close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2405571

код для вставки
Aug. 13, 1946.,
K. E. FITCH ETAL
2,405,571
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
"Filed Feb. 29, 1944
NM
k
.O .O
.O
4'Sheets-Shee'c l'
0
A’. E F/rcH
_ INVENTORSG A LOG/(E
BYQG
ATT
NEV
Aug. 13, 1946.
K. E. FITCH ETAL
2,405,571
CRYPTOGI‘RAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 29, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
EM»
“ fgw
A’. E. F/TCH
uvvsxvroxvs G A Lac/(E
Byw'é
ATTO NEV
Hg- 13, 1946-
K. E. FITCH ET AL
2,405,575 2
CRYPTOGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 29, 1944
lNl/ENTORS
4 Sheets'Sheet 4
K E. F/TCH
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
2,495521
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,571
CRYP'I'OGRAPHIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM
Karl E. Fitch, Summit, N. J., and George A.
Locke, Glenwood Landing, N. Y., assignors to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application February 29, 1944, Serial No. 524,452
19 Claims. (Cl. 178—22)
1
This invention relates to telegraph systems and
apparatus, and particularly to cryptographic
systems.
An object of the invention is to cipher and
decipher telegraph signaling combinations, code
element by code element, by multiple ciphering
and deciphering operations.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
2
generated by the transmitter are recorded by the
receiving printer directly under the control of the
transmitter for home record purposes and are
also repeated to the mixing relay unit and are
there ciphered. The ciphered signals are then
repeated to the line. When ciphered signals are
received over the line, the repeater detects the
reversal of the direction of transmission and exe
convertible ciphering and deciphering system
cutes a reversal of relationship with respect to
wherein single or multiple ciphering and deci 10 the line, the mixing relay unit and the receiving
phering are optionally available.
printer, in accordance with which the received
signals are repeated to the mixing relay unit, in
Another object of the invention is to provide an
which they are deciphered to derive the plain
improved form of automatically reversible re
text signals, and these signals are repeated to the
peater for associating the ciphering apparatus
with the signaling channel in accordance with the 15 receiving printer.
The mixing relay unit has associated with it two
direction of transmission.
The invention features ciphering and decipher
ing mechanism including two storage-type signal
storage-type signal generators or transmitters
which may be tape transmitters. Each storage
type signal generator has in storage a random
transmitters each having a random sequence of
key or cipher codes in storage, one or both of 20 sequence of key codes, the sequence being differ
which may be operated in accordance with the
adjustment of a switch to provide single or mul
ent for each of the two signal generators. As
each signaling impulse enters the mixing relay
tiple ciphering.
unit from the repeater by operating a relay ac
cording to the characteristics of the impulse, one
ciphering apparatus having two storage-type key 25 of the cipher signal generators generates an im
pulse and a second relay is operated under the
or cipher signal generators which are operable in
joint control of the ?rst relay and the ?rst cipher
synchronism with plain text signals to be ci
signal generator. The second relay controls a
phered or in synchronism with ciphered signals'to
third relay jointly with the other cipher signal
be deciphered, in such manner that each impulse
of the text or ciphered signal is caused to interact 30 generator as it generates a ciphering impulse.
The operative condition of the third relay repre
with an impulse produced by one of the storage
sents the resultant impulse which has been ci
type signal generators to produce a resultant
phered or deciphered in multiple, and this im
impulse which in turn is caused to interact with
pulse reenters the repeater and is repeated to the
an impulse produced ‘by the other storage-type
signal generator to produce a further resultant 35 line or to the receiving printer, depending on the
origin of the impulse which entered the cipher or
impulse which is the ciphered impulse in the case
mixing relay unit.
of ciphering plain text signals or is the plain text
The mixing relay unit is provided with a manu
impulse in the case of deciphering signals re
The invention also features ciphering and de
ally operable key for establishing either of the
ceived in cipher.
In the preferred embodiment of the invention, 40 two operative conditions. When the key is in one
condition the operation of the mixing relay unit
a telegraph station is provided with a telegraph
is as outlined in the preceding paragraph, both
signal transmitter and a receiver printer sepa
of the cipher signal generators contributing to
rately connected to a repeater. Also connected‘
the ciphering or deciphering of each impulse.
to the repeater is a ciphering or mixing relay unit
and a telegraph line. The repeater is provided 45 When the key is adjusted to its other condition it
disables one of the cipher signal generators, leav
with a manually operable key for establishing
ing only one operative. Under these circum
either of two operative conditions of the repeater.
stances the signals to be ciphered or deciphered
With the switching key in one condition the re
are repeated into the mixing relay unit to oper
peater is arranged to repeat signals generated by
the transmitter directly to the line, and to repeat 50 ate a ?rst relay which jointly with the operative
one of the cipher signal generators controls a
signals received over the line directly to the re
ceiving printer. The mixing relay unit is by
second relay. The condition of the second relay
passed and is held inoperative, and this is the
as thus controlled represents a singly ciphered or
plain text transmitting and receiving condition.
In the other condition of the switching key signals
deciphered impulse which reenters the repeater
and is repeated to the line or to the receiving
2,405,571
3
4
printer in accordance with the direction of trans
mission.
Any two or more stations equipped as outlined
above may be associated with a channel for in
tercommunication either in plain text or in sin
gle or multiple cipher. The two cipheringtapes
at each station must have identical sequences of
transmitter and receiving printer included in
teletypewriter set H are connected to a reversing
repeater M which is an improvement on the re~
versing repeater shown in the patent concur-'
rently granted on copending application, Serial
No. 435,178, ?led March 18, 1942, by K, E. Fitch
The relation of the repeater M to tape
transmitter l3 and to the teletypewriter set I!
is that the repeater is arranged to receive plain
so that like key codes control the cipher signal
generators for the eiphering and deciphering of 10 text signals from either of the transmitters and
.to repeat plain text signals into the receiving
any transmitted and received, signal code. The
. et al.
key codes and these must bekept in'synchronism
operation of the system is start-stop, so that the
printer. A communication line it extends from
repeater it to a remote station ll which may
key code sequences are kept in step automatically;
have equipment identical with that at the station
During message transmission all participating
stations must be operated alike in the matter of 15 here being’ described.
A mixing relay unit 5% is connected to their
single or multiple ciphering. This may be speci
repeater ill and has‘ associated with it two cipher
?ed or agreed upon, as wellas the starting point
code. transmitter distributors it and ‘it. Each
of the cipher code transmitter distributors is pro
vided with a supply of perforated tape 22 and 23,
ning cipher communication.
20
respectively, having a, random sequence of cipher
For a complete understanding of the invention
ing codes perforated in it for controlling the gen
reference may be had to the following detailed
eration of ciphering codes. The mixingrrelay
description, to be interpreted in the light of the
unit I8 is arranged to receive signals from re
accompanying drawings wherein:
peater it‘, plain text signals when the repeater
Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of plain’
text transmitting and receiving apparatus at a 25 ,is repeating signals from tape transmitter dis
tributor 13 or the keyboard transmitter contained
telegraph station;
in one or both of the key code sequences, by inter~
communication in plain text form prior to begin
Fig. 2 is a schematic representation of a re
versible repeater according to the present inven
tion;~
~ Fig. 3 is a schematic representation of a mixing’
in set I i , and ciphered signals when the repeater
is receiving such signals from line it. In co
operation with cipher signal generators i9 and 2|
the mixing relay unit ciphers or deciphers the
signals which it receives from repeater l4 and
returns the resultant signals to the repeater
where they are repeated to line it or the receiv
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view showing 'how
Figs. 1, 2 and 3 are to be arranged‘ to exemplify 35 ing printer in set I l, in the case of performance
of ciphering or deciphering operations respec
a complete cryptographic telegraph system;
relay unit combined with multiple‘ cipher signal
generators according to‘ the present invention;
> Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic View in block form
tively.
‘
Referring now to Fig. 1 the reference numeral
showing the relationship among the principal
26 designates a selector mag-net which may be
elements of a complete wire telegraph cipher syse
interpreted as representing the receiving printer
tern; and
40
of teletypewriter set ll. Its terminals are con
~ Fig. 6 'is- a diagrammatic 'view in block form
nected to conductors 2i and 28 which extend into
showing the relationship among the principal
repeater I4 shown in Fig. 2 where they are con
elements of a' complete cipher“ system when
nected respectively to the marking contact of
adapted to radio transmission;
> .
Referring ?rst to Fig. 5 the’ reference numeral‘ 45 a biased polarrelay- 29 and- to the positive ter
minal of battery 3| which has its negative ter
ljl represents a teletypewriter set which may come
minal grounded. The keyboard transmitter, rep
prise a receiving printer, a keyboard operated
resented by transmitting contacts 32 in Fig. 1,
tape perforator, and a, keyboard‘ operated- trans
mitter. A set which combines these units is dis
closed in Patent 1,965,572, granted July 10, 1934,
to C. W. Burcky et al. The receiving printer unit
which is contemplated in the Burckey et' a1. pat
ent'is disclosed‘ in full detail‘ in Patent 1,904,164,
granted April 18, 1933, to S. Morton et a1. Under
some circumstances it may be desirable to use a‘
teletypewriter set comprising only a receiving‘
printer and a keyboard transmitter andv to em
ploy a separate keyboard‘ perforator.
In that
event the transmitting and receiving‘ teletype
has one terminal connected to conductor 33
which extends into Fig. 2 and is connected to the
negative terminal of battery 34 which has its
positive terminal grounded. The other terminal
of transmitter 32 is connected to the continuous
or collector ring of tape transmitter l2 by con
ductor 38'. The stop segment and the ?ve trans
fer contact tongues of transmitter distributor IS
are connected to conductor 37 which extends
into Fig. 2 and is connected through conductor
38 and the operating winding of biased polar
relay 39 to-the positive terminal of battery 4!
writer‘ set maybe of the type shown in the Mor
ton et al. patent and the keyboard perforator may
be of the type shown in Patent 1,182,179; granted
May. 9, 191:6, to C. L. Krum et al. The disclosures
of the aforementioned patents are incorporated
herein by reference as part of the present speci 65
which has its negative terminal grounded, and
are. also connected through conductor 432 to the
?xed contact engageable by‘ the movable front
contact of armature 5 of a relay 43. The front
contact is connected by conductor lit to the
?cation.
armature of relay 29.
The perforator associated with teletypewriter
g
1
The conductive paths thus far traced comprise
a pair of parallel circuits beginning at the nega
set M delivers perforated tape I2- which feeds
tiveterminal of battery 34 and extending through
through and controls a tape transmitter distrib
utor 63. This transmitter may be of the type 70 conductorSS, transmitting contacts 32, conductor
shown in Patent 2,055,567, granted September
29, 1936, to E. F. Watson, and the disclosure of
this patent is incorporated herein- by reference as
3%, continuous ring, interconnected brushes and
stop segment of transmitter distributor 13, con
ductor 37-, and then paralleling through con
ductor 38, winding of relay 39, to positive battery
part of the present speci?cation.
_
~ The tape transmitter i3’ and- the keyboard 75 4| and through conductor I82, ?xed and front con
2,405,571
tacts of armature 5 of relay 43, conductor 44,
armature and marking contact of relay 29, con
ductor 21, winding of selector magnet 26 in tele
typewriter set I | and conductor 28 to positive bat
tery 3|. The selector magnet 26 and the operat
ing winding of relay 39 are held energized, which
is the marking condition. Upon the interruption
of the common portion of these parallel paths,
The armature of relay 39 (Fig. 2) which re
ceives signals from keyboard transmitter 32 of
teletypewriter set II or tape transmitter dis
tributor I3 and repeats such signals onwardly, is
connected to the armature 2 of relay 43 and to ar
mature 3 of a relay 8|. These relays control plain
text or cipher operation, respectively, and are al
ternatively energizable under the control of a
manually operable key 82 the controlling element
either at the transmitting contacts 32 or at the
segments of transmitter distributor l3, selector 10 of which is movable rightwardly or leftwardly
from a central or neutral position. Neither the
magnet 26 and the operating winding of relay 39
armature 2 of relay 43 nor the armature 3 of re
will be deenergized. Thus the selector magnet 26
follows signals generated by keyboard transmitter
lay 8| has a back contact so that with the relays
33 and 8| released the conductive paths from the
ord, and relay 39 which has negative battery 48 15 armature of relay 39 terminate at these armatures
and the operation of relay 39 under the control
connected to one of the terminals of its biasing
of keyboard transmitter 32 or tape transmitter
winding and positive battery on its other terminal
distributor I3 will not a?ect any other part of
through conductor 41 and the biasing winding of
the repeater.
biased polar relay 48 to positive battery 49, also
Key 82 when in its central or neutral condition
follows signals generated by either of the trans 20
provides for local testing or practice operation
mitters for the purpose of repeating such signals.
of a station. With the key in this condition
It will be apparent that the circuit of selector
neither of the relays 43 and BI is operated and
magnet v26 is interruptable not only by transmit
selector magnet 26 of teletypewriter set [I is di
ting contacts 32 and tape transmitter distributor
rectly controllable from keyboard transmitter 32
|3 but also by the armature of relay 29, so that
or tape transmitter distributor I3 in a circuit from
relay 29 serves to repeat signals to the printer in
negative battery 34 over conductor 33, the key
teletypewriter set Il.
Brush arm 5| of tape transmitter distributor I |
board and tape transmitters, conductor 31, con
32 or tape transmitter I3 to produce a home rec
is carried by a shaft 52 which is driven by motor
53 through friction clutch 54 and gears 53 and
51. A stop cam 53 is secured to shaft 52 and is
held against rotation, to hold the brushes on the
stop segment, by stop lever 59 when stop magnet
6|, for which lever 59 serves as armature, is de
energized. One terminal of magnet BI is con
nected to conductor 32 which extends into Fig. 2.
The other terminal of magnet BI is connected to
one terminal of a manually operable switch 63.
The other terminal of switch 63 is connected to
ductor 42, ?xed contact and movable front con
tact associated with armature 5 of relay 43, con
ductor 44, armature and marking contact of re
lay 28, conductor 27, selector magnet 26, con
ductor 28 to positive battery 3|. Relay 39 will
follow signals generated by the keyboard or tape
transmitter but will not repeat these signals be
cause the conductive path from its armature is
open at the armature 2 and front contact of re
lay 43 and at the armature 3 and front contact of
relay 8|. Thus the signals generated by either
one terminal of taut tape switch B4, the other 40 of the transmitters will not be repeated to line I6.
terminal of which is connected to conductor 65
Should a break signal be received over line I8
extending into Fig. 2.
while a local testing operation is in progress relay
'5 will not be released because it is held energized
directly from battery 33 over conductor 84, the
two sets of normally closed contacts of key 82,
connected in series, conductors 85 and 8'! and
winding of relay 6'! to battery 89. Were it not for
the provision of this direct energizing circuit for
relay 6? in the local test condition relay 31 could
be released under the control of a break signal to
disable the keyboard transmitter 32 and tape
transmitter distributor I3 and thus interfere with
Conductor 62 is connected in Fig. 2 to armature
1 of a normally energized break detecting relay
31, the front contact of which is connected
through the normally closed contacts of a break
release key 68 to conductor 69 which extends into
Fig. 1. In Fig. 1 conductor 69 is connected to one
contact spring of a key ‘II, the other spring of
which is connected by conductor 12 extending
into Fig. 2 to the positive terminal of battery 73
which has its negative terminal grounded. Key
TI is a manually controllable key, and as dis
closed in the Burcky et al. patent is closed when
the keyboard mechanism of teletypewriter set N
is being operated to perforate tape. If signals are
to be transmitted from contacts 32 while tape is
the local testing operation.
In order to condition the repeater for the
transmission of plain text or unciphered signals
key 82 is operated to the left or text position
to close the normally open contacts and to open
the normally closed contacts. The normally
being perforated, manually operable contacts 75
closed contacts are included in a conductive path
which are closable to shunt contacts 32 are left
from the positive terminal of battery 83, the
open and switch 63 should be left open to prevent
negative terminal of which is grounded, through
operation of transmitter distributor I3. Perfora
conductor 84, the left-hand and right-hand nor
tion of tape without transmission of signals from
mally closed contacts of key 82 in series, con
the tape and without transmission from contacts
ductors 86 and 81 and winding of break detecting
32 may be accomplished by leaving switch 63
relay 61 to the negative terminal of battery 89,
open and closing key 75. With switch 63 closed,
the positive terminal of which is grounded. The
key ‘N closed, break relay 61 energized and the
conductive path which has been interrupted is the
break release key 68 normal, the circuit of stop
energizing circuit for relay 61 but a holding cir
magnet SI of tape transmitter I3 will be energized
cuit is traced from the winding of the relay
and stop cam 58 will be released for rotation. The
circuit of magnet 6| is completed through con 70 through the front contact and armature 6 of the
relay, conductor 9|, conductor 92, marking con
ductor 36 to the negative terminal of battery 14 in
tact and armature of break relay 48 and the con
Fig. 2. The terminals of motor 53 of tape trans
ductor 33 to battery 83. Thus break detecting
mitter distributor i3 and of motor 13 of teletype
relay 6'! remains energized and is releasable under
writer set II are connectable through a manual
75 the control of break relay 48 upon operation of
ly operable switch Ti to source of power 18.
2,405,571‘
7
that relay to spacing. However, relay 61 has a
ductor H1 previously identi?ed, through con
ductor I28 and the operating winding of relay
slow-release characteristic and it is necessary for
break relay 43 to operate to and remain in spacing
H9 to the potential divider connected on the
condition for an interval exceeding any spacing
opposite side of that winding. Thus a negative
intervals normally occurring during signal trans
battery, connection supplied over conductor II'I
mission. It will be apparent that when key 82
from the armature and the marking contact of
is in the neutral position, relay 61 is not releasable
either of the relays I2I and I24 is removed from
in response to operation of break relay 49 to spac
the operating winding of relay I I6 but the mark
ing because it is held energized over conductor 84
ing contact of relay 39 is connected by conductor
and through the break contacts on both sides of 10 I39 to the armature 4 of relay 43 which receives
key 82.
battery connection at its front contact from the
negative terminal of battery I31, the positive ter
At the left-hand make contacts of key 32 a
circuit is completed from the positive terminal of
minal of which is grounded. Thus the direction
battery 94 through the left-hand make contacts
of current through the operating winding of re
lay I It remains unchanged and the armature of
of key 82, conductors 96 and 91, back'contact and
the relay is held on its marking contact.
armature 2 of relay 8|, conductor 93, winding of
relay 43 and conductor 39 to the negative terminal
At the back contact associated with armature
of battery IUI, the positive terminal of which is
4 of relay 43 a connection from the armature
grounded. Relay 43 becomes energized over this
of relay I09 to the marking contact of relay 39
circuit and attracts its seven armatures. Arma 20 is interrupted but there has been no previous
ture I of relay 43 completes a circuit from a po
conductive circuit through this path because,~as
tential divider comprising positive and negative
previously stated, the conductive path from the
batteries I32 and I03 and resistors I94 and I35
armature of relay 39 terminated at armature 2
through the operating winding of relay 29, con
of relay 43 and armature 3 of relay 8| which have
ductor I06, armature I and front contact of relay 25 no back contacts.
Armature 3 of relay 43 disengages from its back
43, conductors I31 and I98 and armature and
marking contact of relay I99 to the negative ter
contact, interrupting a circuit from the negative
terminal of battery I38 through the marking con
minal of battery III, the positive terminal of
which is grounded. The operating winding of re
tact and armature of relay I39, conductor I4I,
lay I09 is included in a loop circuit which ter
back contact and armature 3 of relay 43, con
ductor I42, and biasing winding of relay I09 to a
minates line It and which includes break key I I2,
potential divider comprising negative and posi
armature and normal contact of relay H3‘, con
ductor II4, armature and marking contact of
tive terminals of batteries I43‘ and I44, respec
relay IIB, operating winding of relay I39, operat
tively, and resistors I46 and I41. At the front
ing winding of break relay 48 to the other side of 35 contact of armature 3 a direct connection from
line It. The function of relay I99 is to receive
battery I38 is substituted for the connection
its signals from line I8 and to repeat them left
through the marking contact and armature of
wardly through the repeater, and the function of
relay 139 so that the circuit of the biasing wind
relay I I6 is to impress signals on line I3. Previous
ing of relay I99 cannot be interrupted nor the
to the energization of relay 43 the circuit of the
direction of current therethrough reversed while
relay 43 remains energized.
operating winding of relay 29 was extended
through the back contact of armature I and
Armature 5 of relay 43 establishes a conduc
through conductor I I1 extending into Fig. 3, con
tive path from the negative terminal of battery 34
tacts 3 and 4 of key H8 if the key is in the nor
through conductor I48 and conductor I49, arma
mal condition, conductor H9, and armature and 45 ture 5 and front contact of relay 43 and conduc
marking contact of relay I2I to 'the negative
tor 44 to the armature of relay 29. At the ?xed
terminal of battery I22, the positive terminal of
contact associated with the front contact of 'ar
which is connected to ground, or if key I I3 should
mature 5 in make-before-break manner a con
have been in the off-normal position, through
ductive path is interrupted from the armature
contacts 6 and 1, conductor I 23 and the armature 50 of relay 29 through conductor 44, to conductor 42
and marking contact of relay I24 to the negative
which is in one of the parallel paths controlled
terminal of battery I26, the positive terminal of
by transmitters I3 and 32. The effect of this is
which is connected to ground. In any case the
to remove printer 26 of teletypewriter set II from
battery connection applied to conductor I96
direct control by keyboard transmitter 32 or tape
through the armature I of relay 43 is of the same 55 transmitter distributor I3 and to place it under
polarity when relay 43 is energized and the con
the exclusive control of relay 29. The manner
nection is received from battery I I I as it is when
in which printer 26 is operated under the control
relay 43 is deenergized and the battery connec
of relay 29 to make a home record of message
tion is received from battery I22 or I23, it being
signals generated by keyboard transmitter 32 or
assumed thatthe relays I39, IZ-I and I24 are ‘on 60 tape transmitter distributor I3 will be described
their marking contacts, so that the direction of
later.
current flow through the operating winding of re
Armature B of relay 43 has only a back contact
lay 29 is not changed as relay (43 becomes ener
and interrupts a conductive path from battery
gized, and the armature of relay 29 remains on
Iili through conductor I5I, front contact and
65 armature 2 of break detecting relay 61, conduc
its marking contacts.
Armature 2 of relay 43 extends a conductive
tor I32, back contact and armature 6 of relay
path from the armature of relay 39 through con
43, conductor I53, winding of relay 8|, con-ductor
ductor I21, armature 2 and make-before-break
I34 to the right-hand make contacts of key 82.
front contact of relay 43, conductor I28 and oper- ‘
Relay 43 thus precludes the operation of relay 8|,
ating winding of relay iii; to a potential divider 70 which is desirable, since it would be inconsistent
comprising batteries I3I and I32 and resistors I33
for both relays to be operated, because relay 43
and I34. In completing this path the armature
arranges the repeater for plain text transmission
2 interrupts a conductive path through the ?xed
and relay 3i arranges the repeater for cipher
contact and the make-before-Joreak front contact
transmission. Armature 1 of relay 43 completes
associated with armature .2. of relay 43‘ from con 75 a circuit from the positive terminal of battery
2,405,571
9
10
I56 through conductor I 61, armature 1 and front
relay I61 is connected in series with the operat
ing winding of relay II6 when relay 39 is oper
ated to spacing and the second winding of relay
contact of relay 43, conductor I68 and lamp I59
to the negative terminal of battery I6I. Lamp
I59 lights and serves as an indication that re
peater I4 is in the condition for plain text trans
mission to and fro between the station shown in
Fig. l and line I6.
When keyboard transmitter 32 or tape trans
mitter distributor I3 is operated it interrupts, in
accordance with start-stop permutation code sig 1.0
nals, the circuit from battery 34, through conduc
tors 33 and 31 and operating winding of relay
I61 is connected in series with the operating
winding of relay 29 when relay I09 operates to
spacing. The polarity applied to these two wind
ings of relay I61 upon completion of their ener
gizing circuits, is such that the upper winding
seeks to drive the armature to the right-hand
contact and the second winding seeks to drive the
armature to the left-hand contact. The circuit
of the third winding of relay I61, which is a
locking winding, extends from the positive ter
39 to battery 4|. In response to each spacing
minal of battery I66 through the lower winding,
pulse generated by either of the transmitters, re
lay 39 operates its armature to the spacing con 15 conductor I12 and lower or biasing winding of re
lay ‘29 to the positive terminal of battery I13,
tact thereby interrupting the path from battery
the negative terminal of which is grounded'
I31 through front contact and armature 4 of
Batteries I13 and I66 are thus placed in oppo
relay 43 and the marking contact and armature
sition and no current flows through the lower
of relay 39, and completing a path from battery
winding of relay I61 or through the biasing
I66, the uppermost winding of relay I61, conduc
winding of relay I13 When signals are trans
tor I68, spacing contact and armature of relay
mitted toward line I 6, the ?rst and second wind
39, conductor I21, armature 2 and front contact
ings of relay I61 become energized substantialliy
of relay 43, conductor I28 and operating winding
simultaneously, the ?rst under the control of re
of relay II6 to the potential divider comprising
batteries I3I and I32 and resistors I33 and I34. 25 lay 39 and in series with the operating winding
Battery I66 has its negative terminal grounded
of relay H6 and the second under the control of
relay I69 and in series with the operating wind
whereas battery I31 has its positive terminal
ing of relay 209. These two windings oppose each
grounded so that the direction of current through
the operating winding of relay I I6 is reversed and
other so that the armature of relay I61 tends to
this relay operates its armature away from its 30 remain on whichever contact it is then engaging.
marking contacts, thus opening the previously
The armature of relay I61 is connected by con?
traced loop circuit terminating line I6 and im
ductor I14 to armature 4 of relay BI which at
. pressing a spacing impulse on the line I6.
Relay I09, having its operating winding in the
this time is deenergized.
Thus no circuit will be
completed through the armature and either of
35 the contacts of relay I61 regardless of which con
loop which terminates line I6, is operated to spac
ing by the current in its biasing winding when
tact the armature may engage. When signals are
the loop is opened by the operation of relay II6
being, received from line I6 the second winding
to spacing. The previously traced circuit from
of relay I 61 will become energized under the con
battery III through‘ the marking contact and
trol of relay I69 but the ?rst winding will not
armature of relay I09 and the operating winding 4.0 become energized because its circuit remains open
of relay 29 to the potential divider comprising
at the spacing contact of relay 39. The second
I batteries I02 and I03 and resistors I04 and I05 is
interrupted and a substitute circuit is extended
winding seeks to operate the armature of the re
lay to its left-hand contact and since this is the
,from the spacing contact of relay I 69, through
only winding which becomes energized alone dur
conductor Ill and the middle winding of relay 45 ing the transmission of plain text signals, the
I61 to battery I66. The polarity of battery I66
armature will probably be operated to and re
is the opposite of that of battery I I I so that cur
main on its left-hand contact. The left-hand
contact of relay I61 is connected by conductor
is reversed and the relay operates to spacing, in
I16 to the positive terminal of battery I 11 through
terrupting a previously traced circuit for the 50 the biasing winding of relay I39 and the biasing
winding of selector magnet 26 of the teletype
winding of relay H6. The right-hand contact of
writer set II in Fig. 1.
relay I61 is connected to the biasing winding of
relay 29 and to the lower winding of relay I61.
From the foregoing description of the transmis
sion of signals from keyboard transmitter 32 or
With relay 8| released, no current flows in the
tape transmitter distributor I3 it will be noted 55 biasing windings of relays 29, II6 of I61. Thus
the relays 29 and II 6 are free to follow polar
that (the signals are received by relay 39 and are
signals applied to their operating windings and
repeated by that relay to relay I I6 which in turn
the lower winding of relay I61 has no effect on
repeats the signals to line I6. At the same time
that relay.
relay I09 receives the same signals from line I6
and repeats them to relay 29 which’ in turn re 60
A break signal may -be transmitted to line I6
peats them to selector magnet 26. Thus all four
toward a remote station by operation of key H2
of the signal repeating relays participate in the
in Fig. 2 or may be received over line I6 from
transmission of signals to line I6 and in the prep
the remote station. vBreak relay 48 has its op
aration of a home record of the signals trans
erating winding included in the loop which ter
mitted. When signals are received from a re 65 minates line I6 and this relay operates to its
spacing contact in response to all spacing sig
mote station over line I6 in plain text form, 'the
nals. Upon the operation of break relay 48 away
relay I69 is operated in accordance with the re
from its marking contact the previously described
ceived signals and repeats them to relay 29 which
locking circuit for break detecting relay 61, which
in turn repeats them to selector magnet 26.
Neither of the relays 39 and II6 operates under 70 includes the armature and marking contact of
relay 48 and armature 6 and front contact of
these circumstances because keyboard transmit
relay 61, is interrupted. Relay 61 has a slow
ter 92 and tape transmitter distributor I3 should
be idle during signal reception from a. remote
release characteristic so that it will not relase
during spacing intervals normally occurring in
station.
,
vAs ‘previously set 'forth, the upper winding of 76 signal transmission._ However, when key I I2 is
rent through the operating winding of relay 29
2,405,571
11
12
opened for an interval longer than .the release
time of relay 3‘! or a correspondingly long spac
ing signal is received over line I6, relay 6‘! will
hand break contacts, closing the right-hand make
release.
contacts the energizing circuit for relay 61, which
is held energized by its locking circuit previously
At the armature I and back contact a con
ductive path is completed from the left-hand
contact of relay H3 over conductor I8I, the
contacts and opening the right-hand break con
tacts. With the closure of the left-hand break
described, is momentarily reclo'sed and is then
reopened at the right-hand break contact. Upon
speci?ed armature and contact of relay 61, and
the reopening of the left-hand make contacts the
conductor I82 to the operating winding of relay
energizing circuit for relay 43 is interrupted and
I09 and the marking contact of relay H6. The 10 this relay releases, restoring all the circuit condi
effect of this is to short-circuit the armature
tions which were described prior to the descrip_
and marking contact of relay Hi6 so that if the
tion of its energization, including the extinguish
relay should thereafter be operated in response
ment of lamp I59. ‘Upon the closure of the right
to signals generated by keyboard transmitter 32
hand make contacts the circuit is ‘completed from
or tape transmitter distributor I3 the signals will
battery 94 over these contacts, conductor I54,
not be impressed upon line I6. At the armature
winding of relay 8|, conductor I53, armature 6
2 and front contact of relay 61, battery I9I is
and back contact of relay 43. now released, con
disconnected from conductor I52 which extends
ductor I52, armature 2 and front contact of relay
to the back contact associated with armature 6
67 and conductor ISI to battery I9I. Over this
of relay 43. Since this relay is energized and
circuit relay 8| becomes energized.
>
the conductive path of armature 6 to the wind
ing of relay 8| is at this time interrupted, the
disengagement of armature 2 of relay 6'1 from
its front contact has no effect. At the armature
3 and back contact of relay I3‘! a circuit is com
.pleted from battery 34 over conductor I43, con
ductor I83, armature 3 and back contact of relay
A circuit is completed from ‘battery I59 over
conductor I9I, armature -I and front contact of
relay 8I, conductor I92, ‘lamp I93 to battery I6I.
Lamp I93 lights to indicate that the repeater is
25 in condition for cipher transmission. Armature
2 and back contact of relay 8| interrupt the ener~
gizing path fOr relay 43 so that this circuit can
61, conductor I84, and conductors 42 and 33 to
not be established. At armature 3 and the front.
the operating Winding of relay 39. This is a
contact of relay 8| a conductive path is estab
short-circuiting path around keyboard transmit 30 lished from the armature of relay 39 over con
_ter 32 and tape transmitter distributor I3 and
ductors I2‘! and I96, the speci?ed armature and
prevents the transmitters from operating relay‘
contact of relay 8|, conductor I91 extending into
39.
Fig. 3, operating winding of relay I 98 to a poten
Armature 4 of relay ‘61 completes a circuit from
tial divider comprising batteries 2ilI and 292 and
battery of one polarity through the armature
‘resistors 293 and 204. The front contact asso
and back contact and lamp I 86 to battery of
the opposite polarity which lights the lamp to
ciated with armature 3 of relay 81 has make
before-break association with a ?xed contact to
give a visual indication of the reception of the
which the negative terminal of battery I99 is con
nected. vIn the opposite direction from the arma
tablish a conductive path from battery 94 to 40 ture of relay 39 the conductive path is traced
conductor '91 in shunt with the left-hand make
through' the marking contact, conductor I 36,
contacts of key 82 but as these contacts are now
armature 4 and back contact of relay 43, conduc
closed the circuit over conductor 91, which is
tor I98 and the armature and marking contact
the energizing circuit for relay 43 is not affected
of relay I89 to negative ‘battery so that the bat~
break signal.
Armature 5 and back contact es
At armature 45 tery polarity on the operating winding of relay
I98 in Fig. 3 is ‘not changed, negative battery I! I
being substituted .for negative battery I99.
ductor 12 extending into Fig. 1, through contacts
At armature 4 and the front contact of relay
‘II, conductor 99 extending into Fig. 2, break con
‘M a conductive path is completed ‘from "the nega
50
tacts of break release key '68, armature 1 and
tive terminal of ‘battery 295 through the speci?ed
front contact of relay 8], conductor 52 extending
armaure and front contact and conductor IN
into Fig. 1, start magnet BI, manually operable
to the armature of relay I67. ‘If this armature
switch ‘63 and taut tape contacts 64 of trans
is engaging the left-hand contact as it probably
mitter distributor I3 and conductor 66 extending
"will be the path will be extended over conductor
into Fig. 2 to battery 14. The interruption of 55 I 76 and through the, biasing windings of relays
this circuit results in the release of magnet 6|,
I39 and I I6 to the positive terminal of battery I'I'I.
if that magnet had been energized, to stop tape
Current will flow in these windings to hold the
transmission.
armature of relay I39 on its marking contact and
After the break signal has terminated and
to lock relay I I6 against operation by its operat
as this relay is already energized.
‘I and front contact of relay 61 a circuit is inter
rupted which is traced from battery ‘I3 over con
transmission into line It is to be resumed the re- w 60 ing winding.
At the armature 5 and front con
tact of relay BI a conductive path is established
from the positive terminal of battery 2 I9 through
contacts‘of which, upon being closed, complete
the speci?ed front contact and armature, con
the energizing circuit for relay 5], and the break
ductor 2I5 extending into Fig. 3 and winding of
contacts of which have no effect on the apparatus '
a relay 229 to the’ negative terminal of battery
upon being opened, but upon being reclosed re
296. Relay 220 has its two armatures connected
establish the energizing circuit for transmitter
to a source of power 225 and its front} contacts
distributor start magnet SI, the circuit having 7 connected to the driving motors 207 and 299, of
been prepared for reclosure at the armature ‘l and
cipher signal generating tape transmitter dis
front contact of relay 61.
tributors I9 and 2I, respectively. This causes the
When transmission in cipher is to take place ‘
motors of both of the cipher signal transmitters
" the repeater is adjusted for this type of operation
I9 and 2 I to be started.
by moving the actuator of key 82 from its left
At armatures 6 and ‘I of relay BI which have
hand to its right-hand position, thus reopening
only back contacts, battery 2II is disconnected
the left-hand make contacts, reclosing the left_
from conductors 2I2 and 2I3. Conductor 2I2 ex
peater may be restored to normal condition by
the operation of break release key 68, the make
2,405,571
13
14
tends into Fig. 3 and is connected to the arma
ture of relay 2I4 and is also connected over con
which are separated by free or dead segments
and the last of which is separated by a free or
dead segment from a stop segment which is im
mediately adjacent the ?rst rest segment. A
conductive portion of the inner ring of the dis
tributor insulated from the remainder is coex
tensive with the stop segment. From the prin
cipal portion of the inner ring the circuit over
conductor 222 continues through the brushes of
ductor 2I6 to one terminal of the operating wind
ing of relay l24. Conductor 2 I3 extends into Fig.
3 and is connected to one terminal of the operat
ing winding of relay I2I. At the armature 8 of
relay 8I battery 2I‘I
connected over the speci
?ed armature and its front contact and conductor
2I8 extending into Fig. 3 to the right-hand con
10 the distributor, through the rest segment, conduc
tact of relay 2 I 4.
tors 22/3 and 226 and winding of start magnet 221
With relay BI operated the repeater I4 in Fig.
for distributor 223 to the negative terminal of
2 and the mixing relay circuit I3 and cipher signal
battery 228, the positive terminal of which is
generators I9 and 2| in Fig.
are arranged for
grounded. In parallel with the conductor 226
cipher signal transmission and reception. As
suming ?rst that message transmission is to pro 15 and winding of start magnet 22‘! a circuit is
traced over conductor 229 and operating wind
ceed from the station in Fig. 1 toward line l6,
ing of bias-ed‘ polar relay 23I to negative battery
keyboard transmitter 32 is operated or tape
222. Over these circuits the start magnet 22‘!
transmitter distributor I3 is set in operation by
of distributor 223 is energized to start rotation
closure of the circuit for its start magnet 3i and
plain text signals are transmitted to relay 39 20 of the disributor brushes and the armature of
relay 23I is operated to its right-hand contact.
by the selective opening and reclosing of the cir
Prior to the operation of relay 23I to its right
cuit from battery 34 over conductor 33, keyboard
hand contact a circuit is traced from positive bat
transmitter contacts 32, conductor 36, segments
tery 236 through the armature and left-hand con
of the distributor of tape transmitter-distributor
I3, conductor 3'! and operating winding of relay 25 tact of relay 22M and lower winding of relay 2I4
to negative battery 231. The lower winding is
39 to battery 4i. Relay 39 is thus caused to fol
thus energized, opposing the upper winding, which
low the signals. From the junction of conductors
seeks to drive the armature to the single right
31 and 38 a path in parallel with that through the
hand contact of the relay, and driving the arma
operating winding of relay 33 to battery 4I is
traced over conductor 42, ?xed contact and mov 30 ture away from the right-hand contact. As soon
as the armature of relay 23I leaves its left-hand
able front contact associated with armature 5
contact the circuit through the lower winding
of relay 43, which is now released, conductor 12-4,
of relay 2I4 is interrupted and its upper wind
armature and marking contact of relay 23, con
ing drives the armature to the right-hand con
ductor 2T, winding of selector magnet 26 of tele
typewriter set I I, and conductor 28 to battery 3i 35 tact. A circuit is thus completed from positive
battery 2I'I in Fig. 2 through armature B and
which has the negative terminal grounded as in
front contact of relay 8 I, conductor 2 I8, the right
the case of battery 4!. It Will be apparent 1" rom
hand contact and armature of relay 2I4 and con
this that with the repeater arranged for cipher
ductor 2I6 to the lower terminal of the oper
transmission and reception selector magnet 23 is
controlled, to produce a home record, directly by 40 ating winding of relay I24 which is also con
nected to the lower or marking contacts of cipher
keyboard transmitter 32 or tape transmitter-dis
signal generator IS. The upper or spacing con
tributor I3 and not through the agency of several
of the repeater relays including the relay I39, as
tacts are connected to the upper terminal of the
operating winding of relay I24. A potential di
is the case when plain text signals are transmitted
vider or bridge circuit comprising resistors 24I
into line I6.
When relay 39 responds to the start impulse of
and 242 is connected in parallel with the oper
ating winding of relay I24 and the mid-point
a code combination initiated by keyboard trans
of this potential divider is connected through con
mitter 32 or tape transmitter distributor I3 its
armature is operated to the spacing contact and
ductor 233 and the lower or locking winding of
a circuit is completed from the positive termi
relay I98 to a potential divider comprising bat
nal of battery I53 through the upper winding of
teries 246 and 241 and resistors 248 and I49.
relay I 3?, armature and spacing contact of re
With positive battery 2!? connected to the lower
terminal of the operating winding of relay I24
lay 39, conductors I21 and I93, armature 3 and
current divides, some flowing through resistor
front contact of relay BI , conductor I9‘! and oper
ating winding of relay I93, to the potential di 55 242, conductor 243 and the lower winding ‘of re
vider'comprising batteries 2M and 232 and re
lay !98 to the potential divider comprising re
sistors 233 and 234. The polarity which has pre
sistors 248 and 249, and the remainder ?owing
viously been applied to the winding of relay I98
through the operating winding of relay I24 and
has been negative from battery III through the
resistor 2d! and then through conductor 243 and
marking contact and armature of repeater relay 60 the lower winding of relay I98 to the potential
divider comprising resistors 248 and 239. These
I39, conductor I E18, back contact and armature
battery connections to the operating winding of
4 of relay 43, conductor I36 and the marking con
tact and armature of relay 39 so that relay I98
‘relay I 24 cause the lower terminal to be more
positive than the upper terminal and when this
operates its armature to its spacing contact.
condition exists the armature of relay I24 is
Prior to the operation of relay I93 to its spac
driven to its right-hand or spacing contact.
ing contact, battery 22I on its marking contact
Before proceeding with the description of the
was connected through the armature and over
result of the operation of the armature of relay
conductor 222 to the inner ring of the distributor
I24 to its spacing contact the effect of completion
223 of cipher signal generator I3. The inner ring
of the distributor is coextensive with three adja 70 of the travel of armature of relay 23I to its right
cent rest segments the ?rst of which the dis
hand contact will be described. When this ar
mature transit is completed positive battery 236
tributor brush engages when the distributor is
is connected over the armature and right'hand
stopped, and with ?ve code segments, the ?rst
contact of relay 23I and conductor 25I extend
of which is separated from the last rest seg
ing into Fig. 2 through the upper winding of re
‘ment by a free or dead segment, each two of
2,405,571 '
15
lay I39 to negative battery 252 and through con
‘denser 253 to positive battery 254. Prior to the
operation of relay 23I to its right-hand contact
there was no current through the upper wind
ing of relay I39 because there is no direct cur—
rent path through condenser 253 and the con
denser is charged. However, there was current
through the lower winding of relay I39 from bat
16
continuous. The stop segment is connected to
the marking contacts of the tape sensing mecha
nism associated with distributor 2559 as is also
connected the segment immediately following the
one on which the brushes rest when distributor
259 is stopped. The rest segment is connected
by conductor ZEI through start magnet 262 for
distributor 259 to negative battery 263. The ?ve
tery I" through the lower windings of relays
code segments are connected to the ?ve contact
H6 and I39, conductor I76, left-hand contact 1.0 tongues of the tape sensing mechanism. With
and armature of relay I67, conductor I'M and
positive battery 25? connected over the path
armature 4 ‘and front contact of relay 8| to bat
previously traced to ‘the inner ring of distributor
tery 285. Current in this circuit energized the
2591 the path is extended through the brushes
lower winding of relay I39 and kept the arma
of the distributor and through the rest segment
ture on the left-hand contact. When relay 39
and conductor 28:1 to start magnet 252 which
operated to spacing in response to the start sig
becomes energized and releases the brushes'of
nal .and completed the circuit of the ?rst wind
distributor 259 for rotation.
ing of relay IIS'I this relay operated its arma
As soon as the brush for distributor 259 moves
ture to the right-hand contact thus interrupt
off the rest segment and on to the next segment
ing the ?ow of current through the lower wind 20 which is the start segment the positive battery
ing of relay I 39 and also through the lower wind
, connection supplied over the spacing contact and
ing of relay I It. With no current through either
armature of relay I24 to the inner ring of dis
of the windings of relay I39 the armature should
tributor 25-9 is extended over conductor 254 to
remain on its left~hand contact. However, with
{the lower terminal of the operating winding of
relay 231 operated to its right-hand contact and
relay IN. The upper terminal is connected by
positive battery 23% connected over conductor 25l
conductor 266 to the spacing contacts of the
to the upper winding of relay I39, relay I39 is
tape sensing mechanism and the winding is
at once operated to its right-hand contact and
bridged by a potential divider comprising resis
condenser 253 discharges.
tors 261 and 258 the mid-point of which is con
A conductive path is now established from
nected to a potential divider comprising batter
positive battery 25% through the right-hand con
ies 2'“ and 212 and resistors 213 and 2M. With
tact and armature of relay I39, conductor MI,
positive battery connected to the lower terminal
of the operating winding of relay I2I current
back contact and armature 3 of relay 43, conduc
tor I42 and biasing winding of relay I29 to the
flowing through the potential divider comprising
potential divider comprising batteries I133 and~
batteries 2H and 2'I2 and resistors 213 and 214
I44 and resistors I46 and III'I. This reverses
divides, a portion ?owing through the resistor
the ‘?ow of current through the biasing winding
268 to the junction of resistors 213 and 214 and
of relay I I39 and that winding now aids the oper
the remainder ?owing through the operating
ating winding in the loop terminating line I6 so
winding of relay HI and through resistor 26'!
that even though the loop‘ is opened as at the
to the junction of resistors H3 and 214. With
armature and marking contact of relay H6, the
the lower terminal of the operating winding of
armature of relay I 29 will be held on its marking
relay I2! positive the ?ow of current is in the
contact.
direction to operate the armature to spacing,
With the armature of relay I6‘! operated to
disconnecting negative battery I22 from conduc
its right-hand contact a holding circuit is estab 45 tor H9 and substituting positive battery 216.
lished from positive battery I 66 through the lower
This positive battery connection is extended from
winding, right-hand contact and armature of the
conductor H9 through contacts 3 and 4 of key
relay, conductor I'M and armature A and front
- I I8, conductor II'I, back contact and armature I
contact of relay Iii to negative battery 225. The
of relay 43, conductor Hit and operating wind
armature is thus positively’ held on its right
.ing of relay 29 to the potential divider compris
, hand contact.
A circuit in parallel with the
ing batteries I92 and H23» and resistors I04 and
lower winding of relay I61 and battery I85 is com
I95 and in parallel therewith through the makepleted over conductor H2 and the biasing wind
before-break contacts associated with armature 2
ing of relay 29 to positive battery I13. The bias
of relay ‘I3, conductor I28 and winding of relay
ing winding when thus energized in?uences the 55 H6 to the potential divider comprising batteries
armature oi the relay toward the marking con
I3I and I32 and resistors I33 and I34. The bat
tact and prevents the armature from leaving that
tery connection Supplied over these paths seeks
contact even though the direction of current in
to operate the relays 29 and H6 to spacing. Re
the operating winding should be reversed.
lay 29 is now locked in the marking condition
Returning to consideration of the mixing relay 60 under the control of relay IIi'I as previously stated
circuit in Fig. 3, with the armature of relay I24
so that it cannot respond to this spacing condi
operated to its spacing contact in response to
tion. The circuit of the biasing winding of relay
the start pulse repeated by relay 39 as herein
H6 is opened at the left-hand contact of relay
beiore described, positive battery 251 is connected
. I61 as previously stated so that relay I I6 is oper
over the spacing contact and armature of relay 65 ated to spacing thus opening the loop circuit
I24, conductor I23, contacts 5 and I5 of switch
'which terminates line It and transmitting the
H8‘ and conductor 258 to the inner ring of dis
start pulse of spacing nature to the line. Since
tributor 259 in cipher signal generator 2!. This
the operating winding of relay I99 is in the loop
distributor may have the same arrangement of
circuit which terminates line It this winding be
segments as distributor 223 but they are ‘con
I comes deenergized but the relay is not operated
nected somewhat di?erently. Thus the short
segment in the inner ring which is coextensive
with the stop segment in the outer ring is con
to spacing because the biasing winding holds
the armature to marking under the control of
nected to conductor 258 as is the remainder of
“relay I39 which now has its armature operated
to the right-hand contact as previously stated.
the inner ring so that the inner ring is, in e?ect,
It will be :noted that the armature of relay
2,405,571
17
18
I24 in Fig. 3 is connected through the biasing
current for condenser 253 has decreased to a suf
?ciently low value that a biasing spring 285 is
able to return the armature of relay I39 to its
winding of that relay to a potential divider com
prising batteries 28l and 282 and resistors 293
and 284. The current ?owing through the bias
ing winding when the armature is on the mark
left-hand contact.
By means of the condenser
Ch charging circuit including the operating winding
of relay I39 and the mechanical restoration spring
285, relay I 39 holds relay I99 locked against re
sponse to interruption of current through its op
erating winding and restores it to signal respon
sive condition at the end of a transmitted code
combination.
other contact, but the operating winding when
With the armature of relay 23I restored to its
it seeks to operate the armature to the other con
left-hand contact the circuit through the lower
tact, dominates the biasing winding and effects
or operating winding of relay 2I4 is reestablished
movement of the armature to the other contact.
Similarly one terminal of the biasing winding of 15 and the armature is moved away from the right
hand contact. Positive batery 2I'I on armature
relay I2I is connected to the armature and the
8 of relay 8! in Fig. 2 is thus disconnected from
other terminal is connected to a potential divider
the lower terminal of the operating winding of
comprising batteries 296 and 28'! and resistors
relay I29. It was the establishment of this con
288 and 289. The biasing circuit for relay I98 is
similar to that for relays I29 and I2I. Negative 20 nection of positive battery to the lower terminal
of the operating winding of relay I24 which
battery 22I applied through the marking con
caused that relay to operate to spacing to initiate
tact and armature of relay I98 and over con
the operation of distributor 259 and thus the
ductor 222 and through either of the conductors
transmission of the start pulse to line I9. It is
218 and 219 and resistors 2M and 242, respec
to be noted that relay 2M was operated, to op
tively, to conductor 253, biases the armature of
erate relay I24 to spacing, under the control of
relay I99 toward the marking contacts whereas
relay 23I which was in turn operated over a cir
positive battery 27? connected over the spacing
cuit including the brushes of distributor 223 in
contact and armature of relay I98 and over the
their rest position. Thus the operation of relay
paths just described biases the armature to the
spacing contact.
30 I24 to spacing to initiate the transmission of the
start pulse does not await the actual setting in
The condition of the signal generating or re
motion of the brushes of distributor 223 which
peating relays at this time is that relay 39 is
may possibly be delayed slightly because start
operated to spacing in response to the start sig
magnet 22'! is under the necessity of operating
nal generated at the local station, relay I93 is
operated to spacing under the control of relay 35 the start lever for the distributor under the re
sistive forces of a restoring spring and of fric
39, distributor 223 is started under the control of
tional engagement of the distributor stop cam
relay I98, relay I24 is operated to spacing under
with the start lever. As previously described, re
the control of distributor 223, distributor 259 is
lay I2-4 controls the starting of distributor 259.
started under the control of relay I24, relay I2!
is operated to spacing under the control of dis 40 From‘the instant that relay I98 operates to spac
ing in response to the start pulse generated at
tributor 259, and relay H6 is operated to spacing
the local station and repeated by relay 39, there
under the control of relay I2I. From this it will
is required only the operation of relays 23I, 2I4
be apparent that the start impulse of spacing na
and I24 in succession to complete the energizing
ture is repeated in a straightforward manner
through the repeater and mixing relay circuits 415 circuit for start magnet 262 of distributor 259.
These are all polar relays and they respond very
to the line I6 and undergoes no alteration or con
quickly. Thus the energizing circuit for start
version in the ciphering apparatus.
ing or spacing contact from batteries I26 or 251,
respectively, is in the direction to hold the arma
ture on the contact which it is then engaging,
thus the current through the biasing winding al
ways opposes operation of the armature to the 10
As soon as the brushes of distributor 259 leave
magnet 262 is completed almost as soon as the
tributor 223 corresponds to the ?rst dead or in
sulated segment of distributor 259 and as the
brushes of distributor 223 leave the last rest seg
ment they interrupt the circuit over conductor
actual initiation of transmission of the start pulse
energizing circuit for start magnet 22'! and the
the start segment they interrupt the circuit of
the energizing winding of relay I2I. However, 50 two distributors may be started almost together.
The biasing circuit of relay 2H3 includes variable
this relay is held in the spacing condition by its
resistor 289 so that the time of operation of relay
biasing winding and continues to generate the
I24 to spacing and of completion of the ener
start pulse of spacing nature which relay I I6 re
gizing circuit of start magnet 292 with respect
peats to the line. The brush has two dead or in
sulated segments to cover ‘before it reaches the 55 to the time of completion of the energizing cir
cuit of start magnet 22] may be varied. The
?rst code segment. The last rest segment of dis
229 thus opening the circuit of the operating
winding of relay 23L This relay restores its
armature to the left-hand contact, thus inter
rupting the positive battery connection to the
junction of condenser 253 and the operating
winding of relay I39 in Fig. 2. Current continues
to how through the operating winding of relay I39
to charge condenser 253 and the capacitance of
to line It is controlled by distributor 259, since
relay I2I is operated to spacing when the brushes
of distributor 259 have been started and have
reached the start segment which is adjacent to
the rest segment. This is desirable since dis
tributor 259 and relay I2I which it controls are
the ?nal signal generating elements of the mixing
relay apparatus and it is preferable to have the
transmission of the start signal as well as the code
signals controlled by them rather than to have
the initiation of the start signal controlled by re
lay I24_ before distributor 259 has been started.
condenser 253 and the resistive values of re
Following the start pulse generated by the key
sistors associated with batteries 252 and 254 are 70
board transmitter 32 or tape transmitter distrib- i
such that the armature of relay I39 is held on
utor I3 in Fig. 1, the ?ve code pulses of a signal
its right-hand contacts for an interval substan
combination are transmitted and are repeated
tially equal to that required for the brushes of
by relay 39 to relay I98 in Fig. 3. Relay I98 may
distributors 223 and 259 to complete one revolu
tion. At the end of this interval the charging 76 thus present its armature in marking or spacing
2,405,5ii
,
20
l9
condition for each plain text code impulse, con
necting either negative battery 722i or positive
battery Ell over conductor 222 to the inner ring
of distributor 223. As the brushes of‘ distributor
‘zzs'traverse the ?ve code segments, the transmit
ting contact tongues connected to those segments
may be in engagement with marking or spacing
contacts depending upon the nature of the code
combination in ciphering tape 22‘ presented to
the tape sensing elements during one cycle of the
brushes of distributor 223. With relay I98 pre
sented in the marking condition and the brushes,
of distributor 2223 traversing a code segment con
nected to a transmitting contact tongue which
marking. Accordingly, a spacing condition of
relay I98 cooperating with a spacing condition in
cipher signal generator It) produces a marking
condition of relay I24. These four possible con
ditions may be summarized by saying that when
like conditions of relay I98 and cipher signal
generator I9 occur, relay I24 is placed in the
marking condition and that when opposite con
ditions occur in relay i598 and cipher signal gen
10 erator it with either in the marking condition
and the other in the spacing condition, a spacing
condition of relay I24 results. '
The marking and spacing polarities on the ar
mature of relay I24 are supplied over conductor
is engaging a marking contact, negative battery
I23, contacts 5 and '6 03 key H8, conductor 258
2M is connected over conductor 222, inner ring,
brushes and a code segment of distributor 223,
the contact tongue associated with the distrib
and inner ring of distributor 259 and code seg
ments to the contact tongues of the tape sensing
mechanism which senses ciphering' code'combi
utor code segment, marking contact of the tape
sensing mechanism, conductor 2T9, branching
nations, in tape 23. The tape sensing contact
paths comprising resistor 242 as one branch, op
erating winding of relay £24 and resistor 2M as
the other branch, conductor 2633» and biasing
winding of relay I98 to the potential divider com
tongues assume marking or‘ spacing positions in
accordance with the perforations in tape 23 and
extend the marking and spacing polarities over
conductors 26!} and 266' to. the lower and upper
terminals of the operating winding of relay IZI.
prising batteries 2'35 and 24'! and resistors 248 25 The control of relay I2! jointly by relay I24. and
and 249. The polarity applied to the junction of
the tape sensing mechanism associated with dis
resistor 2A2 and- the operating winding of relay
tributor 259 is the same as the control ofv relay
its at this time is the opposite of that applied
I24 jointly by relay I98 and the tape sensing
from battery El 1- in Fig. 2 through conductor 2I8
mechanism associated with distributor 223.
and the right-hand contact and armature of re 30 When a marking polarity from relay‘ I24 is sup
lay EI-Il for the generation of the start signal so
it follows that the armature of relay izil- will be
operated to marking. Thus a marking condition
of relay ass and a marking condition established
plied over a marking contact of the tape sensing
in the cipher signal generating transmitter dis
tributor l9 cooperates to establish a marking
condition of relay I24. When the relay I98
operated to marking. When a marking or spac
ing polarity is supplied from. relay I215. over a
spacing or marking contact respectively of the
responds to a spacing condition, battery of op
posite polarity is connected over conductor222
and. assuming again a marking condition in the
cipher signal generator IS- the circuit will be
completed over conductor 27,‘) as before, but
tape sensing mechanism, relay IZI is operated
to spacing. The resulting marking or spacing
mechanism associated with distributor 259 or a
spacing polarity is supplied over a spacing con
tact of the tape sensing mechanism relay I2I is
polarities applied to the armature of relay IZI
are supplied over conductor III), contacts 3 and
with thewreverse polarity supplied by- relay I98,
d of key H8 and conductor III to the operating
winding of relay 29, which does not follow. the
the
signals because its armature is locked on the
relay \ I26
will
be
operated
to
spac
ing. Thus a \spacing condition of relay I98
and a marking condition’ in cipher signal gen
erator i9 cooperate to produce a spacing con
dition of relay‘ I24. When the relay I98 is in the
marking condition and a spacing condition ex
ists in the cipher signal generator I9, negative
battery on the marking contact of relay I98 is
marking contact under the control of relay I51,
as previously described, and to the operating
Winding of relay Ht- which- follows the signals
and repeats them to line It‘.
7
Following the transmission of the five code im
» pulses of a ciphered code relay v39 responds to the
stop pulse of marking nature generated by the
connected through the armature, conductor 2212,
_ keyboard transmitter 32 or tape transmitter dis
continuous ring, brushes and code segment of
the distributor then being traversed by the
tributor I 3 and repeats this marking- condition
.to relay I98. At about this time the brushes of
distributor 223 pass over the stop segment and
connect negative battery 291 over- the short seg
ment in the inner ring of distributor 223, brushes
and stop segment of that distributor and conduc
tor 2179 to the lower terminal of the operating
winding of relay I24. It Will be noted that the
polarity of battery ZEH is the same as the polarity
of battery 22I on the marking contact of relay
ISlS and that it is applied over conductor 279 to
which the marking contacts of the tape sensing
mechanism are connected. It thus corresponds
to the previously described situation when a mark
ing condition of relay I93 cooperates with a mark
ing condition of cipher signal generator I9. and.
brushes, transmitting contact tongue associated
with that segment, spacing contact and corn
ductor 218, branching paths comprising resistor
MI as one path and the operating winding of
relay Hit and resistor 2&2 as the other path, and
conductor 243 to the biasing winding of relay I98.
The marking battery connection of negativepo
larity is now connected to the upper terminal
of the operating winding of relay I24 instead of
to the lower terminal, which is the opposite of
the condition first described and accordingly the
armature of relay I25 is operated to spacing. It
follows from this that when a marking condition
of relay I98 cooperates with a spacing condition
in cipher signal generator I8, relay I24 is oper
these two conditions being alike, relay I24 is op- '
ated to spacing. Finally, there is the condition 70 erated to the marking contact. The marking po
when relay I98 is on the spacing contact and
larity which is negative is supplied’ through the
cipher signal generator I9 has a spacing condi
marking contact and armature of relay I24 to
tion. The conductive path will be the same as
the inner ring of distributor 2553 and throughthe
that just traced but the polarity is reversed so
brushes and stop segment of that distributor over
that the armature of relay I24 is operated to 75 conductor 264, to which the marking contacts
2,405,571
21
of the tape sensing mechanism associated with
distributor 259 are connected, to the lower ter
minal of the operating winding of relay [2 I. This
22'
this circuit and the second winding of relay I61
overpowers the third or locking winding of relay
I01 and restores the armature of that relay to
the left-hand contact. With the armature of
relay
I61 restored to its left-hand. contact, the
ing condition of relay I24 cooperates with a mark
locking current through the biasing winding of
ing condition of cipher signal generator 2| and
relay 29 is cut o? by the disconnection of negative
the two conditions being alike relay I2I is operated
battery 205 from relay 29, leaving positive bat
to its marking contact and in turn Operates re
tery IE6 connected through the lower winding of
lay IIG in the repeater to its marking contact,
10 relay 161 in opposition to positive battery I13 on
thus transmitting the stop signal.
the biasing winding of relay 29 so that no current
In this way transmission of ciphered signals
flows and relay 29 is free to follow polar signals
to line IE will continue as long as either of the
generated by relay I21 in the mixing relay circuit.
transmitters in Fig. 1 is operated, the code im
Negative battery 205 becomes connected through
pulses of the plain text signals being ciphered
left-hand contact of‘ relay I61 and conductor
impulse by impulse by the cipher signal generator Li the
I16 through the lower winding of relay I39 and
I9 and the resulting ciphered code impulses ap
the biasing winding of relay I I6. Current in this
pearing at relay I24 being ciphered a second time
circuit locks the relay I I6 on its marking contact
impulse by impulse by the cipher signal genera
and the relay I39 on its left-hand contact so that
tor 2i and the resulting ciphered signals are im
relay H6 is prevented from following the polar
ill)
pressed on line It by relay H6. The distributors
signals generated by relay I2I and supplied over
corresponds to the situation under which a mark
223 and 259 are stopped at the end of each cycle
upon reaching their rest segments and are re
started under the control of the start pulse of
the next plain text signal. Upon completing each
cycle the distributors 223 and 259 advance their
tapes 22 and 23, respectively, to present the next
conductor I I1, the make-before-break contact as
sociated with armature 2 of relay 43, conductor
I28 and the operating winding of relay H6. Re
lay I39 is prevented from operating its armature
to the right-hand contact under the control of
relay 23I in the mixing relay circuit and is thus
prevented from locking relay I09 against recep
ciphering code in each of the tapes to the tape
sensing mechanisms. Tapes 22 and 23 should
tion of signals from line IB. From this it will be
have di?erent random sequences of ciphering
apparent that relay I01 is a reversing relay au
codes so that the signals transmitted over line 30 tomatically operable from one to the other of its
I6 will be in cipher. It is important that the
two contacts according to the direction of signal
sequences be different because should the se
transmission, whether from the station shown in
quences of codes be identical in the two tapes,
Fig. l to relay 39 and thus toward line I6 or
cipher signal generator 2I would decipher the
signals generated by relay I24 and plain text
signals would be transmitted into line Hi. In
all probability identical codes in the tapes 22 and
23 may occasionally be presented to their tape
1 whether from line I6 to relay I09 and thus to
ward the station shown in Fig. 1. In either case
relay I61 locks against operation of the sending
relay which, if permitted to operate, would send
signals back in the direction from which they had
sensing mechanism simultaneously so that a plain
text code having been cipheredby cipher signal gen
erator I9 will be deciphered by cipher signal gen
been received.
Relay I98 in responding to the start pulse re
peated to it by relay I09 starts distributor 223
and operates relay 2M which in turn operates
relay I24 to spacing. Relay I24 starts distributor
259 which operates relay I2I to spacing and relay
erator 2I and transmitted to line IS in the same
form in which it was generated by either of the
transmitters in Fig. 1. Such occurrences will be as
unpredictable as any other codes resulting from
29 responds to the operation of relay I2I to spac
ing and repeats the start pulse to selector mag
net 26 of the teletypewriter unit II. It will be
the double ciphering operation and will not fa
cilitate breaking the codes and discovery of the
plain text message if it should be unauthorizedly
intercepted.
observed that these operations are identical with
50 those which are performed when relay I98 is op
At the conclusion of transmission from either
of the transmitters shown in Fig. 1, the system
remains in its steady marking condition, con
denser 253 becomes fully charged, current through
the operating winding of relay I39 dies out and
the biasing winding restores the armature to the
left-hand contact thus unlocking relay I09 and
restoring normal biasing current to that relay.
If the remote station should begin transmitting
ciphered signals over line I6, these signals will
be received by relay I09, the armature being op
erated to spacing in response to the start pulse of
the ?rst code received. Upon the operation of
relay I09 to spacing, a circuit is completed from
battery I66 through the second winding of relay I 61, 65
conductor I1I, spacing contact and armature of
relay I09, conductor I08, back contact and ar
mature ll of relay 43, conductor I36, marking
contact and armature of relay 39, conductors I21
and I96, armature 3 and front contact of relay
8|, conductor I91 and operating winding of relay
I98 in the mixing relay circuit (Fig. 3) to the
potential divider comprising batteries 20I and
202 and resistors 203 and 204. Relay I98 is op
erated to spacing by the current which ?ows over 75
erated in response to the start pulse received
from keyboard transmitter 32 or tape transmitter
distributor I3 and repeated to relay I98 by relay
39. The distributors 223 and 259 successively
alter the ciphered signals received by relay I09
in the same manner that they alter the plain
text signals received by relay 39 and thereby de
cipher the received signals so that plain text sig
nals are generated by relay I2I, are repeated by
relay 29 and are received by selector magnet 26.
In order for the ciphered signals to be correctly
deciphered to derive the plain text signals, it is
only necessary that during the reception of a
ciphered code combination the same two cipher
ing code combinations be presented by the tapes
22 and 23 to their tape sensing mechanisms dur
ing traversal by distributors 223 and 259 of their
code segments as the codes which reacted upon
the plain text code at the remote transmitting
station to e?ect the ciphering of the plain text
code. Thus the two ciphering tapes at one sta
tion must have identical sequences of codes with
the two tapes at the other station and must be
started at the same points in the respective tapes
at the beginning of message transmission. Fur
2,405,571
23
\\
24
thermore, for double ciphering- operation employ.‘
relay 1.2.4.. Springs I and: 2. of key I I8 establish
a connection from positive battery 295. through,
condenser 29?: and conductor 2.9.8. to one, termi
nal of the operating winding. of relay 2% which
has negative battery on its other, terminal. which
also receives positive battery connection as pre
viously described through the armature and. left
ing two ciphering tapes at each end of the trans
\mitting system, it. is not. necessary that the two
tapes be in the corresponding cipher signal gen
erators at both stations provided thetwo. tapes
are ‘of unlimited length. Aplain text code which
has been ciphered ?rst by a code combination in
.tape 22 controlling cipher, signal. generator I9
and then by a code in tape. 23 controlling cipher
signal generator 2| may be deciphered. with the
tapes. transposed, namely, with tape. 23 control
ling cipher signal. generator I9 but presenting; the
' hand contact of relay 23I.
Upon reception by relay I93 of the. start pulse
of a plain text code combination from relay 39 or
of a ciphered code combination from. relay I529,
the relay $98 operates to spacing and in the man
same. code combination as that in tape 23.which
controlled the second ciphering operation at, the.
ner previously described completes the energiz
ing circuit for start magnet 22-‘!; of distributor 223
and also operates relay as: toits, right-hand con
tact. Prior to movement. of the armature of relay
123i away from its left-hand contact, condenser
291- has been discharged because it has positive
potential on both terminals. Upon the operation
of relay 23I away from'its left-hand contact, bat
tery 2536 becomes disconnected from, the operating
winding of relay 2M but current continues to ?-ow
in the operating winding to charge condenser 2-91.
transmitting station, and with. tape 22v control
ling‘cipher signal generator 2! and presenting
the same signal combination to the tape sensing
mechanism as that which. controlled the ?rst
ciphering operation at the transmitting station.
This possibility of transposition of the two. tapes
presupposes that all of’ the ciphering tapes. are
of unlimited length. If they should be in' the
form of closed loops. or bands, they could be
transposed at one of two interconnected sta
.As soon as the charging current for the condenser
tions only if. they are. of equal length, which is
has diminished to the point at- which the biasing
undesirable because the cycle of ciphering before
winding of relay 2 is’ is able to assume control
the sequence repeats is too short. If loops of
of the armature‘, the biasing-v winding moves the
tape of unequal length should'be transposed at
armature to the right-hand contact, the effect of
onev station deciphe'rment of received codes
which, as previously described, is to operate relay
would. fail when the shorter of the two loops‘ of
I213 to spacing, and the armature of relay I24, now
tape at each station had completed one cycle 30 being connected to the operating winding of relay
and had begun to repeat its sequences‘ of codes.
l i 6 and to the operating winding of ‘relay 29,
With a ciphering system of the type hereinbe
causes whichever ofv those relays that is not locked
fore described the circuit for intercommunication
against operation to repeat the start pulse of
between two stations if not set up on a perma
spacing nature to line I5 or to printer magnet. 22.
nent basis is established through any interme
The reason for delaying the operation of relay 2 M
diate switching station by the transmission of
to its right-hand contact is to, delay- the'begin
plain text codes, which is‘ accomplished‘ with key
ning of transmission of the start» pulse in the
82 operated to the left, to inform the attendant
event that distributor 223 should be somewhat
at the switching station or stations of the iden 40 slow in starting due to the load on the armature
tity of the station with which communication is
of start magnet 22?. which the magnet must over
desired. After the connection has been estab
come. The interval between the operation of the
lished intercommunication in ‘plain text takes
armature of relay '23! away from its left-hand
place between the two stations. for the purpose
contact and the operation of relay £24 to spacing
of arriving‘ at an agreement as to the starting - may be varied to achieve the desired time rela~
points in the two ciphering tapes 22 and 23 for
tionship between the starting of distributor 223.
thecipher transmission. The cipher tapes are
and the initiation of transmissionof the start
adjusted to the agreed positions in their respec
pulse by varying the value of resistor'ZSil, Fol
tive tape sensing mechanisms whereupon key 82
lowing the start pulse, relay I98 responds to the
is operated to the right to adjust the repeater 50 code impulses of the plain text or ciphered sig;
shown in Fig. 2 and the mixing relay unitv 18»
nals and relay I24 is operated under the joint
shown in Fig. 3' for the ciphering and deciphering
control of relay res and the code in cipher tape '
condition. Thereafter all message material pass
22 to control relay MB for transmitting the
ing in one direction or the other between the two
ciphered code to line I6‘ or-to control relay 29 for
stations over line I6 will be ciphered.
the transmission of the deciphered code to se
Key I I8 is provided for the purpose of convert
lector magnet 26 of teletypewriter set I i, depend~
ing mixing relay unit I3 from a double ciphering
ing upon the condition of relay it‘! in accordance
condition to a single ciphering condition. When
with the direction in which transmission is pro
the key is in the condition shown in Fig. 3, the
ceeding. During the single ciphering or decipher
double ciphering condition is established, When 60 ing operation distributor ZBQremains idle and re
key I I8 has been operated to the single ciphering
lay MEI remains in the marking condition because
condition spring I engages spring 2, springs 3
these elements have been isolated from control
and 4 are disengaged, spring 6 is disengaged from
by the other elements of mixing relay unit 53 as a
spring 5 and is engaged with spring 1. With
result of the operation of key Iii-3. The double.
spring 6 disengaged from spring 5', conductor 258 65 ciphering. and deciphering condition may be re
extending to the inner ring of distributor 259
established by restoring key M8 to the condition
is isolated so that the, distributor 259 cannot be
shown in Fig. 3.
started. With spring 4 disengaged from spring
During the transmission of signals in cipher a
3 and with spring 6 engaging spring ‘I, the arma
break signal may be. transmitted by operating
ture of relay I2I is disconnected from conductor
break key I l2, This key is located directly in the
ill which, extends to‘ the operating winding of
loop circuit which terminates line I6 at each sta
relay “6- and the armature of relay I24 becomes
tion and not in the circuit of keyboard transmit
connectedv through conductors I23 and II‘! to the
ter 32 and tape transmitter distributor It as in
operating winding of relay IEIB so that relay lI-Ii
the usual case of telegraph systems having no
will be responsive directly to the operation of 75 ciphering
feature, for the reason that cipher sig
..
’
V.‘
7
2,405,571
25
26
nal generators I 9 and 2| would cipher any steady
sage or any other information which the receiving
spacing condition generated by keyboard trans
station desired to communicate to the transmitting
station would be ciphered before transmission but
would not be deciphered at the receiving station.
Accordingly, it is necessary for the station which
is about to transmit to operate key
to the left
before operating break release key 58 in order
to prevent the reoperation of relay 8i and the
release of relay £33. These operations having
mitter 32 Or tape transmitter distributor I3 and
would cause the transmission of codes having
some marking pulses which would prevent break
relay 48 from being operated to the spacing con
dition long enough for break detecting relay El’
to release.
Upon the operation of break key H2 at either
station for an interval longer than the release 10 been performed at one of the stations that sta
tion may transmit instructions or requests to the
time of break detecting relay Bl, the break relay
other station in plain text and the signals will be
48 will go to spacing and remain in that condition
correctly received and recorded. If the station
long enough to release the relays 67. At armature
receiving these signals has reason for replying,
I and back contact of relay 61, a short circuit is
established around the contacts of relay H6 as 15 as will probably be the case, and in order for a
new agreement as to the starting points on the
previously described so that continued operation
ciphering tapes tobe reached before the system
of relay IIB under the control of relay I24 or I2!
is restored to the ciphering condition the break
will not cause continued transmission of signals
release key must be operated at that station and
to line I6 after the break key at the remote end
has been reclosed. At the armature 2 and front 20 key 82 must be operated to the left. After these
routine matters have been attended to and the
contact of relay 6'! the energizing circuit of relay
cipher tapes have been adjusted to the agreed
8| will be interrupted so that the armatures of
positions in their sensing mechanisms, the system
that relay will be restored to the condition shown
may be restored to the cipher transmission con
in Fig. 2 and operation of the mixing relay unit
I8 and the cipher signal generators I9 and 2| in 25 dition by the manual reoperation of keys 82 to
the right at both stations, whereupon signals
Fig. 3 under the control of relay 39 in Fig. 2 will
transmitted in either direction through the sys
cease. With relay 8| released, the armature 5 and
tem will be ciphered at the transmitting station
back contact of relay 6‘! completes the energizing
and will be deciphered at the receiving station.
circuit for relay 43 which converts repeater I4
It will be noted that relay H 3, the armature
from the idle condition established by the release 30
and left-hand contact of which are included in
of relay 8| to the plain text transmission condi
the loop circuit which terminates line it, has a
tion which is the same condition established when
single winding to which positive and negative
key 82 is operated to the left. Under the control
batteries are connected. Thus the relay III-3 will
of relay 43, lamp I59 becomes lighted to indicate
be normally energized to hold the armature in
that the plain text transmission condition has
engagement with its left-hand contact. Al
been established and lamp I93 is extinguished by
though individual batteries have been shown in
the release of relay 8 I. The operations performed
the drawings for the many components of the
by the other armatures of relay 6'! upon the re
system, it will be understood that all power con
lease of that relay are the same as those hereto
fore described in connection ‘with reception of 40 nections of positive and negative polarities will
usually be derived from a single direct current
the break signal while the repeater I4 is in the
source. Upon shutting down the system, such
plain text transmission condition under the con
as at the close of a business day, it will be an
trol of key 82 operated to the left.
economical practice to disconnect the source of
Both stations are now in condition to receive
and record plain text signals but neither station
direct current from all circuits. When this oc
curs some of the polar relays may be operated
is in the condition to transmit such signals be
to their spacing contacts. If the relay H6 should
cause their transmitters are disabled by the re
be operated away from its marking contact upon
leased relay E‘I. The most usual reason for
the removal of power from its winding, the loop
transmitting a break signal is to notify a sta
tion which is transmitting that the copy is not 50 circuit which terminates line It would be opened,
which is an undesirable condition. Accordingly,
being correctly received and that a portion should
relay H3 is included in the system and when the
be retransmitted. There is no reason why this
power connection is removed from its winding
information should be transmitted in cipher and
along with the removal of power from all other
if the condition which caused failure of proper
components of the system, the armature will be
reception of the message should be an out-of
operated to the right-hand contact. This estab
step condition of one or both of the ciphering
lishes a conductive path from the armature of
tapes, the request for retransmission of a portion
relay H3 to the operating winding of relay I89
of the ciphered message would become garbled
in short-circuiting relation to the path through
by the out-of-step ciphering of the request at the
conductor H4 and the armature and marking
two stations and the request would not be cor
contact of relay H6 so that even if this relay
rectly received. Furthermore, it is likely that
should be operated to the spacing condition, the
an out-of-step condition of the ciphering tapes
loop circuit terminating line It will remain closed.
will result from the transmission of the break
The system has been shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3
signal and the tapes must be reset before further
as arranged for transmitting signals over a tele
cipher transmission can proceed. Finally, the
graph line I6. The system is also adapted for
repeaters at both stations have been placed in the
transmitting ciphered signals over radio chan
plain text handling condition and either station
nels as indicated in Fig. 6. When this arrange
is in condition to receive without further atten
ment is employed repeater IQ is connected to 'a
tion by an operator. If the operator at the
station which transmitted the break signal should 70 radio transmitter and receiver SUI in such a way
that relay II 6 of the repeater (Fig. 2) operates
merely operate the break release key 68 momen
a conventional keying device in the radio trans
tarily to effect reenergization of relay 6?, the re
mitter to cause the transmitter to transmit mark
peater at that station would be restored to the
ing and spacing signals and receiving relay I89
cipher transmitting condition and the ciphered
request for retransmission of a portion of the mes 75 and break relay 58 are operable under the con
2,405,571
27
trol' of the output circuit of the radio receiver
message, each signal combination comprising
impulses succeeding one another at predetermined
intervals, first means .for generating signal com~
so that they are responsive to marking and spac
ing signals received from a remote radio trans~
\ mitter and so that break relay d8 will be operated
\to and remain in the spacing condition in re
saonse to a long spacing signal to release break
detecting relay (:2? and thus .control the con
binations in a random sequence, each signal com~
bination comprising impulses succeeding one an_
other at predetermined intervals, means for in
teractively ‘combining impulses generated in cor
version of repeater M from the cipher signal
transmitting condition to the plain text receiving
responding intervals by said two signal generating
means, second means for generating signal com
condition in the same manner that a break sig 10 binations ‘in a different random sequence, each
nal received over a telegraph line produces this
signal combination comprising impulses succeed
result.
ing one another at predetermined, intervals,
means for interactively combining impulses gen
erated in ‘corresponding intervals by said ?rst
mentioned combining means and said second ran
dom sequence signal generating means, a teleu
graphiline, and means for causing impulses pro
duced by said second-mentioned combining
,
v‘Although particular embodiments of the in
vention have been shown in the drawings and
described in the foregoing speci?cation, it will
be understood that the invention is not limited
to such speci?c embodiments" but is capable of
modi?cation and rearrangement without depart
ing from the spirit of the invention and within
the scope of the appended claims.
vWhat is claimed is:
1. In a telegraph system, ?rst means for gener
ating signal combinations each comprising a suc
means to beimpressed on said line,
transmitter for transmitting code combinations
impulse by impulse in succession, a transmitter
for transmitting :a random sequence of code com
cession of impulses, second means for concur
rently generating signal combinations each com
25
prising a succession of impulses, means for inter
actively combining corresponding impulses of said
concurrently generated code combinations, third
binations impulse by "impulse in succession, ‘means
controlled by said transmitters forproducing code
combinations in cipher impulse :by impulse in suc
cession, a second transmitter for ‘transmitting a
different random ‘sequence ‘of code combinations
impulse by impulse in succession, ‘means con
means for concurrently generating signal com
binations each comprising a succession of im
,
:5. In a telegraph system, a message signal
30
pulses, means for interactively combining corre
sponding impulses produced by said "?rst-men
trolled vjointly by said cipher code combination
producing’ means and said second random se
quence code transmitter for producing further
tioned combining means and said third means'for
code combinations in cipher "impulse by impulse
generating signal combinations, a telegraph line,
and means for causing impulses produced bysaid
in succession, a telegraph line, and means for
’ causing the impulses produced by’ said last
mentioned‘means to'be impressed onsaid line.
second-mentioned combining vmeans to be im
pressed on said line.‘
6. In a telegraph ‘system, a imessage ‘signal
_
2. In a telegraph system, ?rst means for-gener
generator for generating start-‘stop telegraph sig
ating signal combinations comprising impulses
na‘ls element by element in succession, a storage
'type' of ‘signal generator having a sequence of
non-message signals in storage therein "for gen
succeeding one another at predetermined inter
vals, second means for generating signal combi~
nations comprising impulses succeeding one an
other at predeterminedintervals, third means for
generating signal combinations comprising im
pulses succeeding one another at predetermined
erating telegraph signals element byelement 1in
succession, means "for interactively combining
signal elements generated by said two signal gen
.p Li
pulses generated in corresponding intervals by
erators element ‘by element in succession, a second
storage type of-sign'al generator ‘having a sequence
of non-message signals in storage therein 'for
said ?rst and second signal generating means,
generating telegraph signals element by element
intervals, means for interactively combining im
, means for interactively combining impulses vgen
erated in corresponding intervals by‘ said ?rst
mentioned combining means and said third signal
generating means, a telegraph line, and means
for causing impulses produced by said second
mentioned combining means to be impressed on
said line.
3. ‘In a telegraph system, means for generating
signal combinations in a sequence comprising a
message, each signal combination comprising a
succession of impulses, first means for concur
rently generating signal combinations in a ran
dom sequence, each signal combination compris
ing a vsuccession of ‘impulses, means for inter
actively combining corresponding impulses of said
concurrently generated code combinations, second
in ‘succession, and means for interactively com
bining the signals generated by said second
storage type of signal generator with signals gen
erated by said ?rst-mentioned combining means
element by element in succession.
7. In a telegraph system, a message signal gen‘ erator for generating start-stop telegraph signals
element by element in succession, a tape con
trolled signal generator‘having a sequence of non
message signals in the controlling tape thereof
for generating telegraph signals element by ele
ment in succession, means for interactively com
bining signal'elements generated by said two sig
nal generators element by element in succession,
a second tape controlled signal generator having
a different sequence of non-message signals in
means for concurrently generating signal com
the controlling tape thereof for generating tele
binations in a .di?erent random sequence, means
graph signals element by element in succession,
and means for interactively combining signals
for interactively combining corresponding im~
pulses generated by said ?rst-mentioned combin
ingmeans and said second random sequence sig
nal generating means, a telegraph line, and
means for causing impulses produced bysaid sec
ond-mentioned combining means to be impressed
onsaidline.
4. In a telegraph system, means .for generating
generated by said second tape controlled signal
generator with signals generated by said ?rst
mentioned combining means element by element
in succession.
'
a
_
8. In a telegraph system, a message signal agen
GI‘ZJtOI' for generating start-stop telegraph signals
element by element in succession, a storage type
signal combinations in a sequence comprising a 75 of signal generator having a sequence of non
2,405,571
30
29
whereby to preclude concurrent energization of
message signals in storage therein for generating
telegraph signals element by element in succes
sion, means for interactively combining signal
elements generated by said two signal generators
both of said relays.
13. In a telegraph system, a telegraph chan
nel, a transmitter operable to generate message
signals, means including a relay for causing sig
nals generated by said transmitter to be im
element by element in succession, a second stor
age type of signal generator having the sequence
pressed on said channel, a transmitter adapted)a
of non-message signals in storage therein for
operate conjointly with said ?rst-mentioned
generating telegraph‘ signals element by element
transmitter to encipher said message sig?als,
in succession, means for interactively combining
means including a relay for qualifying said sec
signals generated by said second storage type of
ond-mentioned transmitter to operate corlointly
signal generator with signals generated by said
?rst-mentioned combining means element by ele
ment in succession, and means for disabling said
second storage type of signal generator and sec
ond-mentioned combining means.
9. In a telegraph system, a message signal gen
erator for generating start-stop telegraph signals
element by element in succession, a storage type
of signal generator having a sequence of non
message signals in storage therein for generating
telegraph signals element by element in succes
sion, means for interactively combining signal
elements generated by said two signal generators
element by element in succession, a second stor
age type of signal generator having a sequence
of non-message signals in storage therein for gen
with said ?rst-mentioned transmitter and for
causing said enciphered signals to be impressed
on said channel, and means for precludng @011
current energization of both‘ of said relhYS
it. In a telegraph system, a telegrarh Chanda,
a transmitter operable to generate :HeSSa-g? 51%
nals, means including a relay for causing SIgIlalS
generated by said transmitter to be impressed on‘
said channel, a transmitter adapted to operate
20
conjointly with said ?rst-mentioned transmitter
to encipher said message‘ signals, means includ
ing a relay for qualifying said second-mentioned
transmitter to operate conjointly with Said ?rst
mentioned transmitter and for causing said en
ciphered signals to be impressed on said chan
nel, means for precluding concurrent energiza
tion of both of said relays, and signal responsive
erating telegraph signals element by element in
succession, means for interactively combining
signals generated by said second storage type of
means operable when said second-mentioned re
lay is energized to release said second-mentioned
relay and to energize said ?rst-mentioned relay.
signal generator with signals generated by said
?rst-mentioned combining means element by ele
15. In a telegraph system, a telegraph chan
ment in succession, a telegraph line, means for
nel, a transmitter operable to generate start-stop
message signals, ?rst and second ciphering signal
causing signals produced by said second-men
tioned combining means to be impressed on said
line, and means for disabling said second storage
generators operable in cycles initiated by start
impulses and terminated by stop impulses, means
responsive to start impulses generated by said
transmitter for starting said ?rst ciphering sig
type of signal generator and said second-men
tioned combining means and for causing signals
generated by said ?rst-mentioned combining
nal generator, means controlled by said starting
means for starting said second ciphering signal
generator, and means controlled by said second
means to be impressed on said line.
10. In a telegraph system, a telegraph channel,
a, transmitter operable to generate message sig
ciphering signal generator for generating start
nals, means for causing signals generated by said
impulses and for impressing said start impulses
transmitter to be impressed on said channel, a
transmitter adapted to operate conjointly with
said ?rst-mentioned transmitter to encipher said
message signals, means for causing said ciphered
signals to be impressed on said channel, and mu
tually exclusive means for precluding concurrent
effectiveness of said means for causing message
signals to be impressed on said channel and said
means for causing enciphered signals to be im
on said channel.
45
16. In a telegraph system, a telegraph channel,
a transmitter operable to generate start-stop
message signals, first and second ciphering signal
generators operable in cycles initiated by start
impulses and terminated by stop impulses, a relay
responsive to start impulses generated by said
transmitter for starting said ?rst ciphering signal
generator, a second relay also controlled by said
?rst-mentioned relay for starting said second
pressed on said line.
11. In a telegraph system, a telegraph chan
ciphering signal generator, and a third relay con
nel, a transmitter operable to generate message 55 trolled by said second ciphering signal gener
signals, means including a relay for causing sig
ator for generating start impulses and for im
nals generated by said transmitter to be im
pressing said start impulses on said channel.
17. In a telegraph system, a telegraph channel,
pressed on said channel, a transmitter adapted
to operate conjointly with said ?rst-mentioned
a transmitter operable to generate start-stop
message signals, ?rst and second ciphering signal
transmitter to encipher said message signals,
generators operable in cycles initiated by start
means including a relay for causing said en
impulses and terminated by stop impulses, a relay
ciphered signals to be impressed on said chan
responsive to start impulses generated by said
nel, and means for precluding concurrent oper
transmitter for starting said ?rst ciphering signal
ation of said relays.
12. In a telegraph system, a telegraph chan 65 generator, a second relay controlled by said ?rst
mentioned relay for-starting said second cipher
nel, a transmitter operable to generate message
ing signal generator, a third relay controlled by
' signals, means including a relay for causing sig
said second ciphering signal generator for gen
nals generated by said transmitter to be impressed
erating start impulses and for impressing said
on said channel, a transmitter adapted to operate
conjointly with said ?rst-mentioned transmitter 70 start impulses on said channel, and manually
operable switching means for disabling said sec
to encipher said message signals, means includ
ond ciphering signal generator and said third
ing a relay for causing said enciph'ered signals
relay and for causing said second relay to impress
to be impressed upon said channel, and an en
start impulses on said channel.
ergizing circuit for each of said relays including
18. In a telegraph system, the method of en
an armature and back contact of the other relay 75
2,405, 571
31
'\
"ciphering message signals which comprises gen
crating telegraph message code signals impulse
‘by impulse in succession, concurrently generating
enciphering code signals impulse‘by impulse in
‘succession,’ causing concurrently generated mes
\sage code impulses and encipherin'g code impulses
“to interact‘to ‘produce altered signal code com
bi‘cvatio-ns impulse ‘by impulse in succession, con
Olllkgently generating other enciphering code sig
v32
Yenciphering code signal-s impulse‘ by impulse in
succession, causing concurrently generatedmes
‘sage code ‘impulses and :enclphering code im
pulses to interact to produce'altered signal code
combinations impulse by impulse in succession,
concurrently generating other enciphering code
signals impulse by impulse in succession, causing
concurrently generated impulses of said altered
signal combinations and impulses of said other
na?simpulse ‘by impulse in succession, causing 10 enciphering code signals to interact to produce
\cggiulrently ‘generated impulses of said altered
'5 .l_.a1\-\\combinations and impulses of said other
‘envclphning code signals to interactto produce
:o‘therakered signal combinations impulse by im
pulse i1’1\succession,l and transmitting the im
pulses of ‘Said other altered signal combinations.
_ 19- In a \elegraph system, the method of en
Clph?ring mtssage signals Which comprises gen
erating telegraph message code signals impulse
by impulse succession, concurrently generating 20
otherv ‘altered signal combinations impulse by
impulse in succession, transmitting the impulses
of said other altered signal combinations, and
selectively omitting the production of saidother
altered signal combinations and transmitting the
impulses of said ?rst-mentioned altered ‘signal
code ‘combinations.
'
,
~
KARL E. FITCH.
' GEORGE ~A._ LOCKE.
-
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
3 239 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа