ground connection through
stepping magnet ISI will not be interrupted and
|311 energized until that relay is released bythe
opening of contacts |67 so that the circuit of
to the armature of relay 92 provides that relay
the brushes associated therewith stepped until
|34 Shall be energized only in response to some
after the transmission of the last code impulse of
of the occurrences of a marking impulse as the 25 a code combination has been initiated. Relay 92
second impulse of text code. The reason for this
preferably has bias Which may be either me
is that in a permutation code, one-half of the
chanical or electrical but which should, however,
. total number of available codes will have the sec
be subordinated to all of the four windings shown,
ond impulse ofV marking nature so that if the
including the holding winding, tending to restore
stepping magnet I3I were controlled solely in ac 30 the armature to its left-hand position so that
cordance with the operation of relay 92 the av
after being operated to the right-hand position
erage frequency of operation of the stepping
and held there until after the last impulse of a
magnet would be once for each two codes re
code has been initiated, the armature will be re
ceived or transmitted. It is preferablethat the
stored to the left-hand position upon the inter
stepping magnet I3I shall operate less frequently 35 ruption of the holding circuit and Will not remain
than this since the stepping magnet |25 oper
in the right-hand position until one of the upper
ates to advance its associated brushes once for
three windings becomes energized in the direction
each code combination received or transmitted.
to drive the armature to its left-hand position.
By supplying the ground connection for operat
Thus the armature of relay 92 will remain in the
ing stepping magnet IêI through armatures and
front contact of the three relays MER, MER and
HER, the average frequency of operation of step
ping magnet IBI will be once for every eight
characters received or transmitted.
lI‘he operation of relay 92 lwill now be described
and the situation involved in the transmission of
signals to a distant station will iirst be consid
ered, this involving signalg generated `by the
right-hand position only during the remainder of
a cycle of distributor 3| in which it was operated
to that position due to the occurrence of the
marking impulse as the second impulse of a text
code combination.
J’
.
If at the time that the relay I6 was operated
to marking in response to the second impulse of
the code signal being rgenerated the relaysI SIBR
to 85BR had been energized in such combinations
as to connect conductor B'IB to conductor 49B,
transmitting contacts I3. Two facts are to be
noted with reference to signal transmission. One "i the circuit would be traced from the armatureof
is that the input relay I6 directly follows text
relay I6 through the branching paths of the
code signals generated by the transmitting con
bridge network from the bridge corner 38 to the
tact I3. When a marking signal is generated, re
bridge corner 48 and then over conductor 49, the
lay IEì goes to marking in response thereto. The
front contact and right-hand armature of relay
other is that each time the transmitting contacts "î 9| 'to conductor 49B then to conductor 61B
I3 are operated to generate a signal contacts 93
through the armatures and contacts of the second
are closed and complete the energizing circuit for
row of cipher coding relays in Fig. 2 and then to
relay 9| (Fig. 2),> so that its armatures engage
the upper terminal of .the upper winding of relay
their front contacts. Assume that relay I5 is in
92 the same as before. It makes no difference
marking condition for the second impulse of a
whether the circuit from the marking contact of
code signal and that the relays 8|BR to 853B,
relay I6 is completed over conductor 44 or over
are energized in combination to interconnect con
conductor 49 the Ibattery polarity applied to the
ductors 44 and MB. The circuit is traced from
upper winding of relay 92 will besuch as to drive
negative battery on the marking contact of relay
the armature to the right-hand position. When
|'6 through conductor S'I to the bridge corner 353, .~ the second impulse ofthe code generated by
through the branching paths of the bridge net
transmitting contact I3 is of spacing nature, the
work rejoining at bridge corner 43 through con
circuits, traced over conductor 44 or conductor
ductor lili, . front contact and outer left-hand
49, depending upon the condition of the second
armature of relay 9i, conductor 44B, armatures
row of cipher coding relays in Fig. 2 will be the
and contacts of certain of the relays BIBR to
same but the polarity applied to the upper Wind
GEBR, conductor 51B, uppermost winding of re
ing of relay 92 will be reversed, ground being con
lay 92V entering at the top of the winding andk
nected to the upper terminal of the winding and
leaving at the bottom of the winding, front con
negative battery being connected to the lower
tact and inner left-hand armature of relay 9|,
terminal of the upper winding through the lock
conductor 6l, No. 2 code segment and inner ring
ing winding of relay I6. The upper winding of
2,405,570
21
relay 92 will thus be energized in the opposite di
rection, tending to drive the armature toits left
hand position to which it has already been oper
ated by its mechanical or electrical bias.
The operation of relay 92 in response to re
ceived signals involves a different problem. Re~
lay I6 is not now responding to text code signals
but is responding to ciphered signals and these
of relay I6 and resistor 21 to the negative ter-`
minal of battery 28, the positive of which is
grounded. The circuit arrangement and battery
polarity are such that the armature of relay |1
is driven to spacing from which it follows that
the armature of relay 92 should not be operated to
its right-hand position. Accordingly, it may be
stated that with ground on the right-hand ter
signals are deciphered so that the plain text sig
minal of the second winding of relay 92 and neg
nals appear at relay I1. Accordingly, it is neces li. ative battery on the left-hand terminal the mag
sary toI operate the armature o-f relay 92 to its
netic field generated is in the direction tending
right-hand position when relay I1 is driven to
to drive the armature to the left-hand position.
marking for the second impulse of a received code
For the third condition the circuit path is iden
combination. This is accomplished by the two
tical with that described for the ñrst condition but
middle windings of relay 92.
1,5 the battery polarity is reversed so that ground is
Y’When signals are being ireceived, contacts 93
connected ' tothe lower terminal of the third
are not operated so that relay 9| remains deener
winding of relay 92 counting from the top and
gized. For an understanding of the operation of
negative battery is connected through the locking
relay 92 by its two middle windings it is necessary
winding of relay I6 to the upper terminal of the
to remember that when the circuit of the operat
third winding of relay 92. This causes the arma
ingl winding of relay I1 is completed from the
ture of relay 92 to be driven to the right-hand
marking contact of relay I6 over conductor 49,
position which prepares or completes the ener
the armature of relay I1 goes to spacing, that
gizing circuit for relay |34 as the case may be.
when the circuit is completed from the spacing
The circuit arrangement and battery polarity is
contact of relay I6 over conductor llt the arma
ture of relay I1 goes `to spacing, that when the
circuit is completed from the spacing contact of
relay IS over conductor 49 the armature of relay
I1 goes to marking, and that when the circuit is
such that the armature of relay |1 is driven to
the marking contact.
For the fourth condition the circuit connections
are the same as those described in connection
with the second condition but the battery polar
completed from the marking contact of relay I6 30 ity is reversed, negative battery being connected
over conductor 44 the armature of relay I1 goes
to the right-hand terminal of the second winding
to marking.
of relay 92 and ground being connected through
Taking the first of these four conditions the
the locking winding of relay I6 to the left-hand
circuit is traced from the marking contact of relay
terminal of the second winding of relay 92. This
I6 over conductor 31 to the bridge corner 38, f causes the armature of relay 92 to be driven to
through the two branches of the bridge network
the right-hand position and the armature of relay
r'ejoining at the bridge corner 49, then over con
I1 to be driven to the marking contact.
ductor 49 to the lower terminal of the third wind
Figs. 5 and 6 show apparatus which in coopera
ing of relay 92 counting from the top, then from
tion with the stepping magnets 8| to 85, |3I and
the upper terminal of this winding through the 40 |25 and with the sixth contact bank of each of
back contact and right-hand armature of relay 9|
the stepping switches, designated 8 | F to 85F, I3 |F
to conductor 49B, through armatures and con
and |2'5F, provides for selectively adjusting the
tacts of the second row of cipher coding relays of
stepping switches shown in Figs. 2 and 3 and the
Fig. 2, conductor 51B to the back contact and in
left-hand stepping switch in Fig. 4 to any of a
ner left-hand armature of relay 9| where the
plurality of starting points and for adjusting the
circuit of the uppermost winding of relay 92 is
brushes of the stepping switch at the right of Fig.
now open, conductor 61, No. 2 code segment and
4 to the No, 1 contact as a starting point. Re
inner ring of distributor 3|, conductor 29, locking
ferring ñrst to Fig. 5 a group of seven jacks 20|
winding of relay I6 through resistor 26 to ground.
each having tip, ring and sleeve contacts have
those contacts connected to twenty-one of the
The armature of relay I1 is caused to go to
spacing when the circuit and battery polarity is
as thus traced, from which it follows that the
second impulse of the deciphered text code is of
spacing nature and the armature of relay 92
should not be operated to the right-hand position.
Accordingly, the third winding of relay 92 is so
is left unconnected but at all stations it should be
polarized that with negative battery connected
the corresponding contact. Similarly twenty-one
to the lower terminal of that winding and ground
connected to the upper terminal the magnetic
twenty-one contacts of seven jacks 202, twenty
twenty-two contacts of stepping switch bank 8IF.
These connections may be made to contacts 1 to
21, inclusive, of the stepping switch bank or they
may be made to contacts 2 to 22. It is of no con
sequence which one of the contacts of bank SIF
of the contacts of bank 82F are connected to the
field produced by the winding tends to drive the
one contacts of bank 83F are connected to the
armature to its left-hand position, which position
twenty-one contacts of seven jacks 203, twenty
it already occupies.
one of the contacts of bank 84F are connected to
For the second condition the circuit is traced
the twenty-one contacts of seven jacks 204,
from ground on the spacing contact of relay I5
twenty-one of the contacts of bank BEF are con
through conductor 31 to the bridge corner 38, 65 nected to the twenty-one contacts of seven jacks
then through the branching paths of the bridge
205 and twenty-one contacts of the stepping
network to bridge corner 43, then over conductor
44 to the second winding of relay 92 entering at
switch bank |3IF (Fig. 4) are connected to the
twenty-one contacts of seven jacks 206 (Fig. 6).
the right-hand terminal and leaving at the left
By means of three patching cords, each having
hand terminal thereof, through the back contact 70 three conductors and provided at both ends with
and outer left-hand armature of relay 9| to con
three-circuit plugs, connection may be made from
ductor 44B, to conductor 61B through armatures
any selected three of the jacks 20| to three jacks
and contacts of relays 8|BR to 85BR and from
2I|. From the ring contact of the uppermost
this point over the path traced in the preceding
jack 2II, from the sleeve contact of the middle
paragraph to ground through the locking winding 75 one of jacks 2II and from the tip contact of the
2,405,570
23
24
lowermost jack 21|, individual connections ex
tend to conductors 22|, 222 and 223, respectively,
contacts from which conductors 8W, 82V, 83V,
84V, 85V, |3|V `and |25V extend through the
in Fig. 6. In addition, a connection is extended
from'the lower or ground terminal of stepping
magnet 81 over conductor 21S into Fig. 6. Other
interrupter contacts of stepping magnets 8|, 82,
33, 84, 85, 13| and 125, respectively, to the ground
sets of three jacks are designated by the reference
numerals 212, 213, 214, 215 and 216. The ring
terminals of those magnets.
A relay 8|FR has one terminal connected to
the conductor 81V and the other terminal con
nected to the brush associated with stepping
dle, and tip contact of the lower of jacks 212
switch bank 3|F. Relays 82FR, 83FR, 84FR,
are connected to conductors Y223, 221 and 228, re 10 BSFR, |3|FR and |25Fl=|l are similarly connected
spectively, in Fig. >6. The lower or ground ter
between the conductors 82V, 83V, 84V, 85V,> |'3|V
minal of Stepping magnet 82 is connected to con
and |25V, respectively, and the brushes associ
ductor 225 which extends into Fig. 6. Similarly,
ated with stepping switch banks 82F, 83F, 84F,
85F, |31F and |2515?, respectively. Each of these
the ring `contact of the uppermost jack 213, the
Ysleeve contactrof the middle jack 213 and the 15 relays has a single armature and front contact.
The front contact of relay 8|FR is connected to
tip contact of the lower jack 2|,3 are connected
one terminal of lamp 25|, the other terminal of
to conductors 23|, 232 and 233, respectively, in
Fig. l6. The ground terminal of stepping magnet
which is connected to ground. From the arma
ture of relay 8|FR a vseries or chain circuit, open
83 is connected to conductor 234 which extends
into Fig. 6.
20 at the armature and front contact of each of the
other. relays, extends through to the front con
Ten manually operable keys 231 are associated
tact of relay |25FR which is connected to
with the conductors 219, 22|, 222, 223, 225, 226,
grounded battery. The last contact in stepping
221, 228, 23|, 232, 233 and 234 in Fig. 6. Each
of the keys 231 has three pairs of normally o'pen
switch bank |25F is connected to the ground side
contacts. Considering ñrst the lower pairs of 25 of stepping magnet 125 and no other contact in
that bank has any connection.
'
contacts, one contact of each pair is connected
For the purpose of describing the operation of
to conductor 219 and the other contact of each
contact of the upper, sleeve contact of the mid
pair is connected to one of the three lconductors
22|, 222 and 223.
In the specific arrangement
shown in Fig. 6 four of the other contact springs
are connected to conductor 22|, three are con
nected to conductor 222 and three are connected
to `conductor 223. Of the middle pairs of con
tacts one contact of each pair is connected to
conductor 225 and the other contact of each pair
is connected to one of the conductors 226, 221
and 228. Of the upper pairs of contacts, one con
tact of each pair is connected to conductor 234
and the other contact of each of the pairs is con
nected to one of the conductors 231,232 and
233.
A second set of ten keys 238 is similarly asso
ciated with twelve conductors, nine of which ex
tend from contacts of jacks 21d, 215 and 2|5 and
the remaining three of which extend from the
ground terminals of stepping magnets 84, 85 and
|3|. The connections from the contact pairs of
keys 238 to the twelve conductors with which
the keys are associated have been shown as cor
responding to the connections from the con
tacts of keys 231 to the twelve conductors with
which they are associated. It is necessary that
the connections be alike only as regards the three
establishing starting points for the stepping
switches, several assumptions will be made. It
«
will be assumed that patching cords are connect
ed from Athe three jacks 21| to theV uppermost
three of the jacks 28|, that patching cords are
connected from the jacks 212, to the middle three
of the jacks 232, which would be'the third, fourth
and fifth of those jacks counting from the top
and that patching cords are connected from jacks
213 to the lower three jacks of the group 203.
Patching cords will also be connected from the
jacks 2|4, 2|5 and 216 to three jacks in each of
40 the sets 264, 205 and 206 but the conductive paths
established thereby will not be Vtraced in detail
since the mode of operation will be fully exem
pliiied by the description relative Vto the jacks for
which specific connections have been assumed.
It will also be assumed that the extreme left-hand
one of the keys 231 is operated, these being lock
ing keys, and that some one of the keys 238 is
operated.
A control circuit may now be traced from the
50 lower or ground terminal of stepping magnet
8| over conductor 2|8 through the lower pair of
contacts of key 231, now closed, conductor 22| t0
the ring contact of the uppermost one of the jacks
conductors extending from the ground terminals
21|, through the patching cord assumed to be
of stepping magnets 84, 85 and |31 but as to the 55 connected from the uppermost jack 21| t0 the
connections to the conductors extending from the
uppermost jack 28| and through the ring con
jacks 2|4, 215 and 2|6 the arrangement may be
tact of the last-mentioned jack to the twentieth
diñ‘erent and in actual practice would probably
contact of bank 8|F, assuming that the tip con
tact of the uppermost jack 28| is connected to
be different. It should be noted also that the
recitation of connections from conductors 22 | , 222, 60 the twenty-ñrst contact of bank 81F and the
sleeve contact of the lowermost one of jacks 20|
223, 228, 221, 228, 23|, 232 and 233 to specific con
tacts of jacks 21|, 2l2 and 2|3 is solely by way
is connected to the No. 1 contact of bank BIF,
of example in order to enable circuits to be traced
the other contacts of the jack 28| being connect
over which the keys 231 eiîect a control, and
ed in order from bottom to top around the step
that in practice the connections between any 65 ping switch bank 8|F in the direction of rota
tion of the brush as indicated. Since the brush
one set of conductors, such as the conductors 22 I ,
associated with stepping switch bank 8 IF is prob
222 and 223, and the contacts of the jacks to
which they are connected, in this case the jacks
ably not engaging contact No. 20 at this time, no
21|, may be transposed.
circuit will be completed over this path as a di
As shown in Fig. 6, a normally open key 24| 70 rect result of ¿the operation »of the Aextreme left
has one contact connected to ground and the
hand key 231.
other «contact connected to one terminal of a re
A second conductive path may be traced from
lay 242, the other terminal of which is connected
the ground terminal of stepping switch 82 over
to grounded battery. Relay 242 has seven arma
conductor 225 through the middle pair of closed
tures all connected to ground and seven .front 75 contacts of the left-hand key 231 to conductor
2,405,570
25
.
228 which, as previously stated, is connected to
26
and I 3IFR so that the stepping switch brushes
are arrested and the circuit of lamp 25| is fur
ther prepared for completion. The brushes con
trolled by stepping magnet |25 advance until
they reach the last contact whereupon a sub
stitute energizing circuit for stepping magnet I 25
is completed to the last contact and brush of
bank l25F' in shunt relation to the interrupter
contacts and including the winding of relay I25FR.
which becomes energized. Thus the brushes con
trolled by stepping switch I25 are invariably
stopped on their last contacts.
The order in which the several sets of stepping
switch brushes will be stopped and the relays
8IFR to 85FR, I3IFR and I25FR become ener
gized will depend upon the distance the brushes
must travel from the random positions which
they occupied before key 24| was closed to the
positions at which they complete substitute en
ergizing circuits for their stepping magnets.
When the last of the relays has been energized
the circuit of lamp 25I will be completed and the
the tip contact of the lowermost jack of group
2I2. The path is extended over the patching cord
which is connected to the lifth jack in group
202 and as the tip contact of this jack is the
ninth jack contact counting from the bottom,
it is assumed that the path extends to the No. 9
contact of stepping switch bank 82E'.
A third conductive path is traced from the
ground terminal of stepping switch 83 over con
ductor 234 through the uppermost pair of con
tacts of the left-hand key 231 to conductor 233
to which the tip contact of the lowermost jack
in group 2I3 is connected. The patching cord
extends to the lowermost jack in group 203 and
the path is extended over the tip contact of this
jack to the No. 3 contact of stepping switch bank
83E since the tip Contact 0f the lowermost jack
is the third contact counting from the bottom.
The particular one of the keys 238 which has
been operated completes similar conductive paths
from the ground terminals of stepping magnets
86, 85 and I3I to a contact in each of the step
lamp will be lighted.
ping switch banks 841“, 85E’ and ISEF.
tion that the brushes have reached rest positions
as selectively determined by the operated ones of
the keys 231 and 238, whereupon key 24| may be
released to permit the release of relay 262. Re
When
one key in each group in Fig. 6 has been oper- i
ated, the advancement of the stepping switch
brushes to their start positions as selectively de
termined by the particular ones of the keys that
are operated` and by the arrangement of the
patching cord is initiated by the operation of key
24H which completes the energizing circuit for
relay 242, and which must be held while the
brushes are being advanced. Ground is applied
This serves as an indica
lay 244 upon release removes the ground connec
through the armatures and front contacts of re- . ,
tions from the energizing circuits of the stepping
magnets and of the lamp controlling relays so
that the magnets and relays release, the magnets
advancing the stepping switch brushes one step
on the release stroke. This advances the step
ping switch brushes to the next step beyond the
lay 242 and over the conductors BIV to 35V, I3IV 35 one at which they were arrested and in the case
of the brushes controlled by stepping magnet
and £25V, to energize the several stepping mag
I25F the brushes are brought into engagement
nets through their interrupter contacts. As each
with the No. 1 contact as the starting point.
stepping magnet is energized, it opens the inter
From the standpoint of operating routines, the
rupter contact to open its own energizing cir
cuit thus permitting the stepping magnet to ad -io changing of connections where there is provision
for such changes may be made once each day,
vance its associated brushes and to release its
such as upon the starting of the day’s business
interrupter armature which recompletes the en
in the morning, or more frequently if it is
ergizing circuit so that the stepping switch
thought that greater assurance of secrecy is
brushes are advanced by buzzer operation of their
needed. Such changes may involve changing
stepping magnets. Assuming that the brush as
the locations ot plugs such as the plugs SICP,
sociated with bank BIF is the first to reach the
85DP and 85EP through which connections from
contact to which a conductive path has been ex
the stepping switch banks to the cipher coding
tended by the left-hand key 231, namely, the
relays are established, substitution of other plugs
contact No. 20 of that bank, a circuit may be l
traced from grounded battery through the wind 50 for the plugs I I9 and I5I in Fig. 4, and in con
nection with the establishment 0f new starting
ing of stepping magnet 8l over conductors 2I9,
points for the stepping switches7 the rearrange
lower contact of the left-hand key 231, conduc
ment of the patching cords with reference to
tor 22I, ring contact of the uppermost jack of
group 2H, patching cord, ring contact of the Y, the jacks shown in Figs,'5 and 6. New starting
points for the stepping switches may be estab
uppermost jack in group 21H, contact No. 20 and '
brush of stepping switch bank 8IF, winding of
relay SIFR, conductor BI V and front contact and
armature of relay 242 to ground. Over this cir
cuit the winding of relay BIFR is placed in se
ries with the winding of stepping magnet 8| in
shunt relation to the interrupter contacts of step
lished as frequently as is desired under the con
trol of the keys 231 and 238 and must be estab
lished before intercommunication can be had in
cipher between any two stations where a sys
V150 tern involves a plurality of stations of thetype
shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, any two of which
ping magnet 8I so that the energizing circuit for
stepping magnet 8| is not interrupted as a result
.may be interconnected through a central switch
of the opening of the interrupter contacts and
terconnected for intercommunication having
their stepping switch systems out of phase there
the brushes controlled by stepping switch 8l re
main in engagement with the No. 20 contacts of
their respective banks. The relay BIFR becoming
energized prepares the circuit of lamp 25|.
As the brush associated with each of the step
ping switch banks 82E' to BSF, and I3IF reaches
contacts to which a conductive path has been eX
tended by contacts of keys 231 or 238, substitute
Íenergizing circuits for the stepping magnets are
established in shunt relation to the interrupter
contacts and including the relays BZFR to BSFR,
ing station.
With the two stations that are in
can be no cipher transmission between them and
it is necessary t0 transmit in plain text such in
formation as will enable them to adjust their
stepping switch systems to the same starting
points. If the keys 231 and 238 have preestab
lished identifying symbols, the necessary step
ping switch phasing information may be trans
mitted in plain text without fear of its being used
by an unauthorized person to condition decipher
ing apparatus to vintercept ciphered message
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