Патент USA US2405596код для вставки
2,405,596 Patented Aug. 13, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT“. OFFICE 2,405,596 . DIFFERENTIAL CONVERTIBLE GASOLINE DIESEL ENGINE Lauritz N. Miller, Eugene, Oreg. Application March 21, 1942, Serial No. 435,729 3 Claims. (Cl. 103-41) 2 1 This invention relates to internal combustion ~engines and of multi-cylinder character, if de (sired, and: wherein the advantages of a Diesel engine are included. . The chief object of this invention is to pro duce an engine which will include a maximum number of advantages and a minimum number of the disadvantages. One object of the invention consists in its op eration under relatively high compression ratio 10 as a Diesel engine. One feature of the invention consists in provid ing mechanism whereby the Diesel engine range of compression may be varied. Another feature of the invention consists in automatically reducing the clearance volume of the engine when it is changed from a gasoline type engine to a Diesel type engine for operation. Another feature of the invention consists in Diesel engines used for automotive purposes, nev ertheless eliminates absolutely the possibility of destruction or damage to the injection system which is an essential inherent characteristic of such Diesel engines when so operated as a brake. The full nature of the invention will be under stood from the accompanying drawing and the following description and claims: In the drawing, Fig. 1 is a central sectional view through one form of Diesel fuel injection system. Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the fuel control barrel shown in Fig. 1 and with a portion being broken away to show the same in central section. Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line B—B of Fig. 1 and in the direction of the arrows. Fig. 4 is a top plan view of a portion of the mechanism shown'in Fig. 1 and is taken in the plane of line C-C of said figure and in the di arranging certain parts of the engine so that the 20 rection of the arrows. ‘Fig. 5 is a central sectional view of a modi?ed fuel supplied to the combustion chamber when form of the lower central portion of the invention operating as a Diesel engine is completely burned, illustrated in Fig. 1. thereby insuring cleanliness of the fuel nozzle. ‘ Fig. 6 is a similar view of a still further modi Another object of the invention is to provide means for the engine, when operating as a Diesel, 25 ?ed form of Diesel fuel injection system. In Figs. 1 and 6, there are illustrated two modi?cations 'of an injector and the associated ‘nozzle. These are: one of separated character ‘see Fig. 1--and the other of unitary arrange One feature of the invention for the accom plishment of the foregoing object consists in ar 30 ment—see Fig. 6. The following description in effect constitutes a disclosure of said injector and ranging the mechanism incident to the engine to automatically control the fuel supply so as to prevent the engine from attaining excessive speeds and running away. operation so that all or a part of the fuel sup plied when operating as a Diesel is bypassed. Another feature of the invention consists in, the improved fuel supply for Diesel operation. Another feature of the invention consists in providing manually operable means which is ar ranged so that the time of fuel injection when operating as a Diesel can be varied, depending upon operating conditions so that the most effec tive time of application can be utilized with ref erence to the operation of the Diesel at that time. Such adjustment is highly desirable because the character of fuels vary and furthermore, the al titude in which the engine is operating is critical with'reference to the absolute compression ratio. When the engine is used for automotive purposes, it will, be recognized that the engine may move rapidly from one elevation to a very materially dif ferent elevation and, therefore, the aforesaid is highly critical and desirable. Furthermore, when the engine is used forauto motive purposes and operates as a Diesel; it has a characteristic which permits it to operate as a brake which while not impossible with standard nozzle arrangements, respectively. The cam 384 carried by cam shaft 383 is actu ated to sup-ply the ?uid fuel under pressure and ‘ to the supply lines 381 and 481 in Figs. 1 and 6, respectively. Numerals of the 300 series indicate like or similar parts in Fig. 1 and numerals of the 400 series indicate like or similar parts in Fig. 6 which are similarly indicated by numerals of the 100 and 200 series in prior ?gures. The afore said statement, however, only applies to the cam shaft, the cam, the operating plunger, the in jector itself, supply line from the injector to ' the nozzle tip, and the waste return line. These numbers are as follows: 83, 84, 85, 86, 81, 81a, ‘88 and 88a. So far as the numerals of Figs. 1 and 6 are concerned, the same numerals of the ‘300 and 400 series other than the previously ,mentioned, indicate like, similar or equivalent parts. > Reference will be had to Fig. 1 speci?cally, together with the auxiliary Figures 2, 3 and 4. 'In these ?gures, 386 indicates a relatively sta tionary housing structure. It includes a slot 382 2,405,596 3 with which is associated a pin 38I carried by a part 386 ?xed on the engine. This is a factory locating arrangement. The casing includes in the lower left hand corner, a boss portion 319 having a threaded opening as at 3'18, said open ing registering with the opening 317 in turn arranged to register with an oil discharge open ing 316 in the shell or cylinder portion 315 of the plunger portion 385. Fitting 315a'has oppo 4 in. Longitudinal movement of this rod does not effect rotation of worm 353. Rotation of this rod, however, does insure rotation of this worm. The worm 353 is similarly enclosed by the hous ing 386 and is similarly positioned in the cham ber 350 thereof by means of the washer arrange ment, previously described with reference to the worm 362. The housing 386 includes an upwardly directed site ends threaded as at'3l4 and 313 and is pro 10 extension 349. The member 358 includes an vided with a passage 372 therethrough, which overhanging portion 348 and the latter includes is arranged to communicate with a return sur-' an elongated arcuate slot 34l—-see Fig. 4—and the plus oil line 31!, the same being connected, to gether by the coupling 316. Comparison of these pin portion 349 is provided with suitable means 346 for locating at the factory, member 358 so parts with those of the 400 series similarly num 15 far as rotative relationship is concerned with ref bered and illustrated in Fig. 6 will show the ‘erence to the housing 336. This locating ar ?tting 414 is reversed end for end. rangement,,however, does not interfere with rela In factory tuning, it is desirable to have iden tive axial movement therebetween which is nec tical clearance between each plunger 385 and essary as will be hereinafter pointed out. the cam 384. This clearance is determined by Mounted on and rigid with the shaft 362 is a the use of a shim gauge and the spring 369 pair of spaced discs 345, see Fig. 1. An arm 344, within the cylinder or shell portion 3'15 insures see Figs. 3 and 1, terminates in. a ball portion the proper contact or engagement. The ?xture 315a is then used as a stop or holding member as shown in Fig. 6. This arrangement then serves for initial locating of ‘the plunger 485 (Fig. 6) in the axial direction. The original location with reference to rotation is obtained by means of pin 38! , before mentioned. Follow 343 positioned between these discs. The arm 3534, therefore, is responsive only to longitu dinal movement of the shaft 364 and is not re sponsive to any rotative movement of said shaft. Furthermore, the discs are of such size that as the member 358 reciprocates, as will be more fully set forth hereinafter and for the purpose to be ing such location, as before set. forth, the ?x 3O described hereinafter, the ball member 343 al ture 315a is reversed, and replaced in the position ways is in position for operative action if the rod shown in Fig. 1. Figs. 1 and 6, accordingly repre 362 is moved longitudinally. sent sequential‘ locating steps in factoring tuning. Reference now will be had to the upper portion The exterior of the shell portion 315 of the of the injector shown in Fig. 1 and to Fig. 3. The plunger is suitably grooved as at 368 and a gear 35 arm 344 is rigid with the valve member 342 which 361 having teeth 366 includes internal cooper includes a passage portion 341. Said valve is ating portions 365 which are associated with the arranged to provide communication between the grooves ‘368 so that the gear 361 and the shell two passages 346 and 333 in the member 358. portion have relative axial movement but rela Passage 339 is a, relief passage leading from the tively no rotative movement. The gear teeth 40 interior of the member 356 and when the valve 366 mesh with the worm 364 having the square is properly positioned, the fuel intended for the hole 363 therein which receives a square shaft nozzle is bypassed through passage 339 into pas 362. Thus when shaft 362 is rotated, the gear sage 346 and communicates with the supply. line 36‘! rotates and, therefore, the plunger 385 ro 333v that communicates with a header structure tates. Longitudinal movement of the rod 362 331 common to all injectors of the engine. Thus, does not effect rotation of the worm 364 and as the plunger 385 is actuated by the cam and this longitudinal movement of the rod will be when ‘the valve 342 is properly positioned to pro hereinafter referred to under the subject of con vide the bypass communication last mentioned, trols and the purpose thereof will be more fully the fuel is cycled and not discharged to the noz set forth. 50 zle. This operation it might be here stated, is It will be obvious that the wormis enclosed continuous with engine operatic-n when operating within a housing portion and the same includes as a gasoline engine. a chamber arrangement 35!. This chamber has There is also another passage 336 which is an a predetermined length of bore and by employ equalizing supply passage, the purpose of which ing various thicknesses of washers at each side will be set forth more fully very shortly. The of the worm, the position of the worm may be main supply passage to the injector, so that the adjusted at the factory for factory timing of same may operate as a fuel pump, is passage 335. the device; Such washers, however, are not illustrated herein. The body portion 386 includes the chamber 366 having a reduced bore extension 359 adapted to receive a tubular portion 358 which has a tubular extension 351. extending into the cham ber and serving as a guide for the upper portion of the spring 369, the upper end of which bears against the upper end of the chamber 366 adja cent the bore portion 359. The member 358 is externally threaded as at 356 intermediate its ends and above the cham ber 366. This constitutes a worm portion and It is extended as at 334 and this is enlarged to form a chamber 333 which mounts a spring 332 bearing on the ball 33! that engages the seat 336. Normally this ball is seated and constrained in that position by the said spring. Upon the suc tion stroke of the injector or pump, as will be the same meshes with an internal worm wheel 355 having the teeth 354 which mesh with a worm 353 having a non-polygonal opening 352 and herein shown square. A rod 354 of com more fully set forth, the ball is unseated by the liquid fuel supplied under pressure through head er 337 and supply line 338 to supply fuel to th main supply line 334. ‘ Reference will be had to the parts Within the central portion of the housing 386-see Fig. l, and more especially Fig. 2. Press ?tted in‘to opening 385a in the base of the plunger member is the portion 329 from which‘there extends upwardly the stem 328. This stem or piston has an axial bore 32'! therein which is considerably elongated plementary formation is slidably supported, there» ' and has a; lateral communicating passage 326 2,405,590 5 discharged through port 316, passage .311, pas that leads to the cylindrical surface of said stem. The member 358 includes a central bore 325-re lieved as at 324. . Press ?tted in the bore 325 is the barrel 323 sage 312 and conduit 311, to the oil reservoir not Annular groove 316a is the collector shown. channel. I The body portion of the nozzle 388 is shown positioned in a bore 3I3 restricted as at 3l3a and provided with a conical portion 313!) that tates, the stem 328, before mentioned. The bore opens into the back wall of the injection cham 322 includes a passage 334a which registers with ber Al. The body portion 388 includes a passage the bore or passage 334, see Fig. 1-~the main 3 I 2 which terminates in an annular channel por supply passage. It also includes a co-axial dis tion 31 I. This channel portion is closed by the charge passage 32! which terminates in a seat ?ange 310 of a tubular portion 309 having the portion 321a adapted to seat a ball 32!] normally tapered or conical portion 308. constrained by spring 319 toward seated position. A sleeve 301 is slidably mounted in the bore Said ball and spring are mounted in the chamber of the portion 309 and the exterior of said sleeve 3H3 in the member 358. The latter also includes » is grooved. It terminates adjacent portion 308 a passage 3" to which the conduit 381 men forming a chamber 306 between portion 308 and. tioned hereinbefore, communicates and this con the tapered portionv 305 of the tubular member duit leads to the nozzle structure 388 subsequently 304. The tubular member 304 projects into the to be described. Referring again to Fig. 2,.the barrel includes a 20 injection chamber and is indicated by the numeral 388a. The rear end of the bore of this nozzle semi-circular groove 316. It also ‘includes a tip is plugged as at 303 and the same extends modi?ed triangular opening 3 l 5, having the lower into the chamber 302 in the member 388. A edge'3l5a similar to a portion of a hysteretic spring 301 normally constrains the internal tip curve and generated as a portion of a helix. outwardly into nozzle closing position. , When the member 305 is positioned as shown Upon the compression stroke, the air is forced in Fig. 1, the passage 326 registers with the semi into the opening and into this bore of the tip cylindrical slot 316, and, therefore, there is an and thus is stored therein, and following fuel in equalization of pressure at ‘this point. As the jection, as herein after pointed. out, this com plunger 385 is elevated, the passage 326 is sealed pressed stored air is released and serves to fur and from the upper edge of the slot 316 to the ther clean and cool the tip in addition to the lower curved edge of the triangular slot 3l5 the cleaning and cooling action previously described oil is subject to mechanical pressure and is forced hereinbefore. outwardly from the bore 322 passing the check The body portion includes a passage 300 which valve 320 into the nozzle supply line 381 until the connects the chamber 30! with the conduit 381a plunger reaches the end of its stroke, provided and thus any oil that leaks into the chamber 301 further that passage 339 is not connected to pas sage 340 by valve 341, as previously described. - and accumulates, discharges as previously de scribed, by way of conduit 344-see lower left por With reference to the end of the stroke, before tion of Fig. 1—and, therefore, no pressure can mentioned, the effective end of that stroke is de termined by the lower edge of the modi?ed tri 10 be built up in this chamber. The purpose of the grooving and the chamber angular slot so that the plunger may have fur 306 is to insure preheating of the fuel previous ther actual movement but the same is ineffec to injection. It also servesto keep the tip cool, tive for pumping purposes. thus preventing warping and the like, of the tip Reference is had to the previous description due to excessive heating. The member 388 is which describes the rotation of the plunger by . threaded as at 389 and threads into a conically means of the lower gear shown in Fig. 1. It will pointed member 390 seated in portion 3l3. , be apparent that when that occurs the effective The split collar 391 is clamped between the length of the pumping stroke is varied and since body portion 388 and the member 390 and pro the rotation is limited to approximately 180°, the triangular slot is similarly limited and when .50 vides a stop for engagement by a threaded sleeve 392 having threaded engagement with the thread the plunger is rotated to that point so that the ed portion 393 in the body portion 394 of the en effective stroke is the smallest, as shown to the gine. The fuel supply conduit 381 by means of left in Fig. 2, between the two slots 3l5 and 316, the ?tting 395 is connected to the body portion the ‘least amount of oil will be pumped. At the opposite end, the slot parts may be so arranged .55 388 of the nozzle and is in communication with shown most clearly in Fig. 2._ It includes a cen tral bore 322 in which reciprocates as well as ro that the maximum stroke is utilized for maximum “ pumping. Reference is again had to the raising and low- . ering of the member 358 carrying with it the bore 323 when the shaft 351 'is rotated, and it might be here noted also the pin 349, see Figs. 1 and 4 serves to hold the member 358 against rotation, due to the tendency of the part to rotate by rea-,! son of the worm arrangement, thereby insuring axial movement instead of rotational movement. This 'raisingror lowering of the barrel 323, as it were, is in effect a retarding or advancing of the time of injection. the supply passage 3|2' by means of the passage 396. Upon the fuel being supplied to passage 3I2 under pressure, the same builds up a pres sure‘ in the chamber 306 which forces the inner nozzle portion inwardly in opposition to spring 393 and thus the fuel discharges from the tubu lar nozzle chamber 305. Upon cessation of pres sure. spring 393 becomes effective to shut off the nozzle. ~ It will also be observed that the member 392 is ?anged’ as at 391 and member 388 is shoul dered as at 398 so that in backing out the sleeve 392, the ?ange 391 engages the shoulder 398 and Reference now will be had to the upper por tion of Fig. 1, to-wit, the nozzle structure desig 70 pulls the‘entire nozzle with it, thus freeing the nozzle from the engine body portion 394. From nated by the numeral 388. The line 381 supplies the foregoing, it will be apparent the nozzle struc fuel thereto. The line 381a constitutes a waste ture is ?rmly seated in the engine body portion or return line and the same connects to the inte in as leakproof relation as possible and for that rior of the housing 386 as at 314 and the oil thus returned by line 381a ?ows downwardly and is 75 purpose the copper gasket 399 may be interposed 8 betweenthe nozzle tip. and the engine bodypor lion-.394. ranged solely for starting or light purposes under In Fig. 5 there is illustrated a modi?ed form of the structure illustrated in the lower central pore tionof Fig. 1. Numeral I383 indicates the cam shaft with cam portion I 384 for elevating member ' I 315 in opposition to spring I369. Herein, the stem'I328 is ?ared outwardly‘at its lower end as at 1328a to seat the lower end of said spring. one phase and normal or heavy operation under the other phase. This application is a continuation-in-part of application Serial No. 199,210, ?led March 31:, 1938, now Patent No. 2,277,130, dated March 24, 1942, as to Fig. 5 herein, and said parent appli cation and said patent, now of public record, is made a part hereof for so much as is brie?y de The lower laterally enlarged end of the stem 10 scribed and claimed herein. 3 is ‘recessed at I300 to nest the upper end of a link While the invention has been illustrated and member I302 provided with a longitudinally described in great detail in the drawing and fore elongated slot I303 in which rides pin I3I carried going description, the same is to be considered .as by and extending across the recess in stem I328. illustrative and not restrictive in character. The iower end of the link I302 is provided with 15 The several modi?cations described herein as a, longitudinally elongated slot I304 at right an; well as others which will ‘readily suggest them gles to ‘slot'I303. There is positioned the trans selves to persons skilled in this art, all are con verse pin I335 having'one end socketed at I306 in sidered to be within the broadscope of the in upwardly directed recess in member I375 (see vention, reference being had tojthe appended 385a in Fig.1); ' The other and threaded end I308 20 claims. of-pin I305 is threaded into threaded bore I301 The invention claimed is: aligned withsocket I306. 1. In a Dieselengine fuel injection system, the Other numerals in Fig. 5 of the I300 series in-‘ combination with an engine operable cam, a lon dicate parts like or similar to those indicated by gitudinally movable cylinder means, a cam recip the 300 series in Fig. -1. The foregoing connec 25 rocable piston means in one end thereof, a check tion is of lost motion, universal joint character. controlled fuel supply to the opposite end there Reference now will-behad to Fig. 6, In this’ of, a check controlled fuel discharge from the ?gure numerals of the 400 series indicate like or last mentioned emit,, a control chamber adjacent similar parts. No detailed description of the same the cylinder means and having operative com is believednecessary inview of the minute de scription givenwith reference to Figs. 1 to 4, in '30 munication with the supply ahead of the check therein, said piston means including a bore ex clusive. vHowever, it is here pointed out that the tending from the cylinder means exposed end to ?xture 414 is shown as previously described "with the piston'means surface remote from the last reference to the ?xture~3l4 in Fig. ‘1 in the locat ing position .as distinguished from the normal op mentioned end but juxtapo'sitioned relative to the erative position. Also in this ?gure, the member 35 cylinder means, said cylinder means including a 490 is shown provided with recesses 490a, and . triangular like opening in its wall communicat these are provided for tightening the member'490 ing with the chamber and an arcuate opening to the body portion 388 of the injector. In this spaced from the triangular opening and in the form of the invention, the nozzle structure is 40 wall and similarly communicating, and means for shown rigidlyassociated-with the injector struc rotating one of the means for the purpose ture through the ?tting 400a. ‘ g described. It is'tobe observed that the Diesel fuel pump 2. A system as de?ned .by claim 1, character operates aslong. as the engine operates, although ized by the addition of a lost motion including, a- bypassing .isv effected during gasoline operation. universal joint type connection between the cam To start cold, the engine operates as a‘gasoline 45 operable piston and cam operable means there ‘engine. Whendesired, atany time thereafter for. that the engine .is capable of operating as a Diesel engine, the transformation is e?'ected. Should there be air trapped in the Diesel fuel supply, the to momentum of the engine ?ywheel (not shown) togetherwith other parts and their tendency to continue functioning causes the Diesel fuel pump to ?rst. discharge or ejectsthe trapped or locking air and then to discharge fuel. This is because the supply of fuel to the fuel pump is at the lower end thereof, so the air is'?rst discharged from the pump and then the fuel follows. The resulting engine therefor, is more than a ‘ 3. In an injection system for a Diesel engine including a fuel supply, a fuel discharge to the engine, a check valve in each, and a pressure chamber withwhich the supply and discharge communicate through the check ‘valves, the latter permitting uni-directional flow from the supply to the discharge, the combination of a cycling con trolled bypass including pump comprising a cyl inder provided with said chamber, a variable stroke piston in said cylinder and longitudinally ported from the cylinder exposed end thereof and projecting from the cylinder opposite the cham gasoline started Diesel for the gas phase of oper- - —\ bered end, the piston having a laterally directed ation is a true power or load phase and not an passage in free communication with the longi incidental low load or starting phase. Therefore, tudinally directed port, bypass providing means operation as a gasoline engine underload imposes no undue strain or stress upon the engine and the resultant convertible structure as hereinbefore pointed out has the several advantages of each type of engine and be selectively operated as such and has substantially none of the disadvantages of so-called convertible engines or engines ar from the chambered end of the cylinder to the piston including end thereof, valve means in the a bypass, the last mentioned end of the bypass means having operative association with the pis ton lateral'passage, said last mentioned bypass end being of adjustable character. LAURITZ N. MILLER.