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Патент USA US2405642

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Aug. 13, 1946.
' 2,405,642
Filed Dec. 27, 1941
3 Sheets—Sheet l
C09 7':
Aug. 13, 1946.‘
Filed Dec. 27, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Dec. 27, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
Alfred Corie, Glendale, Cali?, assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Lockheed Aircraft Corporation,
a corporation of California
Application December 27, 1941, Serial No. 424,635
5 Claims.
(631. 89-375)
This invention relates to an improved control
for the elevating and traversing movements of
power driven turrets, with special reference to
light weight turrets such as are required for air
craft, land vehicles, and motor boats when ma
neuverability, accuracy and delicacy of control
are prime considerations.
In the usual type of turret drive such as the
controllable speed electric or hydraulic motor, the
angular momentum of the drive motor may be as
great or greater than that of the turret itself.
The eiiect of this on the operation of the turret is
that a movement of the control lever is not im
mediately re?ected in a movement of the turret
but appears only after a lapse of time necessary
the problem of overshoot of the drive system is
largely eliminated by driving the turret from a
system of clutches rather than directly from the
drive motor with its necessarily high angular mo
mentum. Moreover, the torque available to move
the turret is that corresponding to the maximum
output of the drive motor regardless of the speed
of rotation of the turret. This is in direct con
trast to the conventional variable speed motor
drive Where the torque available to move the tur
ret from a stand-still position is the stalled torque
which is always considerably less than the maxi
mum although it is at this point in the operation
of the turret that a high, smoothly controlled
torque is most needed.
It is also an object of this invention to provide
an improved turret drive of the class described
wherein overshoot or hunting of the drive or the
for the drive motor to change its speed. If, for
instance, a target is picked up while the turret is
moving and the control lever is instantly brought
turret is eliminated by partially preloading rotat
to the stop position, the turret will continue mov
ing until the angular momentum of the turret and 20 ing clutches adapted to drive the turret in either
direction. The coupling between the pressure
the driving train has been absorbed by the fric
tion inherent in the system or introduced for the
purpose. Unless the gunner limits himself to
movements of the control lever at a tempo com
mensurate with the decay time of the drive sys
plates is so arranged that at the stop or neutral
position of the control lever, each clutch is par
tially engaged. However, the two clutches are
engaged by an equal amount so that the net force
acting on the turret is zero. With this arrange
ment, the inertia and lost motion of the driving
tem, and thus in e?ect “creeps” up to his target,
he must anticipate the sluggishness of his control
train is taken up, as Well as the reverse torque set
by over-controlling. In the situation described
up by the overrunning tendency due to the mo
above, the gunner would throw his control lever
over into the position which would ordinarily 30 mentum of the turret; but the torque can be
smoothly varied from maximum in one direction,
cause the turret to turn in the reverse direction,
through zero to maximum in the other direction.
moving the lever back to the stop position as the
perienced gunner, this type of control is not sat
It is a further object of this invention to pro
vide a turret control of the type described where
isfactory considering the rapidity and nicety of
in adjustable preloading of oppositely rotating
aim necessary in aircraft engagements.
It is accordingly an object of this invention to
minimize the time lag between movement of the
turret control lever and the corresponding move
ment of the turret. A constant speed motor is 40
clutches—one of which turns in such a direction
as to cause the turret to move in a given direction
clutches in the driving train enables a constant
speed drive to be engaged in any degree desired in
either direction without lost motion or overrun
ning of the turret or drive components, whereby
the maximum torque of which the drive is capable
can be realized at any speed of rotation of the
turret in either direction, including sudden re
versals thereof, without a tendency to clutch chat
upon engagement, while the other clutch is geared
ter due to light loading thereof.
turret slowed down. Even in the hands of an ex
connected by a simple system of gearing to two
It is also an object of this invention to provide
to cause the turret to move in the opposite direc 45
a single control for separately or simultaneously
tion. The pressure plates of the two clutches are
operating a turret in traverse and elevation, the
connected together to a single control so arranged
control being such- that it can be used for either
that movement in one direction from a neutral
direct control from inside the turret or as a re
position engages one clutch while movement in
the other direction engages the other. Thus a 50 mote or robot control for one or more turrets
operated from a central aiming station. In either
change of the control lever setting requires only
case the operating lever would be moved up,
the dissipation of the relatively small angular
down or sideways just as a gunner would directly
momentum of the clutch before the correspond
operate the breech of a pivotally mounted ma
ing force acts on the turret. The motor will con
chine gun in order to follow a moving target,
tinue rotating at its constant speed. In this way,
Other and further important objects of this
control handles hereinafter referred to to oper
invention will be apparent from the disclosures
in the speci?cation and the accompanying draw
ate, yet would give a very stable, sensitive and
instantaneously responsive control of the power
drive. The unit consists of a splined shaft l8
This invention is shown in connection with an
airplane turret corresponding to that shown in
connection with my .prior application entitled
Gun turret mounting, Serial No. 366,659, ?led
November 22, 1940, now Patent No. 2,364,951,
for taking the power from a motor :9, a splined
shaft 26 for delivering the power to the related
worm E2 or 63, and‘a single control for varying
the magnitude and the direction of the torque
delivered to the worm.
issued December 12, 1944; it being evident that, .10.
it is applicable to many other forms, locations,’ .
and types of mobile equipment. '
In the drawings:
Figure I is a central verticalsectiom'with parts
in elevation, through a gun turret embodying the
control features of this invention.
Figure II is a vertical schematic section on the
Mechanically, the unit consists of two multiple
disc clutches 2| and 22 with a common driven
member or shaft 26. 7 Two driving members 24
and 25 rotate in opposite directions so that en
' gagement of’ one or other of the clutches will
turn the driven shaft 26 in either a forward or
a reverse direction. ' Referring to the drawing in
Figure III, the pinion shaft 88, is coupled to the
drive motor l9 through a spline connection, and
line II—II of Figure I showing the controllinkage
for the traversing and elevating drive clutches.
' carries two pinions 265 and 21. The left-hand
Figure III is an' enlarged section of the line 20 pinion it drives a gear integral with the driving
III—’III of Figure II, showing one control clutch
member 2Q, of one clutch, which may be called
the forward ‘clutch. The right-hand pinion 2'!
in section, with the driving motor and. driven
drives the driving member 25 of the reverse clutch
shaft omitted.
through an idler gear 28 rotatablymounted on
- Figure IV is a rear elevation of the turret with
a portion appearing in vertical cross section.
25 the end wall of the casing It“; by a suitable trun
Figure V is a fragmentary transverse sectional
nion (ill; see Figure V. The driven plates of each
view of one oiv the clutch units illustrating the
clutch are coupled to thesplined shaft 20 which
idler gear.v
in turn is coupled to the related worm 62 or 63.
Figure VI is a fragmentary horizontal sectional Control of the two clutches 2i and 22 is effected
view» taken substantially as indicated by line 30 through a single control rod 29 which is so
VI.—VI in Figure IV, and
arranged that movement to one side of a neutral
Figure VII is a diagrammaticview of the com
position engages one clutch for a positive drive
mon drive means for the worms of the elevatable
while movement to the other side engages the
turret segments.
other clutch for a positive. The control rod
As shown, the particular installation chosen at carries two cone-shaped cams 30 and, 3| withv
for illustrative purposes is intended to be mount
their apexes adjustably facing toward each other
ed in the top of a fuselage, for direct control by
and arranged to move as a unit laterally with
a gunner centrally located therein. It will be
the. rod 29. Each clutch has a set of pressure
evident that the present invention is directed .to
arms 32 which ride up on the surface of the cone
the traversing and elevating controls, either or 40 as the cone is moved laterally, and translates
both of which are equally suitable for the control
such motion into clutch engagement. The two
of nose, tail, side, or bottom turrets for airplanes
cone-shaped cams 343 and 3i ride on ball-bearings,
or other gun mounts.
In the turret shown in the drawings, an ap
. and so are free to rotate with the spline shaft
23, while the longitudinal movement of the con
proximately parti-spherical housing is composed 45 trol rod 25 is transmitted to the cam assembly
of spaced side segments It carrying twin machine
through these ball bearings. The two cams can
be moved relative to each other by turning a
clutch control adjustment screw 311 by means
of a knob 35 at the end of the control rod. Ad
ring l3 through the medium of supporting aprons 50 justment of this screw in its 14 pitch thread in a
Bil. The gunner is located in the central part M
sleeve 36 moves the right cam 31 relative to the
of the enclosure, between the segments iii. The
rest of the control unit. At the same time, a
tracks i2 have suitable bearings for the segments
trunnion 37, through wh'ichithe control force is
l0 and the ring I3 is mounted in a stationary
applied, moves on its 28 pitch thread 38, so that
ring 6! through a similar bearing to provide for 55 the whole control unit is moved back with re
rotation of the respective turret components
spect to the trunnion by an amount equal to one
about horizontal and vertical axes. The ring l3
half the relative movement of the cams. In this
has gear teeth with which a driving worm 62
way, the neutral position of the trunnion is main
meshes and worms 33 mesh with similar teeth
tained independently of the setting of the ad
on the ‘peripheries of the segments so that the 60 justment screw, which can be locked by nuts 39 '
turret components are separately rotated.- Each
on a guide pin 40.
worm t2 and S3 is driven by a clutch unit, the
The effect of moving the cams together is to
casing for each unit being indicated by the nu
cause both of the clutches to engage and thus
guns or cannons Ii and mounted for synchro
nized elevational movements in circular tracks
i2 which are supported by a horizontal bearing
meral E5.
The clutch units for driving the seg- '
' to preload the system.
At the neutral position of '
ments it and ring l3 are identical, that for the 65 the trunnion, both clutches are engaged by the
ring l3 being directly connected to its worm 62,
same amount so that the turret remains sta
while the clutch for the segments l6 drives the
separate worms 63 through a common gear train
In Figures I and II a pair of handles 4] is
i5 shown in Figure VII, the clutch for the seg
mounted for sidewise swinging relative to a trans- '
ments It] being preferably located below the gun 70 verse shaft 42 supported by a forked extension
ner’s seat pedestal H and having its drive ex
[it of the seat pedestal l1.‘ Sidewise bodily move—
tending axially thereof to the gear train.
ment'of the handles 4! operatespush and pull
The clutch unit it‘: of the control system was
sheathed cables 44 to elevate or depress a sleeve
designed to provide a gun directing device which
t5 extending down in the column llto operate;
would require but a very small pressure on the 75 a fork 46 engaging the trunnion 37 of the trav- ‘
ersing clutch, by means of suitable linkage '41.
Vertical or angular movement of the handles ro
tates the shaft 42 to operate push and pull cables
48 to elevate or depress a second sleeve 49 which
similarly operates the trunnion of the elevating
clutch through linkage 5%).
The operation of the drive of this invention
involves the use of a constant speed drive motor
effort on his part is required. Each of the handles
is provided with a switch lever 51 which is ar
ranged like a dead-man control in that in grasp
ing the control handles, the switch is thrown on.
This switch energizes the constant speed drive
motors. Thus, as soon as the gunner assumes the
alert position, the drive motors are turned on and
the turret will respond to whatever movement is
with two oppositely rotating clutches which‘ elim
given to the control handles.
trol handles 4! are instantly brought to the stop
or neutral position. The motor, of course, will
continue rotating. However, the clutch which
overrunning of the turret has been eliminated by
It will thus be seen that I have invented an im
inates overshoot of the drive to a large extent. 10
proved power turret drive wherein backlash and
Suppose that a target is picked upv and the con
adjustable preloading oppositely rotating clutches
against each other; and in which the driving
has?just been disengaged is not free to rotate but 15 clutches are sufficiently loaded as to operate in
is slowed down by the'preload'i'ng of t'he'o'pposite ‘ their stable driving range, thus eliminating'chat-l
tering thereof and providing a sensitive and posi
clutch. Although this preloading may be but a
tive control of turret movements from neutral to
small fraction of the total power necessary to
maximum speed in either direction. It will also
turn the turret, it is still of such magnitude that
it will bring the clutch to a stop almost instan 20 be evident that my improved control provides a
natural control facilitating the instinctive opera
taneously. The overshoot due to the inertia of
tion of the turret while the gunner concentrates
the driving unit is then quite effectively damped
his attention on the target.
out. There remains the overshoot due to the in
Having thus described my invention and the
ertia of the turret. This inertia tends to turn the
clutches. However, since the clutches are par 25 present preferred embodiments thereof, I desire
to emphasize the fact that many modi?cations
tially engaged with the motor, the driving force
may be resorted to in a manner limited only by a
due to the inertia of the turret is bucked by the
just interpretation of the following claims,
preloading torque of the clutch and hence is rap
I claim:
idly damped out.
1. Mechanism for use with a power driven gun
By the use of preloading, all torques appearing 30
turret having traversing andelevating components
on the drive shaft which are less in magnitude
and driving mechanism for each of said com
than the preloading on the individual clutches
ponents comprising a source of power, said mech
are comprised of the algebraic sum of the two
anism including a pair of oppositely rotating
opposing torques of the two clutches. Hence, in
no case, does the torque applied to the turret 35 clutches connected to each source of power, means
represent the output of a clutch working below its
point of stable operation. That this is true may
for adjustably preloading said clutches to initially
act in opposition to each other, a common driven
shaft operatively connected with each pair of
be seen from analysis of the conditions existing
clutches to be selectively energized by either of its
at the stop or neutral position of the control lever.
clutches each shaft serving to drive a
At the values of preloading contemplated-ten to
component, and means for selectively and simul
thirty percent of the total output—th'e clutches
taneously controlling said clutches of either pair
are working well in the region of stable operation.
of clutches whereby to produce traversing and
Although the torque on the drive shaft may be
elevating movements of the turret components in
sultant of the torques of two clutches operating 45 either direction of motion.
2. Mechanism for use with a power driven gun
with a high degree of stability.
turret capable of traversing and elevating the line
One reason for the instability of high power
of ?re and having separate driving mechanism
clutches when working at low torques is the
for traversing and elevating the line of ?re each
looseness in coupling between the clutch and the
drive motor. At low torques, the impact upon 50 comprising a source of power, said mechanism in.
cluding a pair of oppositely rotating clutches con
take up of the slack in the gears or other ele
to each source of power, means for ad
ments in the coupling to the motor may be of
justably preloading each pair of clutches to in
even greater magnitude than the torque which
itially act in opposition to each other, a common
it is desired to draw. Instability in the form of
clutch chatter inevitably results. The preloading U driven shaft operatively connected with each pair
of clutches to be selectively energized by either of
of the clutches of the present drive automatically
respective clutches, each shaft serving to drive
preloads the gears which couple the clutches to
a component of the turret, and means for se
the motor so that there is never any slack to take
lectively and simultaneously controlling said
clutches whereby to produce traversing and ele
Two of these drive units are used, one to con.
movements of the turret in either direction
trol the traverse movement of the turret and one
of motion.
for the elevation. The two clutches are connected
3. Mechanism for use with a power driven gun
to the control handles 4| of which there are two
so constructed and arranged as to cover
one right and one 1eft-—which are connected to
and vertical ?elds of ?re and hav
gether so that the turret can be directed with 65
ing separate driving motors for its movable com
either of the gunner’s hands or with both. The
ponents, said mechanism comprising a pair of
connection to the clutch control handles 4! is
oppositely rotating clutches coupled to
such that movement of the handles through an
each motor for simultaneous rotation thereby, a
arc in the vertical plane controls the elevation
driven shaft for each of said components and en
clutch while movement of the handles in the
gageable with either or both of said clutches of
horizontal plane controls the traverse clutch.
a related pair of clutches at will, screw thread
The directing of the guns is perfectly natural to
actuated means for preloading said clutches to in
the gunner, being Very similar to the movements
itially act in opposition to each other so that both
he would employ in directing one of the manually
aimed machine guns> except that no muscular 75 clutches are partially energized in the neutral
zero or of in?nitesimal magnitude, it is the re
position'of the driven shaft to prevent backlash,
soclated with the last'named means for preload-_
in the drive, a control handle movable about a
ing both clutches to an identical degree.
pivot in one plane to control the horizontal
5.'Mechanism for operating a movable com
clutches and in another plane at right angles
thereto to control the vertical clutches, and posi
ponent, the mechanism comprising a driving
motor, a pair of opposed oppositely rotating
tive mechanical connections between said handle
and said clutches, so constructed and arranged
as to energize said clutches in either direction of
clutches coupled with the motor for simultane
ous rotation thereby, a driven shaft engageable
4. Mechanism for operating a movable com
ponent comprising a shaft for driving said com
ponent, a motor, a pair of oppositely rotating
clutches driven by the motor and selectively op
erable to drive said shaft, means for simultane
ously controlling the clutches, and, a single uni
' tary regulable, screw thread actuated means as
with either or both of said clutches at will, a com
mon' regulable means for preloading said clutches
10 to initially act in opposition to each other so that
both clutches are partially energized, whereby to
prevent backlash in the drive, and a single man
ually operable means for regulating said common
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