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Патент USA US2405645

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‘ 13,
Filed April 29, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Roae'kz J Duguia’
5y ‘
Aug. 13, 1946.
Filed April 29, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Aug. 13, 1946.
Filed April 29, 1944
a Sheets-Shéet K
Rebel-t .-J0/17.2 Duiguz'd I
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
' 2,405,645
Robert John Duguid, Aberdeen, Scotland -
‘ Application April 29, 1944, Serial No. 533,339
In Great Britain May 14, 1943
3 Claims.
(Cl. 95-905)‘
This invention relates to apparatus for process
Figure 1 is a perspective view looking on the
outside of the apparatus;
Figures 2 and 3 are perspective views at right
angles to each other showing the internal frame
with its endless carrier and associated parts re
ing photographic films in comparatively long
lengths such as cinematograph ?lms or similar
?lms employed for micro-copying or miniature
camera work.
The invention is concerned with apparatus of
the type in-which the ?lm is traversed, in ex
tended form, through a chamber or container
moved from the tank;
Figure 4 is a diagram showing the path of the
endless carrier,
Figure 5 is a diagram, similar to Figure 4, but
be developing, ?xing, washing, bleaching or other 10 illustrating'a duplicated form of apparatus, em
ploying four pairs of rollers.
treatment, is e?ected.
Figure 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view show
According to this invention an apparatus of the
ing means for coupling the conveyor belt to the
above type is provided with means for traversing
the ?lm ?rst in a helical path proceeding in a
Like reference numerals indicate like parts
direction from one side or end of the treatment 15
within which the processing operation, which may
chamber towards the other end and then in a
helical path proceeding in the opposite, i. e. re
turn, direction.
In the preferred form of'the invention the ap
paratus comprises an endless carrier surface, such
as an endless band, belt or chain, which is ar
throughout the ?gures.
Referring in the ?rst place to Figures 1 to 4, the
treatment chamber comprises a tank ll] of sub
stantial depth within which is located an open
rectangular framework It supporting rollers on
which an endless carrier band I2 is mounted.
There are two pairs of rollers l3, l4 and l5,‘ l6,
ranged to be traversed in succession in two op
hereinafter referred to as the front pair and back
positely directed parallel helical paths and means
pair respectively, all mounted for rotation about
for connecting the ?lm to the carrier surface for 25 parallel horizontal axes extending from one side
_ movement therewith in the paths aforesaid.
of the tank towards the other. The elements of
In one. constructional form the apparatus em
each pair are positioned, as shown, one vertically
bodying the invention comprises two pairs of
above the other near the top and bottom of the
parallel rollers extending horizontally from one
tank respectively. The endless carrier band I2
side of the treatment chamber to the other with
is wound helically, from one side of the tank,
the co-operating elements of each pair located re
around the top roller l4 and bottom roller l3 of
spectively near the'top and bottom of the treat
the front pair, thus proceeding to the opposite
ment chamber, and an endless band or the like
side of the tank where the band is taken around
which is wound helically between the top and
the bottom roller R5 of the back pair and is then
bottom rollers of one pair thus proceeding from
wound helically in the reverse direction around
one side of the chamber to the other and which
‘ the rollers l5, it of the back pair, thus proceed
is thereafter wound helically in the return direc-'
ing to- the original side of the tank where the
tion around the top. and bottom rollers of the
band is taken over the top roller it of the front
other pair. If desired, the apparatus may include
pair. The top rollers Ill, N5 of the front and back
a plurality of sets of rollers and an endless band 40 pairs carry gear wheels l1, 18 .(Figure 4) with
which is wound in oppositely directed parallel
which a driving pinion I9 is in mesh. The pinion
helical paths over the rollers of each set in suc
i9 is adapted to be rotated selectively either by a
hand crank 20 coupled directly to a spindle on
Another feature of the invention relates to the
which the pinion is mounted or through any suit
provision of a tensioning device through the in
able reduction gearing, indicated generally at 2|,
termediary of which the leading end of the ?lm
from a small electric motor 22. The bottom rol
is adapted to be coupled to the endless carrier
lers l3,~ l5 of the two pairs are in the form of
band and by means of which slack in the ?lm
idlers which are driven by frictional contact with
which would otherwise occur during the winding
the endless band l2. On uni-directional rota-_
on operation is avoided.
tion of the two top rollers Ill, l6 transmitted by
The foregoing and additional features of the
the driving pinion l9, it will be appreciated that
invention are embodied in an apparatus which
the endless band 12 will be traversed in a‘ ?at
will now be described by way of example, with
elongated helical path round the front rollers l3,
reference to the accompanying drawings in
l4 from one side of the tank to the other and
then in a similar path round the back rollers l5,
I! in the reverse direction across the tank. The
direction of travel of the endless band over the
rollers is indicated by arrowheads in Figure 4.
The top and bottom rollers of both pairs are pro
vided with annular guide ?anges 23 adapted to
separate adjacent .turns of the band. Alterna
tively for the same purpose guides might be pro
vided on the ?xed framework it which supports
and the ?lm would result in the latter slackening
of! near its attachment to the collar. The e?ect
of the tensioning device 30, by means of which
the ?lm is secured indirectly to the collar, is to
take up the slack of the ?lm as the winding pro
The apparatus is operated in the following way.
The ?lm spool 50 is ?rst mounted on its support
ing shaft 24 which is uncovered by a .hinged lid
the rollers. .
The roll of the ?lm 50 to be treated, which may 10 31 (mounted in the top panel 26 of the frame
work)‘ which in the closed position, shown in
be on a spool, magazine or other container nor
Figure 1, forms a light-tight enclosure for the
mally used in cameras, is mounted on or is held
?lm so that the apparatus may be used for day
against the end of a shaft 24 located above and
light loading. The leading end 21 of the ?lm is
between the top rollers I4, 16. The shaft 24 is
mounted on a bracket 25 supported on a top 15 attached, in the manner already described, to the
band as it passes from the back top roller IE to
panel 28 of the framework. The shaft 2d engag
the front top roller 14. The hinged lid 3| on the
,ing with the spool holding the ?lm renders a
top panel is then closed thus sealing the light
braking action on the ?lm as later described
trap. The hand crank 29 is then rotated or the
herein. The leading end 21 of the ?lm is taken
motor 22 set in motion until the ?lm is fully
through a light-trapped opening 28 in the top
wound on to the band.‘ In order to indicate when
panel 25, the position of the ?lm being such that
the ?lm has been fully wound on, the leading
it may readily be connected to the endless band
collar 29 may carry a projection arranged to op
i2 as it passes from the top roller iii of the back
erate a bell to give an audible warning. Alter
pair to the top roller M of the front pair. The
natively, this projection may be arranged to raise
?lm is attached to the band by means of a collar
a rod operating through the top panel 26, thus
29 which is slidable on the band and is provided
giving a visual signal that the winding-on process
with a stop [2a so that the collar 29 if moved in
has been completed. Again, the arrangement
one direction becomes ?xed against the stop but
may be such that the collar projection closes an
is free to move in the opposite direction. Alter
electrical contact so as to illuminate a lamp.
natively the band may be provided with a catch
After the ?lm has been fully wound on, as in
so arranged that when the collar is pulled in one
dicated by the foregoing signal, the trailing end
direction, i. e.-in a direction opposed to that in
of the ?lm is attached to the band collar 29; thus
which the band is travelling, the collar will grip
the band is covered by the ?lm with the tension
the band, e. g. it may be arranged to engage holes
or corrugations in the band. The leading end 2'! 35 ing device 30 between the two ends of the ?lm.
The desired processing operations may now be ef
of the ?lm is attached to the collar29 through
fected, the top rollers I13, 46 either being driven
the intermediary of a spring tensioning device 30,
by the hand crank 20 or by the motor 22. The
which may conveniently be a length of elastic
tank i0 is provided at the top with a light-trapped
material. One end of the tensioning device 301s
attached to the collar 29 and the other end is 40 inlet 32 for the treating solution and at the bot
tom with a cap-closed outlet or tap 33 through
either attached direct to the leading end of the
which the solution may be removed. Another
?lm or to a second collar (not shown) which is
inlet 5i may be provided in the top panel 26 or
slidable in either direction on the band and to
alternatively the panel inlet 5i may replace the
which the leading end of the ?lm is secured. As
tank inlet 32. It is only necessary to use a com
shown in Figure 6 the tensioning device 30 is pro
paratively small quantity of the solution at the
vided at each end with a set of small hooks 30C
bottom of the tank, since in operation the ?lm is
to engage with the perforations in the ?lm so that
continuously traversed under the bottom rollers
the ends of the ?lm can be easily attached to the
I3, l5 of the two pairs on which the carrier band
ends of the tensioning device 30. The device 30
may conveniently be composed, of an elastic part 50 is mounted. After processing, one end of the ?lm
is secured to the ?lm roll mounting shaft 24, or
30A and a part 30B attached to the collar 29,
to a spool mounted thereon, and the ?lm is re
parts 30A and 303 being connected together by
wound by rotation of the shaft 24 which, through
means of a. hook 39D attached to the part 30A
the medium of a pinion 53 carried by the shaft, is
and adapted to engage in a loop 29D ?xed to the
part 30B.
in CA ‘ arranged for rotation by the hand crank 01' motor
drive. The pinion 53 can be taken out of mesh
The shaft 24 on which the roll of ?lm is
with the driving pinion l9 when not required.
mounted is provided with a spring brake (not
In the arrangment diagrammatically illus
shown) or like retarding device. When the top
trated in Figure 5, the same principle of operation
rollers l4, l6 are ?rst set in motion this spring
brake has the effect of ensuring that the tension 60 is entailed but an increased number of band
oarrying rollers are employed. The apparatus
ing device 30 will be extended to the maximum
comprises four pairs of rollers 40 to 4'! arranged
extent, after which the brake will slip and the
side by side in parallel pairs with the elements of
?lm will be fed automatically to the top of the
each pair positioned one vertically above the other
band. The length or strength of the tensioning
device 30 is such that there is still a slight ten 65 near the top and bottom of the tank respectively.
sioning applied by it to the ?lm when the latte '
The endless band I 2 is wound helically round the
top and bottom rollers 40, 4| of the ?rst pair,
has been fully wound on to the band.
then helically in the reverse direction round the
It is to be appreciated that after a few turns
rollers 42, 43 of the second pair and so on round
of ?lm have been wound on, the ?lm is driven by
the top and bottom rollers 44, 45 of the third pair
frictional contact with the outer surface of the
.and top and bottom rollers 46, 4'! of the fourth
band 12 and owing to the different diameters in
pair, being carried from the top roller 46 of the
volved the tendency is for the ?lm to move faster
than the band. If the leading end 27 of the ?lm
last pair, over the top of the rollers, to the start
ing point of the ?rst pair. The top rollers 42, 44
were connected directly to the securing collar 29,
the slight difference in speed between the band 75 of the second and third pairs are directly driven
by a main driving pinion l9, and the top-rollers
I ranged to be traversed in succession in two op
40, 48 of the ?rst and fourth pairs are driven
positely directed helical paths, 'a tensioning de
through intermediate gear wheels 48.
vice coupled at one end to the endless carrier and
The apparatus described above may be modi
?ed in many ways without departing from the
coupled at its other end to the ?lm and by means
of which slack in the ?lm, during the winding-on
operation, is avoided.
2. Apparatus for processing photographic ?lms
in comparatively long lengths comprising a treat
ment chamber, means including an endless band
essential features of the invention. For example,
it will be appreciated that the size of the tank,
the length of the endless carrier band and the
number and length of'the band» rollers may be
varied in order to accommodate the apparatus to
the processing of ?lms of di?erent lengths. For
comparatively short length ?lms such as those
customarily used in so-called f‘miniature”
for traversing a ?lm in extended form through
the treatment chamber, a coupling member for .
attaching a ?lm to the band, a tensioning device
in the form of a length of elastic material at
tached to said coupling member, and 'means for
cameras, there may be but two convolutions of
the endless 'band on each pair of rollers.
1.5 attaching opposite ends of the ?lm to opposite
ends of said tensioning device.
I claim:
1. Apparatus for processing photographic ?lms
in comparatively long lengths comprising a treat-.
ment chamber, means for traversing a ?lm in
3. Apparatus according to claim 2 wherein said
coupling member is free to move along the said
bandv in the forward direction of movement
extendedform through the treatment chamber, 20 thereof.
said means comprising an endless carrier ar-,
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