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Aug. 13, 1946. A. CORTE ' 2,405,642 POWER GUN TURRET DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Dec. 27, 1941 3 Sheets—Sheet l I /v VL’N TOP ALFRED BY C09 7': Z ‘ Aug. 13, 1946.‘ A. CORTE‘ 2,405,642 POWER GUN TURRET DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Dec. 27, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 6 N Fla-1H INVENTOR ALFRED COR TE A. CORTE POWER GUN TURRET DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Dec. 27, 1941 2,405, 2 I 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. ALFRED CORTE Patented Aug. 13, 1946 UNITED rsr T55 FFIQE 2,405,642 POWER GUN TURRET DRIVING MECHANISM Alfred Corie, Glendale, Cali?, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, a corporation of California Application December 27, 1941, Serial No. 424,635 5 Claims. (631. 89-375) 1 This invention relates to an improved control for the elevating and traversing movements of power driven turrets, with special reference to light weight turrets such as are required for air craft, land vehicles, and motor boats when ma neuverability, accuracy and delicacy of control are prime considerations. In the usual type of turret drive such as the controllable speed electric or hydraulic motor, the angular momentum of the drive motor may be as great or greater than that of the turret itself. The eiiect of this on the operation of the turret is that a movement of the control lever is not im mediately re?ected in a movement of the turret but appears only after a lapse of time necessary 2 the problem of overshoot of the drive system is largely eliminated by driving the turret from a system of clutches rather than directly from the drive motor with its necessarily high angular mo mentum. Moreover, the torque available to move the turret is that corresponding to the maximum output of the drive motor regardless of the speed of rotation of the turret. This is in direct con trast to the conventional variable speed motor drive Where the torque available to move the tur ret from a stand-still position is the stalled torque which is always considerably less than the maxi mum although it is at this point in the operation of the turret that a high, smoothly controlled torque is most needed. It is also an object of this invention to provide an improved turret drive of the class described wherein overshoot or hunting of the drive or the for the drive motor to change its speed. If, for instance, a target is picked up while the turret is moving and the control lever is instantly brought turret is eliminated by partially preloading rotat to the stop position, the turret will continue mov ing until the angular momentum of the turret and 20 ing clutches adapted to drive the turret in either direction. The coupling between the pressure the driving train has been absorbed by the fric tion inherent in the system or introduced for the purpose. Unless the gunner limits himself to movements of the control lever at a tempo com mensurate with the decay time of the drive sys plates is so arranged that at the stop or neutral position of the control lever, each clutch is par tially engaged. However, the two clutches are engaged by an equal amount so that the net force acting on the turret is zero. With this arrange ment, the inertia and lost motion of the driving tem, and thus in e?ect “creeps” up to his target, he must anticipate the sluggishness of his control train is taken up, as Well as the reverse torque set by over-controlling. In the situation described up by the overrunning tendency due to the mo above, the gunner would throw his control lever over into the position which would ordinarily 30 mentum of the turret; but the torque can be smoothly varied from maximum in one direction, cause the turret to turn in the reverse direction, through zero to maximum in the other direction. moving the lever back to the stop position as the perienced gunner, this type of control is not sat It is a further object of this invention to pro vide a turret control of the type described where isfactory considering the rapidity and nicety of in adjustable preloading of oppositely rotating aim necessary in aircraft engagements. It is accordingly an object of this invention to minimize the time lag between movement of the turret control lever and the corresponding move ment of the turret. A constant speed motor is 40 clutches—one of which turns in such a direction as to cause the turret to move in a given direction clutches in the driving train enables a constant speed drive to be engaged in any degree desired in either direction without lost motion or overrun ning of the turret or drive components, whereby the maximum torque of which the drive is capable can be realized at any speed of rotation of the turret in either direction, including sudden re versals thereof, without a tendency to clutch chat upon engagement, while the other clutch is geared ter due to light loading thereof. turret slowed down. Even in the hands of an ex connected by a simple system of gearing to two It is also an object of this invention to provide to cause the turret to move in the opposite direc 45 a single control for separately or simultaneously tion. The pressure plates of the two clutches are operating a turret in traverse and elevation, the connected together to a single control so arranged control being such- that it can be used for either that movement in one direction from a neutral direct control from inside the turret or as a re position engages one clutch while movement in the other direction engages the other. Thus a 50 mote or robot control for one or more turrets operated from a central aiming station. In either change of the control lever setting requires only case the operating lever would be moved up, the dissipation of the relatively small angular down or sideways just as a gunner would directly momentum of the clutch before the correspond operate the breech of a pivotally mounted ma ing force acts on the turret. The motor will con chine gun in order to follow a moving target, tinue rotating at its constant speed. In this way, 2,405,642 3 4 Other and further important objects of this control handles hereinafter referred to to oper invention will be apparent from the disclosures in the speci?cation and the accompanying draw ate, yet would give a very stable, sensitive and instantaneously responsive control of the power drive. The unit consists of a splined shaft l8 ings. This invention is shown in connection with an airplane turret corresponding to that shown in connection with my .prior application entitled Gun turret mounting, Serial No. 366,659, ?led November 22, 1940, now Patent No. 2,364,951, for taking the power from a motor :9, a splined shaft 26 for delivering the power to the related worm E2 or 63, and‘a single control for varying the magnitude and the direction of the torque delivered to the worm. issued December 12, 1944; it being evident that, .10. it is applicable to many other forms, locations,’ . and types of mobile equipment. ' In the drawings: Figure I is a central verticalsectiom'with parts in elevation, through a gun turret embodying the control features of this invention. Figure II is a vertical schematic section on the Mechanically, the unit consists of two multiple disc clutches 2| and 22 with a common driven member or shaft 26. 7 Two driving members 24 and 25 rotate in opposite directions so that en ' gagement of’ one or other of the clutches will 15 turn the driven shaft 26 in either a forward or a reverse direction. ' Referring to the drawing in Figure III, the pinion shaft 88, is coupled to the drive motor l9 through a spline connection, and line II—II of Figure I showing the controllinkage for the traversing and elevating drive clutches. ' carries two pinions 265 and 21. The left-hand Figure III is an' enlarged section of the line 20 pinion it drives a gear integral with the driving III—’III of Figure II, showing one control clutch member 2Q, of one clutch, which may be called the forward ‘clutch. The right-hand pinion 2'! in section, with the driving motor and. driven drives the driving member 25 of the reverse clutch shaft omitted. ' through an idler gear 28 rotatablymounted on - Figure IV is a rear elevation of the turret with a portion appearing in vertical cross section. 25 the end wall of the casing It“; by a suitable trun Figure V is a fragmentary transverse sectional nion (ill; see Figure V. The driven plates of each view of one oiv the clutch units illustrating the clutch are coupled to thesplined shaft 20 which idler gear.v ‘ in turn is coupled to the related worm 62 or 63. Figure VI is a fragmentary horizontal sectional Control of the two clutches 2i and 22 is effected view» taken substantially as indicated by line 30 through a single control rod 29 which is so VI.—VI in Figure IV, and ' arranged that movement to one side of a neutral Figure VII is a diagrammaticview of the com position engages one clutch for a positive drive mon drive means for the worms of the elevatable while movement to the other side engages the turret segments. other clutch for a positive. The control rod As shown, the particular installation chosen at carries two cone-shaped cams 30 and, 3| withv for illustrative purposes is intended to be mount their apexes adjustably facing toward each other ed in the top of a fuselage, for direct control by and arranged to move as a unit laterally with a gunner centrally located therein. It will be the. rod 29. Each clutch has a set of pressure evident that the present invention is directed .to arms 32 which ride up on the surface of the cone the traversing and elevating controls, either or 40 as the cone is moved laterally, and translates both of which are equally suitable for the control such motion into clutch engagement. The two of nose, tail, side, or bottom turrets for airplanes cone-shaped cams 343 and 3i ride on ball-bearings, or other gun mounts. In the turret shown in the drawings, an ap . and so are free to rotate with the spline shaft 23, while the longitudinal movement of the con proximately parti-spherical housing is composed 45 trol rod 25 is transmitted to the cam assembly of spaced side segments It carrying twin machine through these ball bearings. The two cams can be moved relative to each other by turning a clutch control adjustment screw 311 by means of a knob 35 at the end of the control rod. Ad ring l3 through the medium of supporting aprons 50 justment of this screw in its 14 pitch thread in a Bil. The gunner is located in the central part M sleeve 36 moves the right cam 31 relative to the of the enclosure, between the segments iii. The rest of the control unit. At the same time, a tracks i2 have suitable bearings for the segments trunnion 37, through wh'ichithe control force is l0 and the ring I3 is mounted in a stationary applied, moves on its 28 pitch thread 38, so that ring 6! through a similar bearing to provide for 55 the whole control unit is moved back with re rotation of the respective turret components spect to the trunnion by an amount equal to one about horizontal and vertical axes. The ring l3 half the relative movement of the cams. In this has gear teeth with which a driving worm 62 way, the neutral position of the trunnion is main meshes and worms 33 mesh with similar teeth tained independently of the setting of the ad on the ‘peripheries of the segments so that the 60 justment screw, which can be locked by nuts 39 ' turret components are separately rotated.- Each on a guide pin 40. ; worm t2 and S3 is driven by a clutch unit, the The effect of moving the cams together is to casing for each unit being indicated by the nu cause both of the clutches to engage and thus guns or cannons Ii and mounted for synchro nized elevational movements in circular tracks i2 which are supported by a horizontal bearing meral E5. The clutch units for driving the seg- ' ' to preload the system. At the neutral position of ' ments it and ring l3 are identical, that for the 65 the trunnion, both clutches are engaged by the ring l3 being directly connected to its worm 62, same amount so that the turret remains sta while the clutch for the segments l6 drives the tionary. ' separate worms 63 through a common gear train In Figures I and II a pair of handles 4] is i5 shown in Figure VII, the clutch for the seg mounted for sidewise swinging relative to a trans- ' ments It] being preferably located below the gun 70 verse shaft 42 supported by a forked extension ner’s seat pedestal H and having its drive ex [it of the seat pedestal l1.‘ Sidewise bodily move— tending axially thereof to the gear train. ment'of the handles 4! operatespush and pull The clutch unit it‘: of the control system was sheathed cables 44 to elevate or depress a sleeve designed to provide a gun directing device which t5 extending down in the column llto operate; would require but a very small pressure on the 75 a fork 46 engaging the trunnion 37 of the trav- ‘ 2,405,642 5. ersing clutch, by means of suitable linkage '41. Vertical or angular movement of the handles ro tates the shaft 42 to operate push and pull cables 48 to elevate or depress a second sleeve 49 which similarly operates the trunnion of the elevating clutch through linkage 5%). The operation of the drive of this invention involves the use of a constant speed drive motor effort on his part is required. Each of the handles is provided with a switch lever 51 which is ar ranged like a dead-man control in that in grasp ing the control handles, the switch is thrown on. This switch energizes the constant speed drive motors. Thus, as soon as the gunner assumes the alert position, the drive motors are turned on and the turret will respond to whatever movement is with two oppositely rotating clutches which‘ elim given to the control handles. trol handles 4! are instantly brought to the stop or neutral position. The motor, of course, will continue rotating. However, the clutch which overrunning of the turret has been eliminated by It will thus be seen that I have invented an im inates overshoot of the drive to a large extent. 10 proved power turret drive wherein backlash and Suppose that a target is picked upv and the con adjustable preloading oppositely rotating clutches against each other; and in which the driving has?just been disengaged is not free to rotate but 15 clutches are sufficiently loaded as to operate in is slowed down by the'preload'i'ng of t'he'o'pposite ‘ their stable driving range, thus eliminating'chat-l tering thereof and providing a sensitive and posi clutch. Although this preloading may be but a tive control of turret movements from neutral to small fraction of the total power necessary to maximum speed in either direction. It will also turn the turret, it is still of such magnitude that it will bring the clutch to a stop almost instan 20 be evident that my improved control provides a natural control facilitating the instinctive opera taneously. The overshoot due to the inertia of tion of the turret while the gunner concentrates the driving unit is then quite effectively damped his attention on the target. out. There remains the overshoot due to the in Having thus described my invention and the ertia of the turret. This inertia tends to turn the clutches. However, since the clutches are par 25 present preferred embodiments thereof, I desire to emphasize the fact that many modi?cations tially engaged with the motor, the driving force may be resorted to in a manner limited only by a due to the inertia of the turret is bucked by the just interpretation of the following claims, preloading torque of the clutch and hence is rap I claim: idly damped out. 1. Mechanism for use with a power driven gun By the use of preloading, all torques appearing 30 turret having traversing andelevating components on the drive shaft which are less in magnitude and driving mechanism for each of said com than the preloading on the individual clutches ponents comprising a source of power, said mech are comprised of the algebraic sum of the two anism including a pair of oppositely rotating opposing torques of the two clutches. Hence, in no case, does the torque applied to the turret 35 clutches connected to each source of power, means represent the output of a clutch working below its point of stable operation. That this is true may for adjustably preloading said clutches to initially act in opposition to each other, a common driven shaft operatively connected with each pair of be seen from analysis of the conditions existing clutches to be selectively energized by either of its at the stop or neutral position of the control lever. respective clutches each shaft serving to drive a 40 At the values of preloading contemplated-ten to component, and means for selectively and simul thirty percent of the total output—th'e clutches taneously controlling said clutches of either pair are working well in the region of stable operation. of clutches whereby to produce traversing and Although the torque on the drive shaft may be elevating movements of the turret components in sultant of the torques of two clutches operating 45 either direction of motion. 2. Mechanism for use with a power driven gun with a high degree of stability. turret capable of traversing and elevating the line One reason for the instability of high power of ?re and having separate driving mechanism clutches when working at low torques is the for traversing and elevating the line of ?re each looseness in coupling between the clutch and the drive motor. At low torques, the impact upon 50 comprising a source of power, said mechanism in. cluding a pair of oppositely rotating clutches con take up of the slack in the gears or other ele nected to each source of power, means for ad ments in the coupling to the motor may be of justably preloading each pair of clutches to in even greater magnitude than the torque which itially act in opposition to each other, a common it is desired to draw. Instability in the form of clutch chatter inevitably results. The preloading U driven shaft operatively connected with each pair of clutches to be selectively energized by either of of the clutches of the present drive automatically its respective clutches, each shaft serving to drive preloads the gears which couple the clutches to a component of the turret, and means for se the motor so that there is never any slack to take lectively and simultaneously controlling said up. clutches whereby to produce traversing and ele Two of these drive units are used, one to con. vating movements of the turret in either direction trol the traverse movement of the turret and one of motion. for the elevation. The two clutches are connected 3. Mechanism for use with a power driven gun to the control handles 4| of which there are two turret so constructed and arranged as to cover one right and one 1eft-—which are connected to both horizontal and vertical ?elds of ?re and hav gether so that the turret can be directed with 65 ing separate driving motors for its movable com either of the gunner’s hands or with both. The ponents, said mechanism comprising a pair of connection to the clutch control handles 4! is opposed oppositely rotating clutches coupled to such that movement of the handles through an each motor for simultaneous rotation thereby, a arc in the vertical plane controls the elevation driven shaft for each of said components and en clutch while movement of the handles in the gageable with either or both of said clutches of horizontal plane controls the traverse clutch. a related pair of clutches at will, screw thread The directing of the guns is perfectly natural to actuated means for preloading said clutches to in the gunner, being Very similar to the movements itially act in opposition to each other so that both he would employ in directing one of the manually aimed machine guns> except that no muscular 75 clutches are partially energized in the neutral zero or of in?nitesimal magnitude, it is the re 2,405,642 position'of the driven shaft to prevent backlash, soclated with the last'named means for preload-_ in the drive, a control handle movable about a ing both clutches to an identical degree. pivot in one plane to control the horizontal 7 5.'Mechanism for operating a movable com clutches and in another plane at right angles thereto to control the vertical clutches, and posi ponent, the mechanism comprising a driving motor, a pair of opposed oppositely rotating tive mechanical connections between said handle and said clutches, so constructed and arranged as to energize said clutches in either direction of clutches coupled with the motor for simultane ous rotation thereby, a driven shaft engageable rotation. 4. Mechanism for operating a movable com ponent comprising a shaft for driving said com ponent, a motor, a pair of oppositely rotating clutches driven by the motor and selectively op erable to drive said shaft, means for simultane ously controlling the clutches, and, a single uni ' tary regulable, screw thread actuated means as with either or both of said clutches at will, a com mon' regulable means for preloading said clutches 10 to initially act in opposition to each other so that both clutches are partially energized, whereby to prevent backlash in the drive, and a single man ually operable means for regulating said common means. 15 V ' " ALFRED CORTE.