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Патент USA US2405596

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2,405,596
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT“. OFFICE
2,405,596
.
DIFFERENTIAL CONVERTIBLE GASOLINE
DIESEL ENGINE
Lauritz N. Miller, Eugene, Oreg.
Application March 21, 1942, Serial No. 435,729
3 Claims. (Cl. 103-41)
2
1
This invention relates to internal combustion
~engines and of multi-cylinder character, if de
(sired, and: wherein the advantages of a Diesel
engine are included.
.
The chief object of this invention is to pro
duce an engine which will include a maximum
number of advantages and a minimum number
of the disadvantages.
One object of the invention consists in its op
eration under relatively high compression ratio 10
as a Diesel engine.
One feature of the invention consists in provid
ing mechanism whereby the Diesel engine range
of compression may be varied.
Another feature of the invention consists in
automatically reducing the clearance volume of
the engine when it is changed from a gasoline
type engine to a Diesel type engine for operation.
Another feature of the invention consists in
Diesel engines used for automotive purposes, nev
ertheless eliminates absolutely the possibility of
destruction or damage to the injection system
which is an essential inherent characteristic of
such Diesel engines when so operated as a brake.
The full nature of the invention will be under
stood from the accompanying drawing and the
following description and claims:
In the drawing,
Fig. 1 is a central sectional view through one
form of Diesel fuel injection system.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the fuel control
barrel shown in Fig. 1 and with a portion being
broken away to show the same in central section.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line B—B
of Fig. 1 and in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 4 is a top plan view of a portion of the
mechanism shown'in Fig. 1 and is taken in the
plane of line C-C of said figure and in the di
arranging certain parts of the engine so that the 20 rection of the arrows.
‘Fig. 5 is a central sectional view of a modi?ed
fuel supplied to the combustion chamber when
form of the lower central portion of the invention
operating as a Diesel engine is completely burned,
illustrated in Fig. 1.
thereby insuring cleanliness of the fuel nozzle.
‘ Fig. 6 is a similar view of a still further modi
Another object of the invention is to provide
means for the engine, when operating as a Diesel, 25 ?ed form of Diesel fuel injection system.
In Figs. 1 and 6, there are illustrated two
modi?cations 'of an injector and the associated
‘nozzle. These are: one of separated character
‘see Fig. 1--and the other of unitary arrange
One feature of the invention for the accom
plishment of the foregoing object consists in ar 30 ment—see Fig. 6. The following description in
effect constitutes a disclosure of said injector and
ranging the mechanism incident to the engine
to automatically control the fuel supply so as to
prevent the engine from attaining excessive
speeds and running away.
operation so that all or a part of the fuel sup
plied when operating as a Diesel is bypassed.
Another feature of the invention consists in,
the improved fuel supply for Diesel operation.
Another feature of the invention consists in
providing manually operable means which is ar
ranged so that the time of fuel injection when
operating as a Diesel can be varied, depending
upon operating conditions so that the most effec
tive time of application can be utilized with ref
erence to the operation of the Diesel at that time.
Such adjustment is highly desirable because the
character of fuels vary and furthermore, the al
titude in which the engine is operating is critical
with'reference to the absolute compression ratio.
When the engine is used for automotive purposes,
it will, be recognized that the engine may move
rapidly from one elevation to a very materially dif
ferent elevation and, therefore, the aforesaid is
highly critical and desirable.
Furthermore, when the engine is used forauto
motive purposes and operates as a Diesel; it has
a characteristic which permits it to operate as a
brake which while not impossible with standard
nozzle arrangements, respectively.
The cam 384 carried by cam shaft 383 is actu
ated to sup-ply the ?uid fuel under pressure and
‘ to the supply lines 381 and 481 in Figs. 1 and 6,
respectively.
Numerals of the 300 series indicate like or
similar parts in Fig. 1 and numerals of the 400
series indicate like or similar parts in Fig. 6
which are similarly indicated by numerals of the
100 and 200 series in prior ?gures. The afore
said statement, however, only applies to the cam
shaft, the cam, the operating plunger, the in
jector itself, supply line from the injector to
' the nozzle tip, and the waste return line. These
numbers are as follows: 83, 84, 85, 86, 81, 81a,
‘88 and 88a. So far as the numerals of Figs. 1
and 6 are concerned, the same numerals of the
‘300 and 400 series other than the previously
,mentioned, indicate like, similar or equivalent
parts.
>
Reference will be had to Fig. 1 speci?cally,
together with the auxiliary Figures 2, 3 and 4.
'In these ?gures, 386 indicates a relatively sta
tionary housing structure. It includes a slot 382
2,405,596
3
with which is associated a pin 38I carried by a
part 386 ?xed on the engine. This is a factory
locating arrangement. The casing includes in
the lower left hand corner, a boss portion 319
having a threaded opening as at 3'18, said open
ing registering with the opening 317 in turn
arranged to register with an oil discharge open
ing 316 in the shell or cylinder portion 315 of
the plunger portion 385. Fitting 315a'has oppo
4
in. Longitudinal movement of this rod does not
effect rotation of worm 353. Rotation of this
rod, however, does insure rotation of this worm.
The worm 353 is similarly enclosed by the hous
ing 386 and is similarly positioned in the cham
ber 350 thereof by means of the washer arrange
ment, previously described with reference to the
worm 362.
The housing 386 includes an upwardly directed
site ends threaded as at'3l4 and 313 and is pro 10 extension 349. The member 358 includes an
vided with a passage 372 therethrough, which
overhanging portion 348 and the latter includes
is arranged to communicate with a return sur-'
an elongated arcuate slot 34l—-see Fig. 4—and the
plus oil line 31!, the same being connected, to
gether by the coupling 316. Comparison of these
pin portion 349 is provided with suitable means
346 for locating at the factory, member 358 so
parts with those of the 400 series similarly num 15 far as rotative relationship is concerned with ref
bered and illustrated in Fig. 6 will show the
‘erence to the housing 336. This locating ar
?tting 414 is reversed end for end.
rangement,,however, does not interfere with rela
In factory tuning, it is desirable to have iden
tive axial movement therebetween which is nec
tical clearance between each plunger 385 and
essary as will be hereinafter pointed out.
the cam 384. This clearance is determined by
Mounted on and rigid with the shaft 362 is a
the use of a shim gauge and the spring 369
pair of spaced discs 345, see Fig. 1. An arm 344,
within the cylinder or shell portion 3'15 insures
see Figs. 3 and 1, terminates in. a ball portion
the proper contact or engagement. The ?xture
315a is then used as a stop or holding member
as shown in Fig. 6. This arrangement then
serves for initial locating of ‘the plunger 485
(Fig. 6) in the axial direction. The original
location with reference to rotation is obtained
by means of pin 38! , before mentioned. Follow
343 positioned between these discs.
The arm
3534, therefore, is responsive only to longitu
dinal movement of the shaft 364 and is not re
sponsive to any rotative movement of said shaft.
Furthermore, the discs are of such size that as the
member 358 reciprocates, as will be more fully
set forth hereinafter and for the purpose to be
ing such location, as before set. forth, the ?x 3O described hereinafter, the ball member 343 al
ture 315a is reversed, and replaced in the position
ways is in position for operative action if the rod
shown in Fig. 1. Figs. 1 and 6, accordingly repre
362 is moved longitudinally.
sent sequential‘ locating steps in factoring tuning.
Reference now will be had to the upper portion
The exterior of the shell portion 315 of the
of the injector shown in Fig. 1 and to Fig. 3. The
plunger is suitably grooved as at 368 and a gear 35 arm 344 is rigid with the valve member 342 which
361 having teeth 366 includes internal cooper
includes a passage portion 341. Said valve is
ating portions 365 which are associated with the
arranged to provide communication between the
grooves ‘368 so that the gear 361 and the shell
two passages 346 and 333 in the member 358.
portion have relative axial movement but rela
Passage 339 is a, relief passage leading from the
tively no rotative movement. The gear teeth 40 interior of the member 356 and when the valve
366 mesh with the worm 364 having the square
is properly positioned, the fuel intended for the
hole 363 therein which receives a square shaft
nozzle is bypassed through passage 339 into pas
362. Thus when shaft 362 is rotated, the gear
sage 346 and communicates with the supply. line
36‘! rotates and, therefore, the plunger 385 ro
333v that communicates with a header structure
tates. Longitudinal movement of the rod 362
331 common to all injectors of the engine. Thus,
does not effect rotation of the worm 364 and
as the plunger 385 is actuated by the cam and
this longitudinal movement of the rod will be
when ‘the valve 342 is properly positioned to pro
hereinafter referred to under the subject of con
vide the bypass communication last mentioned,
trols and the purpose thereof will be more fully
the fuel is cycled and not discharged to the noz
set forth.
50 zle. This operation it might be here stated, is
It will be obvious that the wormis enclosed
continuous with engine operatic-n when operating
within a housing portion and the same includes
as a gasoline engine.
a chamber arrangement 35!. This chamber has
There is also another passage 336 which is an
a predetermined length of bore and by employ
equalizing supply passage, the purpose of which
ing various thicknesses of washers at each side
will be set forth more fully very shortly. The
of the worm, the position of the worm may be
main supply passage to the injector, so that the
adjusted at the factory for factory timing of
same may operate as a fuel pump, is passage 335.
the device; Such washers, however, are not
illustrated herein.
The body portion 386 includes the chamber
366 having a reduced bore extension 359 adapted
to receive a tubular portion 358 which has a
tubular extension 351. extending into the cham
ber and serving as a guide for the upper portion
of the spring 369, the upper end of which bears
against the upper end of the chamber 366 adja
cent the bore portion 359.
The member 358 is externally threaded as at
356 intermediate its ends and above the cham
ber 366. This constitutes a worm portion and
It is extended as at 334 and this is enlarged to
form a chamber 333 which mounts a spring 332
bearing on the ball 33! that engages the seat 336.
Normally this ball is seated and constrained in
that position by the said spring. Upon the suc
tion stroke of the injector or pump, as will be
the same meshes with an internal worm wheel
355 having the teeth 354 which mesh with a
worm 353 having a non-polygonal opening 352
and herein shown square. A rod 354 of com
more fully set forth, the ball is unseated by the
liquid fuel supplied under pressure through head
er 337 and supply line 338 to supply fuel to th
main supply line 334.
‘
Reference will be had to the parts Within the
central portion of the housing 386-see Fig. l, and
more especially Fig. 2. Press ?tted in‘to opening
385a in the base of the plunger member is the
portion 329 from which‘there extends upwardly
the stem 328. This stem or piston has an axial
bore 32'! therein which is considerably elongated
plementary formation is slidably supported, there» ' and has a; lateral communicating passage 326
2,405,590
5
discharged through port 316, passage .311, pas
that leads to the cylindrical surface of said stem.
The member 358 includes a central bore 325-re
lieved as at 324.
.
Press ?tted in the bore 325 is the barrel 323
sage 312 and conduit 311, to the oil reservoir not
Annular groove 316a is the collector
shown.
channel.
I
The body portion of the nozzle 388 is shown
positioned in a bore 3I3 restricted as at 3l3a
and provided with a conical portion 313!) that
tates, the stem 328, before mentioned. The bore
opens into the back wall of the injection cham
322 includes a passage 334a which registers with
ber Al. The body portion 388 includes a passage
the bore or passage 334, see Fig. 1-~the main
3 I 2 which terminates in an annular channel por
supply passage. It also includes a co-axial dis
tion 31 I. This channel portion is closed by the
charge passage 32! which terminates in a seat
?ange 310 of a tubular portion 309 having the
portion 321a adapted to seat a ball 32!] normally
tapered or conical portion 308.
constrained by spring 319 toward seated position.
A sleeve 301 is slidably mounted in the bore
Said ball and spring are mounted in the chamber
of the portion 309 and the exterior of said sleeve
3H3 in the member 358. The latter also includes »
is grooved. It terminates adjacent portion 308
a passage 3" to which the conduit 381 men
forming
a chamber 306 between portion 308 and.
tioned hereinbefore, communicates and this con
the tapered portionv 305 of the tubular member
duit leads to the nozzle structure 388 subsequently
304. The tubular member 304 projects into the
to be described.
Referring again to Fig. 2,.the barrel includes a 20 injection chamber and is indicated by the numeral
388a. The rear end of the bore of this nozzle
semi-circular groove 316. It also ‘includes a
tip is plugged as at 303 and the same extends
modi?ed triangular opening 3 l 5, having the lower
into the chamber 302 in the member 388. A
edge'3l5a similar to a portion of a hysteretic
spring 301 normally constrains the internal tip
curve and generated as a portion of a helix.
outwardly into nozzle closing position.
,
When the member 305 is positioned as shown
Upon the compression stroke, the air is forced
in Fig. 1, the passage 326 registers with the semi
into the opening and into this bore of the tip
cylindrical slot 316, and, therefore, there is an
and thus is stored therein, and following fuel in
equalization of pressure at ‘this point. As the
jection, as herein after pointed. out, this com
plunger 385 is elevated, the passage 326 is sealed
pressed stored air is released and serves to fur
and from the upper edge of the slot 316 to the
ther clean and cool the tip in addition to the
lower curved edge of the triangular slot 3l5 the
cleaning and cooling action previously described
oil is subject to mechanical pressure and is forced
hereinbefore.
outwardly from the bore 322 passing the check
The body portion includes a passage 300 which
valve 320 into the nozzle supply line 381 until the
connects the chamber 30! with the conduit 381a
plunger reaches the end of its stroke, provided
and thus any oil that leaks into the chamber 301
further that passage 339 is not connected to pas
sage 340 by valve 341, as previously described. - and accumulates, discharges as previously de
scribed, by way of conduit 344-see lower left por
With reference to the end of the stroke, before
tion of Fig. 1—and, therefore, no pressure can
mentioned, the effective end of that stroke is de
termined by the lower edge of the modi?ed tri 10 be built up in this chamber.
The purpose of the grooving and the chamber
angular slot so that the plunger may have fur
306 is to insure preheating of the fuel previous
ther actual movement but the same is ineffec
to injection. It also servesto keep the tip cool,
tive for pumping purposes.
thus preventing warping and the like, of the tip
Reference is had to the previous description
due to excessive heating. The member 388 is
which describes the rotation of the plunger by .
threaded as at 389 and threads into a conically
means of the lower gear shown in Fig. 1. It will
pointed member 390 seated in portion 3l3.
,
be apparent that when that occurs the effective
The split collar 391 is clamped between the
length of the pumping stroke is varied and since
body portion 388 and the member 390 and pro
the rotation is limited to approximately 180°,
the triangular slot is similarly limited and when .50 vides a stop for engagement by a threaded sleeve
392 having threaded engagement with the thread
the plunger is rotated to that point so that the
ed portion 393 in the body portion 394 of the en
effective stroke is the smallest, as shown to the
gine. The fuel supply conduit 381 by means of
left in Fig. 2, between the two slots 3l5 and 316,
the ?tting 395 is connected to the body portion
the ‘least amount of oil will be pumped. At the
opposite end, the slot parts may be so arranged .55 388 of the nozzle and is in communication with
shown most clearly in Fig. 2._ It includes a cen
tral bore 322 in which reciprocates as well as ro
that the maximum stroke is utilized for maximum “
pumping.
Reference is again had to the raising and low- .
ering of the member 358 carrying with it the bore
323 when the shaft 351 'is rotated, and it might
be here noted also the pin 349, see Figs. 1 and 4
serves to hold the member 358 against rotation,
due to the tendency of the part to rotate by rea-,!
son of the worm arrangement, thereby insuring
axial movement instead of rotational movement.
This 'raisingror lowering of the barrel 323, as it
were, is in effect a retarding or advancing of
the time of injection.
the supply passage 3|2' by means of the passage
396.
Upon the fuel being supplied to passage
3I2 under pressure, the same builds up a pres
sure‘ in the chamber 306 which forces the inner
nozzle portion inwardly in opposition to spring
393 and thus the fuel discharges from the tubu
lar nozzle chamber 305. Upon cessation of pres
sure. spring 393 becomes effective to shut off the
nozzle. ~
It will also be observed that the member 392
is ?anged’ as at 391 and member 388 is shoul
dered as at 398 so that in backing out the sleeve
392, the ?ange 391 engages the shoulder 398 and
Reference now will be had to the upper por
tion of Fig. 1, to-wit, the nozzle structure desig 70 pulls the‘entire nozzle with it, thus freeing the
nozzle from the engine body portion 394. From
nated by the numeral 388. The line 381 supplies
the foregoing, it will be apparent the nozzle struc
fuel thereto. The line 381a constitutes a waste
ture is ?rmly seated in the engine body portion
or return line and the same connects to the inte
in as leakproof relation as possible and for that
rior of the housing 386 as at 314 and the oil thus
returned by line 381a ?ows downwardly and is 75 purpose the copper gasket 399 may be interposed
8
betweenthe nozzle tip. and the engine bodypor
lion-.394.
ranged solely for starting or light purposes under
In Fig. 5 there is illustrated a modi?ed form of
the structure illustrated in the lower central pore
tionof Fig. 1. Numeral I383 indicates the cam
shaft with cam portion I 384 for elevating member '
I 315 in opposition to spring I369.
Herein, the
stem'I328 is ?ared outwardly‘at its lower end as
at 1328a to seat the lower end of said spring.
one phase and normal or heavy operation under
the other phase.
This application is a continuation-in-part of
application Serial No. 199,210, ?led March 31:,
1938, now Patent No. 2,277,130, dated March 24,
1942, as to Fig. 5 herein, and said parent appli
cation and said patent, now of public record, is
made a part hereof for so much as is brie?y de
The lower laterally enlarged end of the stem 10 scribed and claimed herein.
3 is ‘recessed at I300 to nest the upper end of a link
While the invention has been illustrated and
member I302 provided with a longitudinally
described in great detail in the drawing and fore
elongated slot I303 in which rides pin I3I carried
going description, the same is to be considered .as
by and extending across the recess in stem I328.
illustrative and not restrictive in character.
The iower end of the link I302 is provided with 15
The several modi?cations described herein as
a, longitudinally elongated slot I304 at right an;
well as others which will ‘readily suggest them
gles to ‘slot'I303. There is positioned the trans
selves to persons skilled in this art, all are con
verse pin I335 having'one end socketed at I306 in
sidered to be within the broadscope of the in
upwardly directed recess in member I375 (see
vention, reference being had tojthe appended
385a in Fig.1); ' The other and threaded end I308 20 claims.
of-pin I305 is threaded into threaded bore I301
The invention claimed is:
aligned withsocket I306. 1. In a Dieselengine fuel injection system, the
Other numerals in Fig. 5 of the I300 series in-‘
combination with an engine operable cam, a lon
dicate parts like or similar to those indicated by
gitudinally movable cylinder means, a cam recip
the 300 series in Fig. -1. The foregoing connec
25 rocable piston means in one end thereof, a check
tion is of lost motion, universal joint character.
controlled fuel supply to the opposite end there
Reference now will-behad to Fig. 6, In this’
of, a check controlled fuel discharge from the
?gure numerals of the 400 series indicate like or
last mentioned emit,, a control chamber adjacent
similar parts. No detailed description of the same
the cylinder means and having operative com
is believednecessary inview of the minute de
scription givenwith reference to Figs. 1 to 4, in '30 munication with the supply ahead of the check
therein, said piston means including a bore ex
clusive. vHowever, it is here pointed out that the
tending from the cylinder means exposed end to
?xture 414 is shown as previously described "with
the piston'means surface remote from the last
reference to the ?xture~3l4 in Fig. ‘1 in the locat
ing position .as distinguished from the normal op
mentioned
end but juxtapo'sitioned relative to the
erative position. Also in this ?gure, the member 35 cylinder means, said cylinder means including a
490 is shown provided with recesses 490a, and .
triangular like opening in its wall communicat
these are provided for tightening the member'490
ing with the chamber and an arcuate opening
to the body portion 388 of the injector. In this
spaced from the triangular opening and in the
form of the invention, the nozzle structure is 40 wall and similarly communicating, and means for
shown rigidlyassociated-with the injector struc
rotating one of the means for the purpose
ture through the ?tting 400a. ‘
g
described.
It is'tobe observed that the Diesel fuel pump
2. A system as de?ned .by claim 1, character
operates aslong. as the engine operates, although
ized by the addition of a lost motion including,
a- bypassing .isv effected during gasoline operation.
universal joint type connection between the cam
To start cold, the engine operates as a‘gasoline 45 operable piston and cam operable means there
‘engine. Whendesired, atany time thereafter
for.
that the engine .is capable of operating as a Diesel
engine, the transformation is e?'ected.
Should
there be air trapped in the Diesel fuel supply, the to
momentum of the engine ?ywheel (not shown)
togetherwith other parts and their tendency to
continue functioning causes the Diesel fuel pump
to ?rst. discharge or ejectsthe trapped or locking
air and then to discharge fuel. This is because
the supply of fuel to the fuel pump is at the lower
end thereof, so the air is'?rst discharged from
the pump and then the fuel follows.
The resulting engine therefor, is more than a
‘
3. In an injection system for a Diesel engine
including a fuel supply, a fuel discharge to the
engine, a check valve in each, and a pressure
chamber withwhich the supply and discharge
communicate through the check ‘valves, the latter
permitting uni-directional flow from the supply to
the discharge, the combination of a cycling con
trolled bypass including pump comprising a cyl
inder provided with said chamber, a variable
stroke piston in said cylinder and longitudinally
ported from the cylinder exposed end thereof and
projecting from the cylinder opposite the cham
gasoline started Diesel for the gas phase of oper- - —\ bered end, the piston having a laterally directed
ation is a true power or load phase and not an
passage in free communication with the longi
incidental low load or starting phase. Therefore,
tudinally directed port, bypass providing means
operation as a gasoline engine underload imposes
no undue strain or stress upon the engine and the
resultant convertible structure as hereinbefore
pointed out has the several advantages of each
type of engine and be selectively operated as such
and has substantially none of the disadvantages
of so-called convertible engines or engines ar
from the chambered end of the cylinder to the
piston including end thereof, valve means in the
a bypass, the last mentioned end of the bypass
means having operative association with the pis
ton lateral'passage, said last mentioned bypass
end being of adjustable character.
LAURITZ N. MILLER.
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