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' H. LEWIS , . SYSTEM OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 15, 1945 .,4@5,5 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 3-; i3, 1%.‘ I ' H, LEwqs" _ SYSTEM OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filved Feb. 15, 1945' A5934 ' ' _ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Wm 2,405,584 Patented Aug. 13, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,584 SYSTEM OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ‘ Harlow Lewis, Provincetown, Mass. Application February 13, 1945, Serial No. 577,718 3 Claims. (01. 20-2) (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) 1 2 studding, bridging, sheathing, and ?nish in ex The invention described herein may be manu terior wall construction, may now be combined factured and used by or for the Government of in one. , the United States for governmental purposes With these objects in view, the invention con without the payment to me of any royalty thereon in accordance with the provisions of the act of C21 sists of the construction unit of a modi?ed U sec tion, formed of any laminated or sheet material, April 30, 1928 (Ch. 460, 45 Stat. L. 467). with or without metal reinforcement, so as to This invention relates to building construction permit automatic locking and bracing in any po and has for its objects generally to improve and sition when framed in combination with one or simplify the construction of ?oor, wall, partition and roof systems in structures of various types; 10 more similar units and accessories. The invention further consists in having the to provide connections at horizontal, vertical and legs of the units formed with ?anges parallel to oblique joints which will give the maximum of the opposite face, thereby obtaining greater stiff rigidity and stiffness to the structure and which ness and load carrying capacity, and a larger sur will permit a more positive securing of the vari ous members together; to provide a simple and 15 face for the attachment of ?nish, equipment, or the like. inexpensive system of construction which will The invention further consists in forming the reduce the amounts of material and labor re units so as to meet all structural requirements quired for the erection of structures; to provide without resort to specially fabricated connections. a novel method for combining in one structural unit the function of joists, bridging, and under 20 The invention further consists in the novel con struction system which permits the framing of ?ooring; rafters, bridging and roof sheathing; and studs, bridging, sheathing and ?nish; to pro vide a novel construction unit which will permit these units together in such a manner as to form at once and in one operation, an enclosed struc ture with continuous ?oor, wall and roof surfaces, and partitions in one operation; to provide a 25 as well as supporting members, these continuous surfaces being ready to receive the ?nish or, if structural unit by which the maximum load may preferred, to act themselves as ?nished surfaces be carried by a simple method of construction at for walls, ceilings and partitions. the minimum expense; to provide a novel form of Referring to the accompanying drawings: interlocking joints for the connection of the main Fig. 1 is a fragmentary perspective View illus members of a structure; to provide a system of (it) trating the relative positions of the structural construction which will decrease the height re members in assembled positions, quired for the exterior walls of a building; to pro Fig. 2 is an elevation partly in vertical section. vide a novel construction unit vand a system of Fig. 3 is a fragmentary transverse vertical sec framing which will materially decrease the weight of the structural elements; to provide a novel 5, tional view taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view of the construction unit and system of construction end portion of a horizontal ?oor unit. which may be erected and assembled by workmen Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional View of the preferred less skilled in the art than those usually em form of the building unit. ployed; to provide a novel construction unit and system of construction whereby an extremely A Fig. 6 is a modi?cation of the same, and strong and rigid lightweight structure may be Fig. '7 is a perspective view of a pair of the speedily and cheaply erected without the need for construction unit cleats, highly skilled labor; to improve and simplify con Like numerals of reference indicate the same parts throughout the several ?gures, in which: struction, decrease the time and labor required to erect a building, decrease requirements for con i indicates the building unit which may be of struction material in construction and increase any laminated sheet or other suitable material, the e?iciency of the structure. which as shown in Figs. 5 and 6 is of modi?ed U A further object of the invention is to make form having a ?at central web portion 2 and two possible a novel system of construction whereby depending side members 3 which terminate in outwardly extending ?anges A parallel with the several structural elements which heretofore have had to be assembled in three or more operations— central web portion 2. These side members 3 have their portions 5 which are immediately ad as for example, ?oor joists, bridging and under the framing and enclosing of ?oors, walls, roofs ?ooring in ?oor construction, rafters, bridging and sheathing in roof construction, studding, bridging and ?nish in partition construction, and ' jacent the central web 2, formed. at right angles to the central Web 2 and the balance 6 of, the side members converge toward each other to the point 2,405,584 3 4 where they merge into the outwardly extending the two side members converging toward each ?anges 4 as shown in the drawings. It will be other, a ?ange formed at the termination of noted from Figs. 5 and 6 that the ?anges 4 of the each side member and extending outwardly units I do not extend laterally beyond the sur therefrom so that the lateral edge of each ?ange face of rectangular portions 5 of the side members lies in the same plane as the outer surface of 3 so that when two of the units are assembled the rectangular portion of each side member, together in the same plane the rectangular. per-. whereby the rectangular portions. of. the side tions 5 and the side edgesof the ?anges 4 of two members and the» lateral .edges :of the. flanges assembled units abut each other. of two units will abut each other when the two Referring now to Fig. 1, it will be seen that the r .10 units are assembled together, the end portions vertical units I abut one another to form a con of the horizontal ?oor units being adapted to tinuous wall between ?oors, and there-is proenter \within the‘vertical wall units and shaped vided on top of the assembled wait-units .a : to =conform~ to" the said converging side mem ?at horizontal member ‘I. On the under surface bers thereof to lock the ends of the horizontal of the horizontal member ‘I and: conforming -.to\ 15 ?oor units within the interiors of the vertical the internal shape of the wall units, is. a pair; walleunits. of cleats 8 for each unit which are fastened to 2. A system of building construction which the horizontal member in any approved manneng. includes a piurality'of vertical wall units, a plu as by nails 9, as shown in Fig. 3. By‘ means ‘of- "' rality of horizontal ?oor and ceiling units and these cleats 8, the assembled wall units I are 20 a plurality of roof units, each of said units being securely locked; against displacement. of a modi?ed- U section, each-unit having a cen Referring now to the : horizontal ?oor ‘units -~I, tral ‘web portion and two side portions converg it will be seen from Fig. 4 that their end portions ing toward each other, a ?ange at the termina ii)» are formedv with diverging side edges II ‘to tion of each side portion and extending out conform to ‘the interior formation of the‘ wall‘ 25 wardly'therefrom so‘that the lateral edge of one units ‘ I’, as heretofore described, and asshown’in ?ange will abut against the lateral edgeof ran-e~ Figs; 5 and 6, so thatlwhen the end portions H] other ‘?ange whentwo of the units are assembled sor-formedyare inserted‘ into the interior of the together, a horizontal member positioned on the vertical wall units 5, and rest ?atly'on the hori ends of the vertical Wall members, means on the zontal member ‘I, "an interlocking joint is estab lished- between the‘vertical units- and the hori zontal ?oor units. » To e?ect the joint; the side members- 3 of the floor units I are cut away, as 30 horizontal member for e?ecting an-vinterlock shown: inT-Fig. 4, ‘to. formyvertical abutments' I2 ing engagement with each vertical wall unit, the vertical wall units above said horizontal mem her being adapted to rest on said horizontal‘ member, the end'portions of the horizontal ?oor units being shaped to conform to the converging on each floor unit I to abut against the horizontal member 7. When the ?oor units I are assembled in this’ manner, ‘a continuous ?oor- surface is formed, as shown in Fig. 1. side portions-of the vertical wall’ units resting . sideimembers 3 of‘ each ‘unit are cutaway to’ said horizontal member. '‘ provide abutments I2 to abut against the hori zontal member "I, and the end of each horizontal 3. "A system of building construction'which in-. cludes a plurality'of vertical wall units‘, a vplue on the said horizontal member, the said formed - end portions being alsoladapted to rest on the‘ For the ceiling units under and supporting the said horizontal‘mernber, and to form interlocking roof members,‘ the‘ end portions of said units 40 engagement with the' vertical-Wall units, and to are not formed with-diverging side edges, but the provide an abutment for engagement with the‘ unit I, is formed upwardly to form an abutment ~; rality of horizontal ‘?oor. and‘ ceiling unitsand iii-for the ends of the‘roof units I. These roof a plurality of roof units, each of said'um'ts'being > units 5 are assembled to'form a continuous outer of a modi?ed U Isection, each unit ‘having a surface and have their lower ends beveled at central web portion and two side portions con M to seat on the horizontal ceiling‘ units I and verging toward ‘each' other, a flange at the ter to engage the upstanding abutments‘l? of the mination of each ‘side portion and extending horizontal ceiling units; It is apparent Jthatthe wall units! may be sheathed -or< otherwise-processed or treated to form-any?nish desired, while the floors, ceilings . and roof may .be covered in-any suitable mane ner:and with any’ suitable material, so asto present any ?nish desired. Having; thus described the-invention, I do not wish to be understood as ;‘limiting myself to the outwardly therefrom so that the lateral edge of one ?ange of one unit will“ abut against the lat eral edge of a ?ange of‘ an adjacent'uni-t when two of the units are assembled together, a hori zontal member located ‘on the topends of the - vertical wall-units1adjacent the roof unitsg'said horizontal member including means which venter within thev ends of the wall units for cooperation with the said converging side members of the exact construction as shown and described, as I (50 wall units for retaining the'saidhorizontal mem-: consider myself clearly entitled to all such her in ?xed operative position, the endnportions > changes and modi?cations as fall withinthe limit of the horizontal ?oor and ceiling .runits ibeing ~ and scope of the-appendedclaims. : I claim: 1. A system of building constructionwhich in- r; cludesa plurality of vertical wall, horizontalv?oor and. pitched roof units of modi?ed U section, each unit having a central web portion and two'side' members, the portion of each. side "member'di shaped .so that :the central web 1 portions: thereof: rest :upon the said. horizontalcmemher and; the; converging side portionszthereof. form a vertical ;. abutment for‘ the said " ho-rizontalzmember,i'fthe.'1’ said roof units having-their ends:beveled~:to::rest . upon; the said horizontal member,: andanpabut ment. formedon the end of the ?oor and ceilings; rectly adjacent the central web ‘portion of the 7:) units for engagement with the :endsro-f 1the‘ roof. -. unit being disposed at right angles to the cen units; ' tral web-portion, the next adjacent portions of HARLOW LEWIS: .