Патент USA US2405669код для вставки
Aug, m §94@ H. PLÀTT ETAL ' 259465,56@ COLORATION OF vTEX'IE'IL’E‘» MATERIALS Filed June .14, 1938 ‘ > :s sheets-sheet 1 _ HII'IHHHHHIIIIHHIHII l Il. 24 INVENTORS HERBEKI'PL'ATT .CYR I L M. CROFT H. PLATT Sla-rm.. coLoRAT'IoN oF TEXTILE MATERIALS Filed .June 14, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 54 12' 2" INVENTORS ¿ HÉRBERT PLATT CYRIL M. CROFT A/ ATTRNEYS " H Aug. 1.3, 1946. "H, PLA-r1- ÈTAL _ I' 2,405,669 coLoRATIoN oF TEXTILE MATERIALS ì Filed 'Tune 14,' 19:58 s Sheets-sneer s l; :L -„.42 32' y43 2 .445..v , » 35 HERBERT LATT cYRgL M. RoFT Patented Aug. 13, 1946 entre UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,669 p COLORATION 0F TEXTILE MATERIALS Herbert Platt and Cyril M. Croft, Cumberland, Md., assignors to Celanes'e Corporation of - America, a corporation of Delaware Application June 14, 1938, Serial No. 213,585 12 Claims. l This invention relates to the dyeing of textile materials, especially those containing thermo plastic yarns or filaments, with dyes which have commercially rapid dye affinity for said yarns or ñlaments at'elevated temperatures. An object of the invention is the application of ` (c1. 3451> an open width or flattened condition, a common type of such a device being a jig. Although the use of a jig overcame the formation of creases, it limited the number of dyestufis that could be em ployed. For instance, prior to this invention “high temperature” dyestuffs could not be used dyes to materials containing organic derivative in a jig with commercial success. By “high tem of cellulose yarns or filaments. Another object perature” dyestuffs is meant those dyestuffs that of the invention is the method o-f dyeing textile have good añìnity for the fabric only at tempera materials containing organic derivative of cellu 10 tures of ’70° C. or above. These dyestuffs, being lose yarns or filaments whereinV the dye is lapplied sensitive to the temperature ofthe fabric, pro uniformly, the dye is substantially exhausted and duced streaky dyeings with shaded selvedges and the time required to bring the textile material ends due to the uneven cooling of the fabric on to a good shade is reduced. Another object of the> roll and the temperature differential between the invention is the dyeing of textile materials the center and edges of the fabric when on the containing organic derivative of cellulose yarns roll. We have now found that a full range of or filaments with dyes having an affinity for the dyestuffs, including the high temperature dye organic derivative of cellulose only at elevated stuffs, may be applied on the jig to fabrics con temperatures. A still further object of our inven taining `thermoplastic yarns by maintaining the tion is the construction of a dye jig which will dye 20 temperature 'of both rolls of fabric at a` tempera fabrics with “high temperature” dyes. Other ob ture above the critical temperature of that com jects of our invention will appear from the fol ponent of the dyestuff requiring the higher tem lowing detailed description and drawings. perature. This not only permits the use of a wider range of dyestuifs and effects uniform dye In the drawings,.wherein like reference nu merals refer to the same or similar elements in ing, but also greatly decreases the timev of dyeing, the respective views: ' thus effecting greater production per machine Fig. 1 is a side View, partially in section, of a and man hour. dye jig constructed in accordance with this in By employing this invention a better penetra tion of the dyestuiï into the filaments is obtained vention, Fig. 2 is an end View of the dye jig shown in ' and an improved hand is obtained, it being some Fig. 1, what fuller than that obtained by prior methods. Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken online 3--3 of 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4_4 of As stated above, the invention effects an economy in the dyeing process as there is an improved speed of dyeing. VThere is also eifectd a saving in dyestuff and steam employed, the bath being 5 is a sectional view-talien on line 5-5 of radily exhausted of dyestuif and escape of steam is confined. Flîî‘ligl., 6 is a somewhat diagrammatic View show ` y In accordance with our invention, we dye fab rics containing thermoplastic yarns in an open 40 Width and flattened condition on a jig while '.ing the loading of the dye jig, and Fig. 7 is a somewhat diagrammatic view show ing the unloading of the dye jig. maintaining a substantially uniform temperature The dyeing of fabrics containing thermoplastic throughout both rolls of fabric, which tempera yarns has been effected only by the use of special ture is high enough to effect a dyeing with high temperature dyestuffs. To accomplish this we processes, as compared to the dyeing of 'other types of fabric, and by a careful'selection of dye 45 construct a novel jig, also forming a part of this stuffs. Fabrics containing thermoplastic yarns, invention, having an enclosed space above the which are woven into twills,'taffetas, etc., are normally dyed in a jig as the batch process of dyeing or dyeing on the winch causes creases to be formed in the fabric. tub in which the fabric is being treated. -' f This invention is applicable to the dyeing of any fabric regardless of composition or structure. Moreover, the yarns 50 However, it is especially applicable to the dyeing are somewhat softened due to the heat of the of closely woven tañetas and crepes that are made dye bath and/or reagents contained in the bath of or> contain thermoplastic yarns.. Any. type causing the creases to become permanent. In f of fabric may be treated in accordance with this order to'avoid creasing of the fabric, the fabric invention. For example, thefabric may be woven, is dyed on devices which maintain the fabric in 55 knitted, »netted or knotted. l The fabrics may be . aioacce 3 4 made entirely of thermoplastic yarns or thermo plastic yarns may be interwoven or knitted with reference to Figs. l and 2 the jig is constructed yarns of other materials, such as cotton, silk, wool, regenerated cellulose, etc. Even the yarns them of a frame I having mounted therein a tub 2. At each side of the frame I is mounted a pair of uprights 3 and 4. The uprights 3, of which there selves may be made of a mixture of thermoplastic Ul is one on each side of the jig, support a shaft >'5. upon which is mounted a shell~6 about which the ñbers or ñlaments and ñbers or filaments of non fabric is rolled during the dyeing operation, Near thermoplastic materials, and these yarns may be the top of the uprights 3 there is provided an interwoven or knitted with yarns of thermoplastic open top bearing ‘I for supporting a shaft 8 material or yarns of non-thermoplastic mate adapted to support a roll of fabric B’ during the rial. In the practice prior to this invention it loading of the jig. In the uprights A, of which was found that the care to be given to fabric there is one on each side of the jig, is a shaft 9 containing these thermoplastic yarns was directly which has mounted thereon a shell ll about proportional to the amount of thermoplastic which the fabric is adapted to be rolled during yarns present in the fabric. the dyeing operation. The upper end of the up The thermoplastic material of the fabric may rights ¿l are provided with bearings I2 adapted be any suitable thermoplastic material, such as to support a square shaft I3. On one end of the the organic derivatives of cellulose which include shaft 9 at the outside of the frame member is the organic esters of cellulose and the cellulose mounted a sprocket I4, while on a similar end of ethers. Examples of the organic esters of cellu lose are cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cel 20 shaft I3 is also mounted a sprocket I5. By means of sprocket chain i6 the shaft 9 drives lulose propionate and cellulose butyrate, while shaft I3 for the purpose of rolling up and un examples of the ethers of cellulose are ethyl loading the fabric I3' from the jig. Mounted in cellulose, methyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose. l the tub are suitable guide rollers Il for directing The thermoplastic material may be present in the fabric through the bath contained therein. the fabric as substantially continuous .filaments or as übers, or may even be present as a coating Also mounted in the jig is a spreader arm I8 of or dressing. These fabrics may be dyed with any suitable dyestuif having affinity therefor or for one con any suitable type having mounted thereon spreader-controlling rollers I9 which act through stituent thereof. Mixtures of dyestuff may be employed, for instance, in dyeing a fabric con taining cotton and cellulose acetate, the dye bath may contain dyestuffs having affinity for cotton and dyestuffs having an añinity for cellulose ace tate. Also a mixture of dyestuffs having affinity for the same constituent may be employed to produce a desired shade. For instance, a blue and a red dyestuíf, each having an afñnity for cellulose acetate, may be employed. All or any of the dyestuñs employed may be high tempera 40 the fabric and the relative speeds of the shafts ture dyestuifs. The dyeing may ybe performed by passing the the spreader arm I8 to regulate the tension on 5 and 9. . ~ ' For driving the jig there is provided a suitable motor 2| which acts through a suitable trans mission and speed reducing device 22 to rotate the shafts 5 and 9, the relative speeds of which and their direction of travel are controlled by suitable mechanism 23 partly responsive to the spreader arm I8. At the outside of the jig frame is a second frame comprising four hollow corner posts 24. These corner posts are shown in cross-section in Figs. 3 and 4. These corner posts support an enclosure for the space immediately above the tub in which the fabric is rolled from shaft 5 to the shaft 9 and back as many times as it is necessary to effect the desired dyeing. This en with suitable solubilizing agents, dispersing closure above the tub is constructed of movable `agents and the like, such as Turkey red oil, dex ends 25 adapted to slide up and down in a guide trin, sulphonated fatty alcohols and the like. way 26 suitably attached to the corner posts. The liquid of the dye bath may also contain re agents having a softening or swelling action on 50 These ends may be formed of a suitable frame, as sho-Wn at 25’ in Figs. 2 and 3, which frame the thermoplastic material contained in the fab contains glass panes 21 such that an operator ric'. The dye bath may also contain reagents may look in the end of the device to ascertain which act as stabilizers'for either‘the dye or the condition of the fabric. The movable ends the thermoplastic material, such as morpholine compounds, benzyl ethyl aniline, etc., ror finishes t 25 are held in a raised position by counterweights 28 attached thereto by means of cords 29. vThese which are intended t0 remain on the fabric, such counterweights 28 are adapted to hang inthe as oils, resins and stearyl chloride. hollow corner posts. Below the movable end 25 The bath may be maintained at any suitable is a movable skirt 3|, shown in cross-section in temperature at or below its boiling point, while Fig. 4, which is adapted to be raised and lowered the enclosed space above the bath, in which in the guideway 32A attached to the corner posts space is contained the bulk of the fabric being 24. Also across each end is a suitable brace 33 dyed, is maintained at the same temperature as tending to maintain the corner posts in spaced the bath or, as necessary in commercial produc and parallel relationship. The bottom of the tion, a few degrees lower. Although the bath skirts 3l may terminate in -a flangeìâ adapted may be maintained at any temperature, this in to make contact with the tub 2 to prevent the vention is primarily concerned with the use Yof escape of steam from between the ends of the high temperature dyestuifs, in which case the enclosure and the tub. The sides of the en temperature of the bath is preferably maintained closure are formed of a suitable sheet material at or above "10° C., and for some of the fast to fabric any number of times through .the liquid in the jig. The liquid or dye bath in the jig may be a water emulsion or dispersion of the dyestuff acid fading high temperature dyestuiîs, the bath is maintained kat or just below its boiling point, while the rolls of fabric are maintained at or 35'having cutout portions to fit around the shafts 5 and 9. The sides extend from one Ycorner post to the other terminating in a .flange 36 forming one side ‘of the guideway 32, thuseffecting a seal _ Y Vatthefour ïvertical'corners of the'enclosure. In the drawings is shown a jig constructed in iccordance with this invention. With 'particular 75 " Along- the vtop of both Vside members 35, as >above 80° C. amaca@ 5 , more fully shown in Fig. 5, is a bracket 31 6 of the shaft I3 may be released from its bearing"k adapted to support two series of rollers 38 and by means of the- hinge bearing top 54 which 39. At the inner end of the shaft 4I that sup permits the Vsquare shaft I3 to be raised suf. ports rollers 33 is a flexible tubing 42 ‘adapted ñciently free of the bearing to slip the shell con to prevent the escape of steam along the two taining the fabric therefrom. Y upper horizontal edges of the enclosure. It is to be understood that the foregoing de Mounted for sliding movement on the rollers 38 tailed description is merely given by way of il and 39 are a pair of frames 43 and 44 which lustration and that many variations may be made support glass panes 45 and 46, respectively. therein without departing from the spirit of our Each frame 43 and 44 is but slightly longer than 10 invention. half the length of the enclosure, the central ends Having described our invention, what we desire of which terminate in flanges 41 and 48, respec to secure by Letters Patent is: y tively, such that when the panes are moved to . 1. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or enclose the top the flanges 41 and 48 make a ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com seal preventing the escape of steam. prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con Suitable pipe lines may be connected with the taining a dyestulî, withdrawing the fabric from tub 2 for furnishing _thereto hot and cold water, said bath and maintaining the fabric at substan etc., these being conventional have not been tially the same temperature as the temperature shown on the drawings. The tub 2 may also of theheated dye bath while it is out of the bath contain steam pipes or other means 49 for heat 20 until dyeing is substantially completed. ing up or maintaining the bath in the tub 2 at 2. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu an elevated temperature. Also, there may be lose acetate yarns, which comprises immersing provided above the tub 2 steam pipes or other the fabric in a heated bath containing -,a dyestuff, means 5I for heating up or maintaining the at withdrawing the fabric from said bath and main mosphere of the enclosure above the bath at a 25 taining the fabric at substantially the same tem given temperature. The heating elements 5I are perature as the temperature of the heated dye not always necessary as the temperature of the bath while it is out of the bath until dyeing is bath soon raises the small amount of atmosphere substantially completed. to substantially its own temperature. There is 3. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or also provided means for lighting up the interior 30 ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com of the enclosure, such as marine lights 52 prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con mounted in the side walls of the enclosure. To taining a high temperature dyestuñ, withdrawing prevent condensate from preventing the operator the fabric from said bath and maintaining the from ascertaining the state of the fabric there is provided a manually operated or automatically ‘ operated wind shield wiper 53 at one or both fabric at substantially the same temperature as the temperature of the heated dye bath while it is out of the 4bath until dyeing is substantially ends of the enclosure. . completed. The operation of the device may best be de 4. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu scribed with particular reference to Figs. 6 and lose acetateyarns, which comprises immersing '1, which, although somewhat diagrammatic, 40 the fab-ric in a heated bath containing a. high show the operation of the device. For loading temperature dyestuff, withdrawing the fabric the jig a roll of fabric 8’ carried on a suitable from said bath and maintaining the fabric at shell is placed on the shaft 8 and the end of the substantially the same temperature as the tem fabric is brought around the shell contained on perature of the heated dye bath while it is out of ` the shaft 9. rl‘he shaft 9 is then rotated pulling 15 the bath until dyeing is substantially completed. the fabric from the roll 8’ and Winding it on the 5. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or shell on shaft 9. To accomplish this, however, ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com the frame 25 containing the panes 21 and also prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con the skirt 3| on that end of the machine is low taining a dyestuif and withdrawing the fabric ered, while the tWo top sections 45 and 46 are 50 from said bath into an enclosed atmosphere main moved to the right as seen in Fig. 6. After the fabric has been placed on the shaft 9 it is then tained at substantially the same temperature as rolls of fabric which now may be run through the dye bath contained in the tub 2. As the space an enclosed atmosphere maintained at substan tially the same temperature as the temperature ficient to maintain the enclosed space within a ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com on the shaft I3. the fabric in a heated bath containing a dyestuff the temperature of the heated dye bath. threaded about spacer arm I8, guide roll l1 onto 6. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu the shell supported by the shaft 5. The end of the enclosure at the left, as seen in Fig. 6, is then 55 lose acetate yarns, which comprises immersing the fabric in a heated bath containing a dyestuff raised and the top 46 is moved to the left effect and withdrawing the fabric from said bath into ing a substantially sealed enclosure about the _ enclosed is relatively small the heat contained in 60 of the heated dye bath. 7. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or the dye bath or supplied thereto is usually suf prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con relatively few degrees of the dye bath. For in taining a dyestuif and withdrawing the fabric stance, when the dye bath is maintained at or near 100° C. the atmosphere containedin the 65 from said bath and rolling up the same in an atmosphere maintained at substantially the same enclosure is around 92° C. For the purpose of temperature as the temperature of the vheated unloading the jig the fabric is wound on the dye bath While the ldyeing of the fabric is being shell supported by shaft 9, the right end as seen completed. in Fig. '1 is then lowered and the top section 45 8. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu is moved to the left effecting a whole open corner. 70 lose acetate yarns, which comprises immersing The fabric is then threaded onto a shell slipped By means of the drive chain and withdrawing the fabric from said bath and I6 the fabric is pulled from the enclosure and rolling up the same in an atmosphere maintained wound into a roll I3" upon the shell supported by the shaft I3. After Winding fabric one end 75k at substantially the same temperature as the tem 2,405,669 of 'the fabric is being completed.; 8 l1. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or ganic derivative .of cellulose yarns, which com prises intermittently immersing the fabric in a perature of the heated `dye bath while’the dyeing Y 9. A method of dyeing fabrics containing o_r ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which `com heated bath containing a high temperature dye prises intermittently immersingj the fabricjin a 5 .stuff and withdrawing the same from said bath and maintaining the temperature of the bath and the atmosphere surrounding the fabric while it is heated Ybath containing a dyestuii’ and withdraw ing the same from `said bath andinaintaining the out of the bath at substantially the same tem temperature of the bath and the atmosphere sur rounding the fabric while it is out of the bath at substantially the same temperature until ldyeing perature until dyeing is substantially completed. l2. A method of dyeing fabrics containing ce1 lulose acetate yarns, which comprises intermit tently immersing the fabric in a heated bath con taining a high temperature dyestuff and With drawing the same from said bath and maintain ing the temperature of the bath and the atmos phere surrounding the fabric while it is out of the bath at substantially the same temperature until is substantially completed. 10. A method of dyeing fabrics containingrcel lulose acetate yarns, which comprises intermit tently immersing the fabric in a heated bath con tainingr a dyestuff and withdrawing the same from said bath and maintaining the temperature of the lbath and the atmosphere surrounding the dyeing is substantially completed. y fabric while it is out of the bath at substantially the same temperature until dyeing is substantially completed. ' ' t 20 . HERBERT PLATT. CYRIL `M. CROF’I‘.