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Патент USA US2405617

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Aug. 13, 1946.
DATA œmmsmssron SYSTEM
Filed nec. 15. 1_942.
'10 Sheets-Sheet 1 _
» Augf 13, 1946.
l ` F. J. SINGER
n_lèd nac. 1'5. 1942 Y
1o sheets-sheet 2
Aug. 13, 1946.
Filed nec. 15.11942
1o sheets-sheet s
Aug. ` 13, 1946.
F. J. slNGER
‘ 2,405,617
Filed naci. 15. 1.9‘42
~1o sheets-sheet 4
ÖQL... ¿aM-«Ü
Àugu E3, 119460
Filed Dec. 15.v 1942
1o sneetslsheet 5.
1€' J. S/NGER
Ug° 13; 1945»
2,405,561 7
Filed pee, 15, 1942
1o sheets-sheet e
Ff J 5//V
' '_ I
Aug. 13, 1946.
2,405,617 S
F'iled Deens, 1942
1o sheets-sheet 'I
Aug. 13, 1946.'
F'iied Dec.- 15, 1942-
2,405,517!4 f
1o sheets-sheet 8
Aug. 33, i946,
Fíled'Dec. 15, 1942
1o sheets-sheet 9
Äü@ 33, i946’
Filed Dec. 1S. 1942
lO Sheets-«Sheet 1G
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
Fred J. Singer, Rockville Centre, N. Y., assignor
to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application December 15, 1942, Serial No. 469,045
7 Claims.
This invention relates to data transmission or
telemetric systems and more especially to such
systems in which data observed at the observ
ing station is translated into permutation code
telegraph signals which are transmitted from
the observing to the receiving station for re
In the particular embodiment disclosed here
angles, it may
employed foranything
An object of the invention is the improvement
of data transmission systems.`
A more particular object of the invention is the
improvement of data transmission systems in
which permutation code telegraph signals are
in, the invention is applied to the transmission
employed in transmitting the data between sta
of data defining the angle between the line of 10 tions.
sight to a target and a base line. Two observ
A still more particular object of this invention
ing stations at the extremities of a base line of
is the provision of a data transmission system ar
known lengths areemployed. Mechanism is pro
ranged to rapidly transmit signals deiining multi
vided ior measuring the angle between the base
digit numbers.
line and the line of sight to the target at each 15
A feature of this invention is means for sup
observing station. The size of the angle is eX»
plying all of the electric energy required for the
pressed in degrees and hundredths of a degree.
operation of the system from the receiving sta
The number expressing the angle is divided into
tion so that no means for producing electric en
two parts. A separate permutation code is as
ergy is required at the observing station.
signed to each of the two parts. A group of per 20
A further feature of this invention is the em
mutation code signals, corresponding to the code
ployment of means for generating telegraph sig
defining one part of the number, such as the
nals in accordance with two completely inde
two right-hand digits of the number, is impressed
pendent permutation codes and in which signals
simultaneously on a circuit connecting the ob
in accordance with one or these codes define the
serving and receiving stations. That is to say, 25 two right-hand digits of a four-digit number rep
the complete multielement permutation code sig
resenting observed data and signals in accord
nal is impressed on a circuit having as many
ance with the second of these codes define the
separate transmitting elements as there are ele
two left-hand digits of the number.
ments in the multielement permutation code em
A further feature of this invention is an ar
ployed. if, as herein, a six-element permutation 30 rangement in which any of 4,096 numbers may be
code is employed for one portion of the number,
defined by permutation telegraph signals in ac
a circuit capable of transmitting six signals si
cordance with two independent six-element codes
multaneously to denne the two right-hand digits
but in which the apparatus is arranged for the
of the number completely are transmitted simul
actual transmission and translation of 3,000 of
taneously. Then the signal elements compris 35 the possible 4,096 codes to identify any of 3,000
ing the code defining the left-hand digits of the
numbers which may represent any part of a 30
number are impressed on the same connecting
degree angle deñned to the hundredths of a
circuit in the same manner.
At the receiving
station two separate independent receiving means
A further feature of this invention is an ar
are employed to receive the signals from each 40 rangement in which a change in the data to be
observing station. The invention includes means
transmitted is from one number to the next
for insuring that the two separate observing and
higher or next lower number and in which a
receiving systems are operated in synchronism.~
The base line of fixed known length and the two
angles between the base line and the two lines
of sight from the two observing stations to the
target ñX the location of the target. The system
is arranged to deñne to the hundredths of a de
corresponding change in the permutation code
signals transmitted involves a change in but one
element of each of the two multielement signal
codes used to identify the number, which results
in effecting changes in the transmitting and
receiving apparatus with a minimum of signal
gree any angle within a {E0-degree Zone but is
transmission and readjustment.
capable of expansion. The particular 30~degree 50 A further feature of the invention is that all
zone in which the line of sight is located is made
of the elements of a particular signal code comknown to the operators at the receiving station
bination completely deñning one portion of the
by means of some complementary facility such
multidigit number corresponding to the observed
as by telephone or telegraph. Although the in
data are impressed on the circuit interconnecting
vention is applied hereinv to the measurement of 65 the stations at one time and all of the elements
the description herein of the operation of Fig. 5
and Fig. 6 ;
of a particular signal code combination com
pletely defining another portion of the number
A further feature of the invention is that each
Fig. 11 is a chart showing the manner in which
the set of six cam-controlled contacts in the up
set of data is entirely independent of previous
data. That is, the system does not depend upon
per portion of Fig. 2 operates to transmit 60 codes
defining 60 one-half degree angles. In this
sequence nor history for information sent or de
coded at a particular time, so that line hits or
other disturbances will not result in errors in
chart there are six horizontal rows, one for each
of the six cams. There are 60 vertical rows, one
are impressed on the circuit at a second time.
for each of the 60 diiîerent cam settings. Where
10 a rectangle is cross-hatched, it indicates that
subsequently transmitted data.
the corresponding cam has a raised surface in
These and other features of the invention will
that particular position and that its correspond
become apparent from the following description
ing contact is closed;
when read with reference to the associated
Fig. 12 is a chart showing the manner in which
drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is a schematic showing the general dis 15 the set of six cam-controlled contacts in the low
er portion of Fig. 2 operates to transmit 50 codes
position of the major apparatus units of the en
defining 50 one-hundredth of a degree angles.
tire system;
In this chart, there are six horizontal rows, one
Fig. 2 shows two sets of transmitting cams
for each of the six cams. There are 50 vertical
which are mounted on the azimuth instrument
at each observing station and on which the two 20 rows, one for each of the 50 different cam set
tings. Where a rectangle is cross-hatched', itin
codes corresponding to the two portions of a mul
dicates that the corresponding cam has a, raised
tidigit number representing the measured angle
surface in that particular position and that its
are set up at each observing station as well as
corresponding contact is closed;
the electrical contacts and wiring controlled by
the cams at each station;
25 Fig. 13 shows two code tables, one for half de
grees and one for one-hundredths of a degree
Fig. 3 shows two sets of relays on which t'he
used in explaining the invention; and
codes set up by the two sets of cams in Fig. 2
Fig. 14 shows the manner in which Figs. 2, 3,
are impressed and a transfer relay for control
4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10 should be arranged each with
ling the transmission of the data set up on each
set of code relays to the receiving station at dif 30 relation to the other so that they may be prop
erly interconnected into an operative system.
ferent times;
The conductors extending to the margins of
Fig. 4 shows a set of six polar relays located
each of these ñgures interconnect to conductors
at the receiving station for receiving the codes
in Corresponding positions on contiguous iigures.
set up on the two sets of code relays per Fig. 3
In the system of numbering of the apparatus
at different times. It includes also a transfer
and wiring shown on these figures, apparatus
relay for controlling the directing of the two dif
and wiring in Fig. 2 will be numbered in the 200
ferent codes deñning the two different portions
series, apparatus and wiring in Fig. 3 will be
of the multidigit number to two diiïerent select
numbered in the 300 series, etc.
ing and marking circuits which translates the
Refer to Fig. 1. Fig. 1 shows in schematic form
two codes;
Fig. 5 represents the left-hand portion and Fig.
- 6 the right-hand portion of a relay selecting and
marking circuit used in translating the codes set
up on the top set of cams in Fig. 2 to identify
the position of the line of sight in the observed
.S0-degree zone to the nearest half degree;
Fig. 7 is a commutator including six segmented
drums each comprising conducting and non
conducting segments and a set of brushes for
and '
ground to various apparatus units in the trans
mitting and receiving mechanisms associated
the general arrangement of the major apparatus
units of a complete system comprising two ob
servingstations and one main station or receiv
ing station. It is to be understood that the ob
serving stations are actually located at the ex
tremities of a straight base line of íixed length
passing through the receiving station. In Fig. l,
the two observing stations are shown for conven
ience at the left of the iigure. At the upper left
of the figure the main items of apparatus located
at one station, labelled the A station, are shown.
At the bottom left of the iigure the major appa
ratus units at a second station, the B station, are
shown. Each of the observing stations is con
with each observing and receiving device to con
trol the transmission and reception of the two
sets of permutation code Signals used in denn 55 nected to the receiving station by eight conduc
tors. Six of these conductors are used for trans
ing any observed angle at each station in the
proper time sequence;
Fig. 8 is a time sequence diagram for the com
mitting simultaneously the six-element permu
tation code signals. The remaining two conduc
are used for synchronizing and controlling
mutator per Fig. 7 used in explaining the opera
tion of the commutator;
As indicated in the upper and lower left-hand
Fig. 9 is the left-hand portion and Fig. 10 is the
portions of Fig. 1, at each of the stations there
right-handportion of a circuit which is identi
are cams mounted on the azimuth instrument.
cal with the circuit per Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. It is
As the line of sight to a target changes, the cam
used to translate the codes set up on the bottom 65 settings are changed. On each azimuth instru
set of cams in Fig. 2 to fix the line of sight to the
ment, as indicated in Fig. 2, there are two sets
nearest hundredth of a degree by making the
of cams. One set of cams sets up 60 codes to
selection of a particular one of fifty possible one
denne each of 60 one-half degree angles in a 30
hundredths of a degree in each one-half degree
degree zone. The other set of cams sets up 50
zone. Since Fig. 9 and Fig. 1G are identical with 70 codes to define each of 50 one-hundredths of a ‘
degree in a half degree zone. At the main sta
Fig. 5 a'nd Fig. 6 and the manner in which they
operate is the same as Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, the wir
tion there is a motor-driven synchronizing switch
ing of Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 is not shown in Vdetail
or commutator indicated by a rectangle in the
middle of the right-hand portion of Fig. 1. The
as it is not necessary to an understanding of the
invention which may be fully understood from 75 motor-driven synchronizing switch or commuta
tor (l.) maintains 'the transmission v'and recep
tion -of the data for teach station in synchronism;
(2) controls the operation of -a transfer relay at
»each observing Kstation which transfers the >'six
a revolution of gear 222 therefore corresponds
to one degree change of azimuth and a complete
revolution of gear 222 corresponds to a 30-degree
change of azimuth. Gear 222 is securely ñxed to
code 'signal transmitting conductors, intercon
shaft 223. Cams 224, 225, 226, 221, 228 and 229
necting .an vobserving station land the -'central sta
tion, lbetwe‘en two different sets >of code register
ing relays at each observing station, which relays
are also securely fixed to shaft 223.
Cams 224
to 229 control contacts 230, 22|, 232, 233, 234 and
235. The cuttings of cams 224 to 229 are ar
ranged so that they set up 60 different combina
cams, .so as to transmit `each Y"of ‘the 'two co'des
tions on. contacts 230 to 235 for each rotation of
defining each multidigit number 'to the receiving
shaft 223, Each different setting of contacts 230
station in the proper sequence; '(3) controls a
to 225 defines a diiferent half degree in a 30
second `transfer .relay >individual to veach observ
deg'ree zone.
ing station but ’located .at vthe 'receiving station
Rigidly secured to shaft 202- is gear 204 which
so as to direct the code signals defining the half 15 engages gear 225 securely mounted on shaft 22S.
»degree information .and the 'hundredth .degree
The ratio of gears 204 and 225k is such that for
information to ‘separate «selecting and marking
each revolution of shaft 202, while gear 204 ro
circuits in the receiving -station for 'each ‘observ
tates once, gear 205 rotates twice turning shaft
Aing station; (4) locks the 'code :information re
226 through two revolutions. Securely fixed to
ceived ïby the selecting circuit ’for 'the half degree 20 shaft 265 are cams 227|, 208, 209, 2li), 2H, 2|2
respond to 'the codes set upon the two Isets of
information and the hundredth degree informa
tion momentarily in 'the selecting and marking
circuits associated with `each observing station at
the receiving station.
Codes >defining the particular half degree zone
in which the line of sight to the ‘targetfis located
are impressed on 'the ‘six code `transmission con
and 2|3 whichcontrol contacts 2|4, 2|5, 2|6, 2|“|,
2i 8, 2|9 and 220. Since shaft 202 rotates twice
for each rotation of the Vernier, shaft 226 makes
one revolution for each fifty-hundredths degree
change of azimuth. Cams 221 to 2|2 are so cut
that during each revolution of shaft 206 the cams
set up 50 different combinations of settings of
contacts 2|4 to 2|9. Each different combination
of contact settings defines a different one-hun
ductors connecting each observing station with
the main station simultaneously. 'The code de
fining the half degree ‘zone is impressed on a
polar relay repeating circuit at 'the main station
individual Yto each observing station. The code
set up on each polar lrelay repeating circuit for
a particular lone-half degree zone is impressed
through 00 and 49 the one-half degree cam cir
at the receiving station on Sa'n individual one
cuits are held open.
half degree :selecting and marking circuit 'for
each observing .station which translates the code
and >operates an indicator to show the number of
the particular one-half degree zone involved _at
the main station. .After this information has ‘
been transmitted and' recorded at the 'main »sta
tion, the code for the hundredth of a degree in- y
formation is transmitted 'from each observing
dredth degree of azimuth.
Cam 2| 3 and contact 220 act as a switch to con
trol the circuits associated with the one-half de
gree cams so that when the Vernier
Refer to Fig. l1. The different settings of the
contacts controlled by cams 224 to 220 are indi
cated in the chart of Fig. 11. Reference to the
left-hand vertical column in the chart, per Fig.
1l, indicates the manner in which contacts 230 to
associated with cams 22|@ to 220 are arranged
the ' rst of the- 5() different cam positions for
the half degree zones which corresponds to the
code for di) degree. The left-hand column of the
the half degree information from each observ~
chart indicates that for this condition contacts
ing station to the receiving station. The hun
associated with cams 225, 225, 223 and 229 are
dredth of a degree information is set up at the
closed and that contacts associated with cams
receiving station on the same polar 'relay repeat
and 22? are open. The condition of contacts
ing circuit associated with each observing station
to 235 for each of the 60 cam cuttings defin
used in receiving the one~half degree informa 50 ing each of the half »degree zones from 0.0 degree
tion. The polar relay repeating lcircuit transmits
to 29.5 degrees is indicated in its respective ver
the code -identifying the hundredth degree set
tical column in the chart per Fig. 11.
ting into an individual one-hundredth degree
Refer to Fig. 12. The 50 vertical columns in
selecting and marking circuit for each observing
1.2 indicate the condition of contacts 2M to
station. The hundredth degree selectingv and "f 2i@ associated with cams 2ii°| to 2 I2, respectively.
marking circuit controls an indicator to indicate
The left-hand vertical column in Fig. 12 shows
the particular one-hundredth degree setting for
thalr the contacts associated with cams 207, 208,
each station.
i and 2 l2 are closed in the first 0f the fifty
Refer to Fig. v2. Fig. 2 shows the two sets of
cam positions which corresponds to the code for
permutation cams mounted on the azimuth in 60 .Q0 degree or .50 degree for each degree setting,
strument at an observing station. Fig. 2 also
depending upon the particular half degree zone
shows a Vernier 20| having 100 divisions. Each
in which the line of sight is located.
of the divisions represents one-hundredth de
Attention is particularly called to an impor
gree. The Vernier is rigidly secured to a shaft
tant characteristic of the codes disclosed in Fig. 11
202. The shaft and Vernier are rotated >by means
12. Reference to either of these iigures
of crank 203. The telescope on the azimuth in
shows that the change in the cam settings and
strument (not shown) is rotated through one de
therefore, in the contacts which the cams controíl,
gree for each revolution of crank 203 by means
involvesa change in but a single cam and there
of gear 204 which is also rigidly secured to shaft
fore a single contact for each transition from one
setting to the next higher or next lower setting.
Securely ñxed to shaft 202 is worm gear 22|
This also illustrated in Fig. 13, Tables 1 and
which engages with spur gear 222. The ratio
2. Table 1 refers to the half degree cams; Table
of gears 22| and 222 is such that gear 222 makes
2 refers to the hundredths of a degree cams. Col
one-thirtieth of a revolution for each revolution
umns 1 and 4 of each of these tables show the
of gear 22| and Vernier 20|. One-thirtieth of
number of the cams which are in position to close
station over the same six wires used to transmit
contacts for each code position. Columns 2 and 5
of the tables show the half degree and hundredth
degree information corresponding to the codes in
dicated in columns l and 4. In the selecting cir
cuits, per Figs. 5 and 6 considered together and
Figs. l9 and 10 considered together, the selecting
relays are arranged in six vertical rows in each
code impulses and the hundredth code impulses
'oe transmitted from each observing station to
the receiving station in proper sequence.
This is performed in large part by the com
mutator, per Fig. 7. This commutator supplies
either battery or ground, as required, at proper
intervals to control the switching of relay 3|5 in
Fig; 3 so as to connect the six conductors 3|6 to
32| either to the contacts of relays 302 to 301
for the transmission of the half degree code in
in Fig. 5, rows _1, 2 and 3; and three in Fig. 6, rows
formation, or to the contacts of relays 309 to
Il, 5 and 6. The numbers in columns 3 and 6 in
3M for the transmission of the hundredth de
code Tables l and 2, per Fig. 13, indicate the relay
gree information. After the codes for either the
row position in Figs. 5 and 6 and Figs. 9 and 10 in
half degree information or the hundredth de
which the selected lamp corresponding to the
code in the nist and third columns and to the 15 gree information are set up on relays 40| to 405
individual to each observing station, the com
degree numbers in the second and fourth columns
mutator controls transfer relay 401 at the re
will be found. This will now be explained in more
pairof figures, each row comprising two relays.
For instance, there are three such vertical rows
ceiving station to direct the code` information
to the proper group `of selecting and marking
The code combination inthe top rectangle of
column 1, Table 1, which pertains to half degrees 20 relays. It has been explained that there are
two different selecting and marking Vcircuits
is 2356. This indicates that the contacts associ
associated with each observing station, one for
ated with half degreecams 2,. 3, 5 and 6 will be
the half degree information and the other for
closed for the 0.00 degree code as shown in the
the hundredth degree information. As this in
top rectangle of column 2 of Table l. The number
6 appearing in the top- rectangle of the third col 25 formation is set up at different times on relays
40| to 406 in Fig. 4 at the receiving station, itV
umn of Table 1 indicates that the lamp for the
0.00 half degree zone will be found connected to a
relay in relay row position 6 which is shown' at
is necessary to route it at the proper time to
either the selecting and marking circuit for the
half degree information or to the selecting and
the right of
6. Reference to Fig. 6 shows that
the lamp corresponding to the 0.00 zone is con 30 marking circuit for the hundredth degree in"
formation. Relay 401 controls the connection
nected to the upper of the two relays in position 0.
ofFigs. 5 and 6 which taken together constitute
Reference to Table kl and Table 2 of Fig. 13 will
the selecting and marking circuit for the half
disclose that there is a change in only one ele
degree information, or of Figs. 9 and 10 which
ment in each code on transition to the next higher
and next lower number.
35 taken together constitute the selecting and
marking circuit for the one-hundredth degree
Before beginningr the description> of the de
information to the code receiving Vrelays 40| to
tailed operation of the system a further explana
40B.k When Figs. 5 and 6 are connected through
tion of the function of the commutator, per Fig. 7,
transfer relay 407 to the code receiving relays
and its relation to the various circuits will be
givenin order to facilitate an understanding of 40 40| to 406 in Fig. 4, relays corresponding to the
particular code set up on the code receiving re!
the detailed description to follow.
lays will be operated in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 to make
The raised surfaces Aon the peripheries of cams
a selection yof a particular indicator which in the
224 to 223 in Fig. 2 will supply battery transmitted
present embodiment is a lamp. Some one of
from the commutator at the receiving station
60 lamps in Figs. 5 and 6 is lighted to indicate
over one of the two control conductors through
a particular half degree zone in the Sli-degree
such of contacts 230 to 235 as are operated to the
range, When Figs. 9 and l0 are connected
windings of corresponding relays in relay group
through transfer relay 401 to code receiving re
302 to 33'! in Fig. 3. For each cam contact which
lays 40| to 406. a group of relays in Figs. 9 and
is closed a corresponding relay in the group of
relays 302 to 301 will be operated and locked. 50 l0, corresponding to the code'set up on relays
40| to 006 in Fig. 4, will be operated to make a
When contacts 2M to 2|9 are operated in accord
selection of some one of 50 lamps. The lighted
ance with a particular code, a corresponding relay
lamp in Fig. 9 or 10 will indicate the particular
in the groupmc relays'300 to 3M will be operated
ñftieth division on which the line of sight is
and locked. interconnecting each observing sta
tion with the receiving station there are six trans 55 located in the half degree zone shown by the
lighted lamp in Fig. 5 or 6, thus determining the
mission conductors, such as 3|6 to 32|, and two
line of sight to the nearest hundredth of a degree.
control conductors. 322 and 323. The transmis
The time of operation of the transfer relays
sion conductors are terminated on individual
for both stations is- controlled simultaneously
armatures of transfer relay 3io. The armatures
of the two sets of code relays are connected to 60 by the commutator in Fig. '7. The commutator
also locks thevarious code and selecting relays
opposing contacts associated with each of the six
momentarily to maintain their registrations for
armatures of transfer relay 3|5. The same six
necessary intervals and to achieve one of the
transmission conductors 3|6 to 32| are used to
important objectives of this invention, to pre
transmit and the same six receiving relays 40|
to 400 at the receiving station are used to receive 66 vent unnecessary operation of relays on transi
both the code signal impulses for the half degree
The means by which the whole system is held
and the hundredth degree settings for one observ
in synchronism and the time sequence of oper
ing station. Corresponding transmission conduc
ations may be understood from reference to
tors and receiving relays function for the second
station. It is necessary in order to fiX the position 70 Figs. 7 and 8.
Fig. 7 represents a commutator having six
of the target that the angles between the line of
segmented rings '|00 to '|05 and twelve brushes
sight and the base line at each observing station
'|06 to '||‘|. The segmented rings are shown in
be measured and the corresponding code signal
the developed condition. The rings are rotated
impulses be transmitted simultaneously. Fur
ther, it is necessary to insure that the half degree 75 in unison by a motor (not shown). As the six
rines rotate each engages e eerl'espoedirlg» pair
of; stationary conducting brushes which Vare in
sulated each from the other. Thus, brushes
'106 and '10'1 engage rings '160. Brushes '108 and
'1119 engage rings lílhetc. Ground ‘H9 is' con
nected to brushes lill, 'H5 and lll'. Battery
'118 is connected to brushes ‘129, ‘1li and tls.
Each of the segmented rings comprises con
ducting and insulating segments. The conduct
ing of the six relays S92 to Bill on which the
codes for the half degree zones are set up by the
six cams 22A to 229.
codes for the half degree and hundredth degree
information from each observing station land
Relay tte controls the
momentary locking of the six relays 369 to 314 on `
ing segments are represented by plain rectangles;
the insulating segments are 'represented' by
shaded rectangles. As the rings are rotated,
when a conducting segment is presented to its
corresponding pair of brushes, batt/ery or ground
is transmitted from' one of the pair' o_f brushes
through the conducting segment and the other
of the pair of brushes to Various items of appa
ratus at each of the A and B transmitting Sta
tions to insure their operation in synchronism
and to control the', order of transmission of the
Gommutator lill applies battery intermittent
ly over conductor '123 in Fig. 7, conductor 423
in Fig. 4 and conductor 323 in Fig. 3, to the
windings oi relays 301 and 36e at observing sta
tion A. ~'Relay 391. controls the momentary lock
which the codes for the hundredth degrees are
_set up by cams 20‘1 to 212.
Commutator '102 supplies battery over conduc
torsä‘lîâ in Fig. 7, and’425 in Fig. 4, to the wind
of transfer relay 1101 which controls the di
15 recting of the signal impulses for the halfy de
gree and hundredths degree codes, set up on re
lays !¿lll to litt in Fig. 4, to their proper selecting
and marking circuits, that is, either to Figs. 5
and 6 which serve for the half degree codes or
20 to Figs. 9 and 10 which serve for the hundredth
degree codes.
Commutator 7e3 supplies batt ry intermittent
ly over conductor `'122 in Fig. 7, conductor 422
in Fig. 4, and conductor 322 in Fig. 3, to the
ZU' winding of transfer relay 315 at observing station
Attention is especially called to the fact that
A. Relay 315 switches the six code transmission
the single six-ring commutator, per Fig. 7, con
conductors alternately from the half degree code
trois the operation of the transmitting mid re
relays r30| to 33'1 to the hundredth degree code
ceiving apparatus for> both the A >and B stations.
relays 3118 to 3l3 so that signal impulses in ac
their reception by the cçrresponding selecting
and marking circuit for each station in the proper
The six time-control conductors '121 to '126, in
Fig. 7, are shown connected to various items
cordance with the half'degree codes and'hun
dredth degree codes may be'transmitted from the
observing station to the receiving station in their
of apparatus in the dilîerent figures which are
assumed to serve the A station. These same
proper order.
_six conductors are extended to a bracket inFig.
7 marked “To corresponding „apparatus for B
when the battery or ground connection, as the
order of transmission and reception of the half
degree and hundredth degree information» The
ly over conductor 12d in Figli and conductor 921
station” to indicate that they also serve the B
station simultaneously.v Fig, 8 is a time se
quence diagram for Fig. 7. It indicates times
ease may be, is applied through the conducting
segments of the rings, per Fig. 7, to the trans
mitting and receiving apparatus of stations A
and B to maintain Synchronism and the proper
.Ccmmutator '104 supplies ground intermittent
in Fig. 9 to the locking armatures and windings
of the six pairs of selecting relays for the hun
dredth degree lamps in Figs. 9 and 10. >`rl’he de
tails of the connection of conductor 92! to .the
locking paths’of the six pairs of relays are not
shown. The details are identical, however, with
the connections of the locking paths for the siX
pairs of *corresponding> selecting relays for the
half degree lamps in Figs. 5 and 6.
'Commutator '1&5 supplies ground intermittent
time cycle is represented as starting at the left
hand margin of Figi. 8 marked “Start of cycle”
and ending at the right-hand margin of Fig. 3
marked “End of cycle.” The time or a `full cycle
is equal to the time for one complete rotation
of the commutator, per Fig. 7, which is of the
Fig. 4, conductor 52.6 in Fig.> 5, and conductor
626 in Fig. 6 tothe locking armatures and wind
ings f -the -five :pairs of selecting relays ~for the
50 vhair" degree 'lamps in Figsl Y5 and "6,
order of one one-twentieth of a second. It is
tion for both halves of the system. Sections Sill!
may change more slowly than one one-hundredth
to rings '190 to TG5 in Fig'. 7 >and the apparatus
ly over conductor '125 in Fig. 7,'condu`cto`r 626 in
Fig. 8 shows al time sequence diagram of opera
pointed out that >the line of sight ~to the target
to 805 of Fig. 8 are time diagrams which relate
.of a degree per one-twentieth of a second and 55 units controlled thereby. >Section elle relatesto
may even remain stationary, in both of which
the time of collection of the one-hundredth yde
cases the azimuth setting and corresponding
gree and one-half degree information at the A
.codes will remain unchanged while the code im
and B> stations and to the times of the reception
pulses are repeated and the indicator settings
willremain unchanged during a corresponding
interval, although »they will be checked Vonce
each cycle, or once each rotation of the com
of the data at the central station.
Detailed operation
The operation of the system will now be de
scribed for `the case in which the A observing sta
tion azimuth instrument is at 29.05 degrees.
Since the B observing station arrangements are
{_Ifime _in
8 is measured from left to right.
The direction of rotation of the commutator
rings >is represented by the arrow in Fig. 7. The
identical with those Íof station A, the operation
brushes Yare shown in the middle of Fig. -7 rather
of vthe B station part of the system will not be
than ~at the start of cycle position for conven
described. It is apparent, however, that veven
vthough `the method of collecting, „transmitting
Commutatcr ‘ist applies ground intermittently 70 and translating data .for both halves of the com
voyer .conductors 12.4 in Fig. 7, and i524 »in Fig. 4
plete .system is identical, the angular positions
.to each ,of _the make contacts of Apolar relays `lilll
of the instruments at the two stations would nor
~to ¿we `at `the >receiving station, which relays ~re
mally be quite different.
ceive the permutation code signals from .the
- Starting at -the beginning of the time cycle .of
Aobserving station.
75 the motor-driven synchronizing Switch, Figsj'?
and 8, and assuming that> the ‘position of theV
thecircuitto battery through Ycommutator 103,
ground. Relay 30| is slow to operate. During
hand armatures and the corresponding make
contacts of relay 3|5, namely, contacts 353, 355,
332 and 364 to conductors 3|6, 3|1, 320 and 32|.
Fig. 4, is open. Y This is indicated by the shaded
azimuth instrument at the A station is at 29.05
rectangle- at the left-hand end of commuta
degrees, a circuit may be traced from battery 113
tor ring 103 as Well as by the time sequence dia
in Fig. 7 through brush 100, the ‘conducting seg
ment of ring 10|, brush 108, conductor 123, con Cil gram of Fig. 8. With relay 3|3 released, the
right-hand armatures of the group of relays 302
ductor 423 in Fig. 4 and conductor 323 in Fig. 3
to 301 are connected tothe break contacts of
to parallel branches formed by conductors 335
relay 315. Those of relays 302 to 301 which have
and 303. The upper branch 335 extends also to
been operated, namely, relays 302, 303,- 300 and
parallel branches 331 and 338. Branch 361 con
301,V will connect ground through their right
tinues through the Winding of relay 30| to
the interval before it operates, the branch
through conductor 353 extends through break
contact 324 of relay 30| through conductor 339
which connects vto conductor 231 in Fig. 2 and
the `circuit extends through contact 220 which is
closed, conductor 238, conductor 310 and con
These circuits are extended to the receiving sta
tion Where they connect to`conductors 4I6, 4|1,
420 and 42| which extend through the top wind
ings of polar receiving relays 40|, 402, 405 and
400 to battery in each instance. -Polar relays 40|
to 406‘are-biased by obvious circuits extending
20 through their bottom windings which maintain
gree cams.
their respective armatures actuated toward the
Reference to Fig. 13, Table 1, columns 4 and 5,
left when no current flows in their top windings.
second line from the bottom, indicates that the
When the circuit through their top windings is
code for 29 degrees on the half‘degree cams is
energized, the armatures are actuated toward
1256. Contacts 230, 23|, 234 and 235 will there
the right to engage their contacts. The arma
fore be closed. The closure of contactl 230 estab
tures of relays 403 and M14-remain actuated-t0
lishes a circuit through conductor 23,3, conductor
the left.
n ‘l
31| and the winding of relay 302 to groiinijoper
At this time, however, the» coded information
ating relay 302. The closure of contact 23| estab
ductor 245.’ Conductor 245 is connected in par
allel to the armatures actuated by the half de
setv up on the group of relays 40| to 406 is not
lishes a circuit through conductor 240, conductor
312 and the winding of relay 303 to ground; oper 30 transferred to the corresponding relays of the se
lecting and marking` circuits for one-half de
ating relay 303. The closure of contact 234 estab
grees, per Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, because ground `is dis
lishes a circuit through conductor243, conductor
connected by means of the insulating segment
315 and the winding of relay 303 to ground, oper
shown at the left of ring '|00 in Fig. 'ï-from the
ating relay 303. The closure of contact 235 estab
lishes a circuit through conductor 244, conductor 35 circuit which may be traced from ground 1|3
through brush 101, insulating segment of ring
316 and the winding of relay 301 to ground, oper
100, brush 100, conductor '|24Y and conductor 424
ating relay 301.
' tothe contacts of relays 40| to 400 in parallel.
Simultaneously with the operation of the half
The coded data that was set up during the pre
degree code relays the hundredth degree code
relays are operated over the branch of the cir 40 vious cycle of the synchronizing switch is, there
fore, maintained on the relays, per Figs. 5 and
cuit connected to conductor 368. Conductor 36S
6, at this time.
extends to parallel branches 311 and 310.
After the coded data for 29.05 degrees has been
Branch 311 extends through the winding oi re
collected on the relay register circuit, per Fig. 3,
lay 308 to ground but relay 303 is also a slow-to
operate relay. While it remains released a cir 45 and concurrent with the completion of the oper
fation of relays 30| and 308 in Fig. 3, synchroniz
cuit may be traced through conductor 318, break
ing switch 1 moves to a position Where commu
contact 333 of relay 308, conductor 319, which
tators 102 and 103 apply battery, respectively, to
connects to conductor 23S in Fig. 2 to the arma
the-transfer relays, such as 401, corresponding
tures of the hundredth degree cams in parallel. ~
Reference to Fig. 13, Table 2,` columns 1 and 2, 50 to each observing station and to the transfer re
lay, such as SI5, at each observing station. The
sixth line from the top, indicates that the code
circuit for relay 401 may be traced from battery
corresponding to five-hundredths is 123456.
118,»through brush 1H, conducting segment of
Contacts 2|4 to 2|0, inclusive, will therefore all
ring 102, brush 1|0, conductor 125, conductor
be closed. Closure of these contacts establishes
425, and the Winding of relay 401 to ground, op
circuits through conductors 230‘to 235 which con
erating relay 401. The circuit for relay 31,5 may
nect to conductors 330 to 335, respectively, each
be traced from battery 1|8, through brush 1|3,
of which extends to ground through the winding
conducting segment of ring 103, brush 1|2, con
of a relay in the 303 to 3 |11 group, operating each
ductor 122, conductor 422, over conductor 322 to
of these relays.
the distant observing station and the winding
When relay 30| operates, the battery supplied
of relay 3|5 to ground, operating relay 3|5. The
from the commutator circuit heretofore traced
'operation of relay 3|5 transfers the six code
is connected through conductor 368 and make
transmission conductors 3|0 to 32| to the make
contact 325 of relay 30| to the left-hand arma
contacts 354, 350, 358, 359, 36| and 363 which
tures and make locking contacts of operated re
lays 302, 303, 30S and 301 to maintain the code ' connect to the right-hand armatures of relays
30S to 3|4 and the circuits are extended through
for 29 degrees on these relays. After relay 308
contacts 342, 344, 340, 348, 350 and 352 to ground.
operates, battery is supplied through conductor
In this case impulses are transmitted over each
310 and make contact 340 of relay 308 to the left
of conductors 3| 3 to 32| and all relays 40| to
hand armatures and locking make Contact of
40S operate.
of each of relays 309 to 3I4, locking each of these .
4Simultaneously with the operation of relays
relays to 'maintain the code for live-hundredths
40| to 406 in Fig. 4 the, synchronizing switch
of a degree,
movesjto position where commutator 104 re
During the interval that thedata is being set
moves ground from' the locking circuits of the
up on the coding relays, per Fig. 3, atthe A sta
tion, relay 3|5 at that station is released because> ,75 relays which were operated forthe previous one
hundredth degree code in Figs. 9 and l0, thus en
abling those relays to release and break down the
hundredth degree code which had been set up by
and 6. The relays in these figures which were
.operated in accordance with the previous code at
tempt to release. Those of the operated relays
the previous cycle _of the synchronizing switch.
which do not receive ground from the make con
On the previous cycle the relays in Figs. 9 and 10
which had been operated in accordance with the
tacts of the polar relays in Fig. 4 release; those
that do receive ground from the make contacts of
the polar relays in Fig. 4 remain operated. If
the code which isreceived by the polar relays
code were locked over a circuit which extends
from ground H9, through brush N5, conducting
segment or" ring ‘m4, brush H4, conductor 42H,
conductor 92h and conductor |925 which ex
tends through a locking circuit of each of the op
erated relays in Figs. 9 and 10. The locking cir
requires the operation of relays in Figs. 5 and 6
10 in addition to such of the relays as are main
tained operated, such relays will receive ground
and will be operated. Y For the ZQ-degree code
cuits on Figs. 9 and 10 are not shown in detail
but they are identical with the locking circuits
connected to conductor 526 in Fig. 5 which cor
responds to conductor 92| in Fig. 9, and conduc
tor 626 in Fig. 6 which corresponds to conductor
E62! in Fig. 10.
As the relays in Figs. 9 to l0 start to release,
the synchronizing switch, per Fig. 7, moves to 20
position where commutator ring '§66 applies
ground to the make contacts of relays 49! to 495
in Fig. 4. llipplication> of these grounds closes
paths from the respectively operated relays 45!
to 405 to their corresponding relays in Figs. 9
and 10. Since each of relays 461 to 455 is oper
ated, each of the relays in Figs. 9 and 10 will also
be operated.v Operation of all of the relays in
Figs. 9 and 10 establishes a local circuit in these
figures to light the .65 lamp which indicates that .
the line of sight of the azimuth instrument at
observing station A is at .05 degree. After the
relays in Figs. 9 and 10 have had time to fully
operate, cominutator 'Hifi-applies ground to the
locking circuits of the relays and they, therefore,
remain operated throughout the rest of the cy
cle of the synchronizing switch and the .G5-de
gree indication is maintained. These circuits
will not be traced at this time as Figs. 9 and v10
are not shown in detail. The- detailed operation`
of these circuits to perform this function will be
understood from the detailed description of the
operation of the selective circuits per Figs. 5 and
6 hereunder.
Shortly after the locking path is established
through commutator ring 104 of the synchroniz
ing switch to the operated relays of Figs. 9 and
l0 to maintain the registration for the K55-degree
code, commutator 199 again removes ground from
the make contacts of relays 40! to 455 in Fig. 4.
This ground is removed in time to insure that
when battery is removed from transfer relays SI5
in Fig. 3 and 457 in Fig. 4 and relays 451 to 496
in Fig. 4 take up new positions for the one-half
degree code, there will be no false code set up
the relays in positions l and 2 in
5 and in
positions 5
6 in Fig, 6 operate, as the half
degree code for 29 degrees, as has been explained,
is 1256. Relays 59E, 592, 553, and 554 in Fig. 5
and. relays 659, 545, 5H and 5l2 in Fig. 6, there
fore, operate. This will now be explained in lmore
When transfer relays. SI5 and 46'! are released
and the conducting segment of commutator ring
ldd is in engagement with brushes 705 and lill.,
a circuit may be traced from ground 'H 9 through
brush l5?, conducting‘segment of ring 15.9, brush
§05, conductor '124, and conductor 424 in Fig. 4,
to the right-hand contacts of the polar relays
40! to v456 in parallel. In the case of relays del,
452, 455, and 406 circuits are closed through their
armatures and conductors 427, 428, 438 and 432,
respectively, through contacts 435, 434, 437 and
435, respectively, through conductors 445, 446,
449 and 450, respectively, through conductors 545,
545, 549 and 559, respectively, each of which con~A
nects in parallel to the windings of a -pair of re
i, lays in Fig. 5 or Fig. 6.
Conductor 545 connects , `
through the windings of relays 50i and 592 in
parallel to battery. Conductor 545 connects
through the windings of relays 553 and 554 in
parallel to battery. Conductor 549 connects to
conductor 549 in Fig. 6 which extends through
the windings of relays 609 and 6l@ in parallel
to battery. Conductor 550 connects to conductor
650 which extends through the windings of relays
Ell and 6l2 in parallel to battery. All of these
relays operate. A circuit may then be traced
from battery 65| through resistance 652, con»
ductor 653, contact 654, conductor 555, contact
655 and conductor 557 which connects to con
ductor 557 in Fig. 5. The circuit continues
through contact 558, conductor 559, contact 559,
co ductor 55E, contact 552 and conductor`55‘è
which connects to conductor 653 in Fig. 6. The
circuit continues through contact 554 and con
. ` ductor 655 and is terminated at a point marked
“29.00°” which represents a circuit extending
through the filament of a lamp to ground. The
degree selecting circuits per Figs. 5 and 6 and
lamp lights to provide an indication that the
Figs. 9 and 10.
line of sight of the azimuth instrument is in the
After the removal of the ground from the make
29.00° half degree zone.
contacts of relays 40d to 406 in Fig. 4, commuta 60
If the relays in Figs. 5 and 6 are assumed to
tor ring 792 in Fig. '7 removes ground from trans
be operated in accordance with any of the code
on the one-half degree or one one-hundredth
fer relay 453i in Fig. 4 and shortly thereafter
cominutator ring 753 removes ground from trans
fer relay 3i5 in Fig. 3 and these relays release.
combinations for any of the sixty diiîerent half
degree settings indicated in Fig. 13, Table l, a
circuit may be traced from battery 65| through
As soon as transfer relays 45'! and 3&5 are re*
make contacts on relays in positions correspond
leased the 29~degree code set up on the half
ing to the particular code in Figs. 5 and 6 and
degree code relays, per Fig. 3, is transmitted to
through break contacts on relays in other posi
the receiving station and relays 136i, 492, 495 and
tions to numbers corresponding to those shown
465 operate.
in columns 2 and 5 of the table which represent
Later after suii‘lcient time has elapsed to in 70 corresponding indicating lamps in each instance.
sure the complete release of transfer relays SI5
After registration of the 25a-degree setting on
in Fig. 3 and 49? in Fig. 4 and the operation of
the half degree selector circuit, commutator 105
relays 45t, 492, 405 and 495 in Fig. 4, commutator
locks these relays momentarily over a circuit
ï95 removes ground from the locking circuits of
which may be traced from ground 'H9 through
the one-half degree selecting circuit, per Figs,'5 75 brush 'l l?, conducting segment of ring 105, brush
high as in the arrangement herein. The system
practically proof against the effect of random hits
116, conductor 126, conductor 425 in Fig. 4, con
ductor 526 in Fig. 5, and conductor 626 in Fig. `G
which connect to parallel branches 564, 565, E55
and 651. Branchr564 extends through operated
contacts 556 and582 and the windings of relays
552 and 58! in parallel to battery. Branch 565
extends through make contacts 551 and 583 to
the windings ofY relays 504 and 503 in parallel to
as the effect ci a hit would be so transient that
it would be wiped out by the eiîect of the following
Cn cycle of operation practically before it could be
come apparent to the eye.
This is particularly important, as it eliminates
practically the only vdiiììculty inherent in permu
tation code data transmission systems so that full
advantage may be taken of their characteristic
battery. Branchôßß extends through make con
tacts 668 _and 516 and the windings of relays Bill
and 659 in parallel to battery. Branch 661 ex
superiority over other presently known systems,
namely, that the received information is not seri
ously affected, as are present systems which de
pend upon balancing arrangements of impedance
or voltage, by variations in line impedance due
to changes in temperature and Weather condi
tends through make contacts 659 and 611 and
the windings of relays SI2 and 6H in parallel to
battery. Relays 55E, 502, 593, 504, 609, BID, 6H
and SI2 will be locked to maintain the Ztl-degree
code until commutator ring 105 interposes its in
sulating segment between its associated brushes.
What is claimed is:
Soon after the relays for the ZQ-degree code are
1. A data transmission or communication sys
locked in the operated position ground is removed
tem having a plurality of data stations connected
from the make contacts of the polar relays in Fig.
to a central station, instrumentalities in said sys
4 when the insulating segment of ring 150 is
tem for collecting complementary data simul
interposed between brushes 155 and 101.
taneously, said instrumentalities comprising a
Finally the cycle is completed when the insulat
transmitter for transmitting synchronized im
ing segment of commutator ring 10| is interposed
between brushes i138 and 109 vto disconnect bat 25 pulses from said central station to said data sta
tions, and control means at each of said data sta
tery from the locking circuits of the half degree
tions, responsive to the reception of said syn
and hundredth degree code relays in Fig, 3, per
mitting these relays to release. The apparatus
chronizing impulses, for controlling the simul
associated with stations A and B is then prepared
to register and record the new position of the tele- .
taneous transmission of all of the elements of a
ñrst and a second combination of multielement
scope atthe A and B stations. -
permutation code signals from each of said data
Attention is called to the 'fact that the nity
codes for the fifty one-hundredth degrees in each
half degree, as shown in ri’alole 2, starting at D and
stations to said central station at a ñrst and a
second time respectively, to define a first and a
second portion of a multidigit number corre
spending to a measurement at each of said data
ending at 49 correspond to those shown for the ,Y
half degrees in Table ,1, starting at the code for
0.50 degree and ending at the code for 25.00
degrees. The code for five-hundredths degree,
shown in Table 2, is 123456. rI‘his corresponds to
the code for 3.05 in Table l.
A circuit corre
2. A data transmission or communicating sys
tem, a plurality of dat-a stations and a central
station in said system, a transmitter at said cen
40 tral station, means connected to said transmitter
sponding to the circuit for the uve-hundredth de
for transmitting first synchronizing impulses
gree code in Figsl 9 and 10 may, therefore, be
traced, by way of example, in Figs. 5 and 6. The
from said central station to said data stations,
control means at said data stations, responsive to
the reception of said impulses, for controlling> the
instantaneous and simultaneous
transmission of all of the elements of multiele
ment permutation code signal combinations from
contact E14, conductor S15 which connects to con
each of said data stations to said central station,
ductor 515 in Fig. 5, contact 516, conductor 511,
means at said central station for transmitting
contact 518, conductor 519 and contact 580 to con
ductor 58! which is terminated in a symbol for the 50 second synchronizing impulses to said data sta
tions, and means at said data stations, responsive
3.00-degrce lamp. In Fig. 9 the conductor corre
to the reception of said second impulses, for con
sponding to conductor 58i would be terminated
trolling the order of transmission of said permu
in the symbol 5 corresponding to the ñve hun
tation code signal combinations from said data
dredths of ~a degree lamp, as indicated in the sixth
line, columns 1 and 2 oi rFable 2 and as shownv 55 stations to said central station.
3. In a data transmission system, an observing
for contact S85 of relay 952 of Fig,` 9.
station, a first means thereat for establishing si
Attention is especially called to the fact that in
multaneously first permutations of two electrical
the invention herein the entire multidigit num
conditions to completely deñne a ñrst portion,
ber is defined for each cycle of operation. Not
withstanding the half degree azimuth zone may 60 comprising two digits, of a multidigit number, a
receiving station, a group of polar receiving relays
not change, the half degree code is transmitted
once for each time the hundredth degree informa
at said receiving station, a multiconductor trans
mission circuit interconnecting said stations,
tion is transmitted. The reason for this is to
means at said observing station for impressing
minimize the seriousness of trouble conditions
such as “hits” aiiîecting a code for any setting, 65 first signals in accordance with said first permu
particularly a half degree setting. If the setting
tations simultaneously on said circuit at a first
for the half degree zone, were to remain un
time, a second means at said observing station for
establishing simultaneously second permutations
changed, after having been once transmitted,
while the line of sight of the azimuth instrument
of two electrical conditions to completely denne a
remained in a particular half degree zone, a tran 70 second portion, comprising two digits, of said
multidigit number, means for impressing second
sient trouble condition causing an erroneous hali
signals in accordance with said second permu
degree setting would be much more serious than
circuit extends from ground through battery 55!
in Fig. 6, resistance 552, conductor 515, contact
6H, conductor 612, Contact 513, conductor 551,
is the case when the entire half-degree and hun
dredth degree position is deñned once per cycle
tations simultaneously on said circuit at a sec
ond time and other means at said receiving sta
andthe frequency of transmission is relatively 75 tion, responsive to the reception of said first and
said second signals, for operating said relays in
conformity with said ñrst and second permuta
4. In a data transmission system, an observing
station, a receiving station, a transmission circuit
interconnecting said stations, means at said ob
serving station for impressing simultaneously on
plurality of combinations of permutative settings
of a plurality of groups of electrical contacts in
accordance with a plurality of separate multiele
ment permutation codes, to define each separate
portion of said number, at least one of whichl
portions has more than one digit, in response to
said measurement, means for translating said
said circuit at a ñrst time permutation signals in
accordance with a iirst multielement code to com
plurality of permutative settings of said plurality
code, completely independent of said first code,
interconnecting said observing station with a re
ceiving station, and means for impressing said
separate combinations on said circuit in sequence.
of groups of electrical contacts into a plurality of
pletely deñne at least two digits forming a ñrst 10 separate code combinations of electrical signal
portion of a multidigit number, means at said
elements, means for impressing each of said sig
observing station for impressing simultaneously
nal elements of each particular one of said code
on said circuit at a second time permutation sig
combinations simultaneously on a separate trans
nals in accordance with a second multielement
mission channel in a single multichannel circuit
to completely define at least two digits forming a
second portion of said multidigit number, a single
measuring device, at said observing station, for
7. In a data transmission system, a ñrst and a
controlling both of said means, and means at said
observing station for transmitting signals in ac
cordance with said second code once for each time
signals in accordance with said first code are
second observing station, a measuring instrument
transmitted so as to minimize the adverse effect
to each of said instruments for translating each
caused by trouble conditions while said signals
measurement by said instruments simultaneously
are being transmitted.
5. In a data transmission system, an observing
into a first and a second six element permutation
at each of said stations, means connected to each
of said instruments for making measurements in
an ordered numerical sequence, means connected
code signal combination, each combination cor
station, a single measuring device at said station,
responding to two consecutive digits of a four
a plurality of separate groups of electrical con
digit number defining each of said measurements,
tacts controlled by said measuring device, means
a receiving station, six individual conducting
connected to said device for translating a meas 30 channels of a single transmission circuit inter
urement made by said device, expressible as a
connecting each of said observing stations indi
multidigit number, into a plurality of separate
vidually with said receiving station, a synchroniz
multielement permutation code combinations, in
ing device at said receiving station, means con
accordance with separate multielement permuta
nected to said synchronizing device for controlling
tion codes, means for adjusting all of the con 35 each of said circuits simultaneously so as to im
tacts in each of said groups of contacts simul
press on said channels simultaneously at a first
taneously in accordance with said combinations,
time at said observing stations all six of the ele
in response to said measurement, a single multi
ments of a signal combination corresponding to
channel transmission circuit having a separate
the two right-hand digits of said four digit num
channel for each element in said codes connect 40 ber deñning a measurement at each observing
ing said station with a receiving station, means
station, means connected to said synchronizing
for impressing signals in accordance with all of
device for controlling said circuits simultaneously
said elements of one of said code combinations on
so as to impress on said channels simultaneously
said channels simultaneously at a first time to
at a second time at said observing stations all six
completely define a first group of two digits in
of the elements of a signal combination corre
said number, and means for impressing signals
sponding to the two left-hand digits of said four
in accordance with all of said elements of another
digit number defining said measurement at each
of said code combinations on said channels si
observing station, and means for impressing said
multaneously at a second time to completely de
combinations corresponding to said left-hand
fine another group of two digits in said number. 50 digits on said channels once for each time said
6. In a telemetric system, means for adjusting
combinations corresponding to said right-hand
a measuring device to measure a quantity at an
digits are impressed on said channels to minimize
observing station in terms of a, multidigit number
the effect of errors due to hits during transmis
having more than three digits, means for trans
lating said measurement simultaneously into a
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