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Патент USA US2405669

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Aug, m §94@
H. PLÀTT ETAL
' 259465,56@
COLORATION OF vTEX'IE'IL’E‘» MATERIALS
Filed June .14,
1938
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24
INVENTORS
HERBEKI'PL'ATT
.CYR I L M. CROFT
H. PLATT Sla-rm..
coLoRAT'IoN oF TEXTILE MATERIALS
Filed .June 14, 1938
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
54
12'
2"
INVENTORS ¿
HÉRBERT PLATT
CYRIL M. CROFT
A/ ATTRNEYS "
H
Aug. 1.3, 1946.
"H, PLA-r1- ÈTAL _
I' 2,405,669
coLoRATIoN oF TEXTILE MATERIALS ì
Filed 'Tune 14,' 19:58
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35
HERBERT LATT
cYRgL M. RoFT
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
entre
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,669
p
COLORATION 0F TEXTILE MATERIALS
Herbert Platt and Cyril M. Croft, Cumberland,
Md., assignors to Celanes'e Corporation of
- America, a corporation of Delaware
Application June 14, 1938, Serial No. 213,585
12 Claims.
l
This invention relates to the dyeing of textile
materials, especially those containing thermo
plastic yarns or filaments, with dyes which have
commercially rapid dye affinity for said yarns or
ñlaments at'elevated temperatures.
An object of the invention is the application of
`
(c1. 3451>
an open width or flattened condition, a common
type of such a device being a jig. Although the
use of a jig overcame the formation of creases, it
limited the number of dyestufis that could be em
ployed. For instance, prior to this invention
“high temperature” dyestuffs could not be used
dyes to materials containing organic derivative
in a jig with commercial success. By “high tem
of cellulose yarns or filaments. Another object
perature” dyestuffs is meant those dyestuffs that
of the invention is the method o-f dyeing textile
have good añìnity for the fabric only at tempera
materials containing organic derivative of cellu 10 tures of ’70° C. or above. These dyestuffs, being
lose yarns or filaments whereinV the dye is lapplied
sensitive to the temperature ofthe fabric, pro
uniformly, the dye is substantially exhausted and
duced streaky dyeings with shaded selvedges and
the time required to bring the textile material
ends due to the uneven cooling of the fabric on
to a good shade is reduced. Another object of
the> roll and the temperature differential between
the invention is the dyeing of textile materials
the center and edges of the fabric when on the
containing organic derivative of cellulose yarns
roll. We have now found that a full range of
or filaments with dyes having an affinity for the
dyestuffs, including the high temperature dye
organic derivative of cellulose only at elevated
stuffs, may be applied on the jig to fabrics con
temperatures. A still further object of our inven
taining `thermoplastic yarns by maintaining the
tion is the construction of a dye jig which will dye 20 temperature 'of both rolls of fabric at a` tempera
fabrics with “high temperature” dyes. Other ob
ture above the critical temperature of that com
jects of our invention will appear from the fol
ponent of the dyestuff requiring the higher tem
lowing detailed description and drawings.
perature. This not only permits the use of a
wider range of dyestuifs and effects uniform dye
In the drawings,.wherein like reference nu
merals refer to the same or similar elements in
ing, but also greatly decreases the timev of dyeing,
the respective views:
'
thus effecting greater production per machine
Fig. 1 is a side View, partially in section, of a
and man hour.
dye jig constructed in accordance with this in
By employing this invention a better penetra
tion of the dyestuiï into the filaments is obtained
vention,
Fig. 2 is an end View of the dye jig shown in ' and an improved hand is obtained, it being some
Fig. 1,
what fuller than that obtained by prior methods.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken online 3--3 of
4 is a sectional view taken on line 4_4 of
As stated above, the invention effects an economy
in the dyeing process as there is an improved
speed of dyeing. VThere is also eifectd a saving
in dyestuff and steam employed, the bath being
5 is a sectional view-talien on line 5-5 of
radily exhausted of dyestuif and escape of steam
is confined.
Flîî‘ligl., 6 is a somewhat diagrammatic View show
`
y
In accordance with our invention, we dye fab
rics containing thermoplastic yarns in an open
40 Width and flattened condition on a jig while
'.ing the loading of the dye jig, and
Fig. 7 is a somewhat diagrammatic view show
ing the unloading of the dye jig.
maintaining a substantially uniform temperature
The dyeing of fabrics containing thermoplastic
throughout both rolls of fabric, which tempera
yarns has been effected only by the use of special
ture is high enough to effect a dyeing with high
temperature dyestuffs. To accomplish this we
processes, as compared to the dyeing of 'other
types of fabric, and by a careful'selection of dye 45 construct a novel jig, also forming a part of this
stuffs. Fabrics containing thermoplastic yarns,
invention, having an enclosed space above the
which are woven into twills,'taffetas, etc., are
normally dyed in a jig as the batch process of
dyeing or dyeing on the winch causes creases to
be formed in the fabric.
tub in which the fabric is being treated. -'
f
This invention is applicable to the dyeing of
any fabric regardless of composition or structure.
Moreover, the yarns 50 However, it is especially applicable to the dyeing
are somewhat softened due to the heat of the
of closely woven tañetas and crepes that are made
dye bath and/or reagents contained in the bath
of or> contain thermoplastic yarns.. Any. type
causing the creases to become permanent. In
f of fabric may be treated in accordance with this
order to'avoid creasing of the fabric, the fabric
invention. For example, thefabric may be woven,
is dyed on devices which maintain the fabric in 55 knitted, »netted or knotted. l The fabrics may be
.
aioacce
3
4
made entirely of thermoplastic yarns or thermo
plastic yarns may be interwoven or knitted with
reference to Figs. l and 2 the jig is constructed
yarns of other materials, such as cotton, silk, wool,
regenerated cellulose, etc. Even the yarns them
of a frame I having mounted therein a tub 2.
At each side of the frame I is mounted a pair of
uprights 3 and 4. The uprights 3, of which there
selves may be made of a mixture of thermoplastic Ul is one on each side of the jig, support a shaft >'5.
upon which is mounted a shell~6 about which the
ñbers or ñlaments and ñbers or filaments of non
fabric is rolled during the dyeing operation, Near
thermoplastic materials, and these yarns may be
the top of the uprights 3 there is provided an
interwoven or knitted with yarns of thermoplastic
open top bearing ‘I for supporting a shaft 8
material or yarns of non-thermoplastic mate
adapted to support a roll of fabric B’ during the
rial. In the practice prior to this invention it
loading of the jig. In the uprights A, of which
was found that the care to be given to fabric
there is one on each side of the jig, is a shaft 9
containing these thermoplastic yarns was directly
which has mounted thereon a shell ll about
proportional to the amount of thermoplastic
which the fabric is adapted to be rolled during
yarns present in the fabric.
the dyeing operation. The upper end of the up
The thermoplastic material of the fabric may
rights ¿l are provided with bearings I2 adapted
be any suitable thermoplastic material, such as
to support a square shaft I3. On one end of the
the organic derivatives of cellulose which include
shaft 9 at the outside of the frame member is
the organic esters of cellulose and the cellulose
mounted a sprocket I4, while on a similar end of
ethers. Examples of the organic esters of cellu
lose are cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cel 20 shaft I3 is also mounted a sprocket I5. By
means of sprocket chain i6 the shaft 9 drives
lulose propionate and cellulose butyrate, while
shaft I3 for the purpose of rolling up and un
examples of the ethers of cellulose are ethyl
loading the fabric I3' from the jig. Mounted in
cellulose, methyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose. l
the tub are suitable guide rollers Il for directing
The thermoplastic material may be present in
the fabric through the bath contained therein.
the fabric as substantially continuous .filaments
or as übers, or may even be present as a coating
Also mounted in the jig is a spreader arm I8 of
or dressing.
These fabrics may be dyed with any suitable
dyestuif having affinity therefor or for one con
any suitable type having mounted thereon
spreader-controlling rollers I9 which act through
stituent thereof. Mixtures of dyestuff may be
employed, for instance, in dyeing a fabric con
taining cotton and cellulose acetate, the dye bath
may contain dyestuffs having affinity for cotton
and dyestuffs having an añinity for cellulose ace
tate. Also a mixture of dyestuffs having affinity
for the same constituent may be employed to
produce a desired shade. For instance, a blue
and a red dyestuíf, each having an afñnity for
cellulose acetate, may be employed. All or any
of the dyestuñs employed may be high tempera 40
the fabric and the relative speeds of the shafts
ture dyestuifs.
The dyeing may ybe performed by passing the
the spreader arm I8 to regulate the tension on
5 and 9.
.
~
'
For driving the jig there is provided a suitable
motor 2| which acts through a suitable trans
mission and speed reducing device 22 to rotate
the shafts 5 and 9, the relative speeds of which
and their direction of travel are controlled by
suitable mechanism 23 partly responsive to the
spreader arm I8.
At the outside of the jig frame is a second
frame comprising four hollow corner posts 24.
These corner posts are shown in cross-section
in Figs. 3 and 4. These corner posts support an
enclosure for the space immediately above the
tub in which the fabric is rolled from shaft 5
to the shaft 9 and back as many times as it is
necessary to effect the desired dyeing. This en
with suitable solubilizing agents, dispersing
closure above the tub is constructed of movable
`agents and the like, such as Turkey red oil, dex
ends 25 adapted to slide up and down in a guide
trin, sulphonated fatty alcohols and the like.
way 26 suitably attached to the corner posts.
The liquid of the dye bath may also contain re
agents having a softening or swelling action on 50 These ends may be formed of a suitable frame,
as sho-Wn at 25’ in Figs. 2 and 3, which frame
the thermoplastic material contained in the fab
contains glass panes 21 such that an operator
ric'. The dye bath may also contain reagents
may look in the end of the device to ascertain
which act as stabilizers'for either‘the dye or
the condition of the fabric. The movable ends
the thermoplastic material, such as morpholine
compounds, benzyl ethyl aniline, etc., ror finishes t 25 are held in a raised position by counterweights
28 attached thereto by means of cords 29. vThese
which are intended t0 remain on the fabric, such
counterweights 28 are adapted to hang inthe
as oils, resins and stearyl chloride.
hollow corner posts. Below the movable end 25
The bath may be maintained at any suitable
is a movable skirt 3|, shown in cross-section in
temperature at or below its boiling point, while
Fig. 4, which is adapted to be raised and lowered
the enclosed space above the bath, in which
in the guideway 32A attached to the corner posts
space is contained the bulk of the fabric being
24. Also across each end is a suitable brace 33
dyed, is maintained at the same temperature as
tending to maintain the corner posts in spaced
the bath or, as necessary in commercial produc
and parallel relationship. The bottom of the
tion, a few degrees lower. Although the bath
skirts 3l may terminate in -a flangeìâ adapted
may be maintained at any temperature, this in
to make contact with the tub 2 to prevent the
vention is primarily concerned with the use Yof
escape of steam from between the ends of the
high temperature dyestuifs, in which case the
enclosure and the tub. The sides of the en
temperature of the bath is preferably maintained
closure are formed of a suitable sheet material
at or above "10° C., and for some of the fast to
fabric any number of times through .the liquid in
the jig. The liquid or dye bath in the jig may
be a water emulsion or dispersion of the dyestuff
acid fading high temperature dyestuiîs, the bath
is maintained kat or just below its boiling point,
while the rolls of fabric are maintained at or
35'having cutout portions to fit around the shafts
5 and 9. The sides extend from one Ycorner post
to the other terminating in a .flange 36 forming
one side ‘of the guideway 32, thuseffecting a seal
_ Y
Vatthefour ïvertical'corners of the'enclosure.
In the drawings is shown a jig constructed in
iccordance with this invention. With 'particular 75 " Along- the vtop of both Vside members 35, as
>above 80° C.
amaca@
5
,
more fully shown in Fig. 5, is a bracket 31
6
of the shaft I3 may be released from its bearing"k
adapted to support two series of rollers 38 and
by means of the- hinge bearing top 54 which
39. At the inner end of the shaft 4I that sup
permits the Vsquare shaft I3 to be raised suf.
ports rollers 33 is a flexible tubing 42 ‘adapted
ñciently free of the bearing to slip the shell con
to prevent the escape of steam along the two
taining the fabric therefrom.
Y
upper horizontal edges of the enclosure.
It is to be understood that the foregoing de
Mounted for sliding movement on the rollers 38
tailed description is merely given by way of il
and 39 are a pair of frames 43 and 44 which
lustration and that many variations may be made
support glass panes 45 and 46, respectively.
therein without departing from the spirit of our
Each frame 43 and 44 is but slightly longer than 10 invention.
half the length of the enclosure, the central ends
Having described our invention, what we desire
of which terminate in flanges 41 and 48, respec
to secure by Letters Patent is:
y
tively, such that when the panes are moved to .
1. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or
enclose the top the flanges 41 and 48 make a
ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com
seal preventing the escape of steam.
prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con
Suitable pipe lines may be connected with the
taining a dyestulî, withdrawing the fabric from
tub 2 for furnishing _thereto hot and cold water,
said bath and maintaining the fabric at substan
etc., these being conventional have not been
tially the same temperature as the temperature
shown on the drawings. The tub 2 may also
of theheated dye bath while it is out of the bath
contain steam pipes or other means 49 for heat 20 until dyeing is substantially completed.
ing up or maintaining the bath in the tub 2 at
2. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu
an elevated temperature. Also, there may be
lose acetate yarns, which comprises immersing
provided above the tub 2 steam pipes or other
the fabric in a heated bath containing -,a dyestuff,
means 5I for heating up or maintaining the at
withdrawing the fabric from said bath and main
mosphere of the enclosure above the bath at a 25 taining the fabric at substantially the same tem
given temperature. The heating elements 5I are
perature as the temperature of the heated dye
not always necessary as the temperature of the
bath while it is out of the bath until dyeing is
bath soon raises the small amount of atmosphere
substantially completed.
to substantially its own temperature. There is
3. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or
also provided means for lighting up the interior 30 ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com
of the enclosure, such as marine lights 52
prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con
mounted in the side walls of the enclosure. To
taining a high temperature dyestuñ, withdrawing
prevent condensate from preventing the operator
the fabric from said bath and maintaining the
from ascertaining the state of the fabric there is
provided a manually operated or automatically ‘
operated wind shield wiper 53 at one or both
fabric at substantially the same temperature as
the temperature of the heated dye bath while it
is out of the 4bath until dyeing is substantially
ends of the enclosure.
. completed.
The operation of the device may best be de
4. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu
scribed with particular reference to Figs. 6 and
lose acetateyarns, which comprises immersing
'1, which, although somewhat diagrammatic, 40 the fab-ric in a heated bath containing a. high
show the operation of the device. For loading
temperature dyestuff, withdrawing the fabric
the jig a roll of fabric 8’ carried on a suitable
from said bath and maintaining the fabric at
shell is placed on the shaft 8 and the end of the
substantially the same temperature as the tem
fabric is brought around the shell contained on
perature of the heated dye bath while it is out of `
the shaft 9. rl‘he shaft 9 is then rotated pulling 15 the bath until dyeing is substantially completed.
the fabric from the roll 8’ and Winding it on the
5. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or
shell on shaft 9. To accomplish this, however,
ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com
the frame 25 containing the panes 21 and also
prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con
the skirt 3| on that end of the machine is low
taining a dyestuif and withdrawing the fabric
ered, while the tWo top sections 45 and 46 are 50 from said bath into an enclosed atmosphere main
moved to the right as seen in Fig. 6. After the
fabric has been placed on the shaft 9 it is then
tained at substantially the same temperature as
rolls of fabric which now may be run through the
dye bath contained in the tub 2. As the space
an enclosed atmosphere maintained at substan
tially the same temperature as the temperature
ficient to maintain the enclosed space within a
ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which com
on the shaft I3.
the fabric in a heated bath containing a dyestuff
the temperature of the heated dye bath.
threaded about spacer arm I8, guide roll l1 onto
6. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu
the shell supported by the shaft 5. The end of
the enclosure at the left, as seen in Fig. 6, is then 55 lose acetate yarns, which comprises immersing
the fabric in a heated bath containing a dyestuff
raised and the top 46 is moved to the left effect
and withdrawing the fabric from said bath into
ing a substantially sealed enclosure about the
_
enclosed is relatively small the heat contained in 60 of the heated dye bath.
7. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or
the dye bath or supplied thereto is usually suf
prises immersing the fabric in a heated bath con
relatively few degrees of the dye bath. For in
taining a dyestuif and withdrawing the fabric
stance, when the dye bath is maintained at or
near 100° C. the atmosphere containedin the 65 from said bath and rolling up the same in an
atmosphere maintained at substantially the same
enclosure is around 92° C. For the purpose of
temperature as the temperature of the vheated
unloading the jig the fabric is wound on the
dye bath While the ldyeing of the fabric is being
shell supported by shaft 9, the right end as seen
completed.
in Fig. '1 is then lowered and the top section 45
8. A method of dyeing fabrics containing cellu
is moved to the left effecting a whole open corner. 70
lose acetate yarns, which comprises immersing
The fabric is then threaded onto a shell slipped
By means of the drive chain
and withdrawing the fabric from said bath and
I6 the fabric is pulled from the enclosure and
rolling up the same in an atmosphere maintained
wound into a roll I3" upon the shell supported
by the shaft I3. After Winding fabric one end 75k at substantially the same temperature as the tem
2,405,669
of 'the fabric is being completed.;
8
l1. A method of dyeing fabrics containing or
ganic derivative .of cellulose yarns, which com
prises intermittently immersing the fabric in a
perature of the heated `dye bath while’the dyeing
Y
9. A method of dyeing fabrics containing o_r
ganic derivative of cellulose yarns, which `com
heated bath containing a high temperature dye
prises intermittently immersingj the fabricjin a 5 .stuff and withdrawing the same from said bath
and maintaining the temperature of the bath and
the atmosphere surrounding the fabric while it is
heated Ybath containing a dyestuii’ and withdraw
ing the same from `said bath andinaintaining the
out of the bath at substantially the same tem
temperature of the bath and the atmosphere sur
rounding the fabric while it is out of the bath at
substantially the same temperature until ldyeing
perature until dyeing is substantially completed.
l2. A method of dyeing fabrics containing ce1
lulose acetate yarns, which comprises intermit
tently immersing the fabric in a heated bath con
taining a high temperature dyestuff and With
drawing the same from said bath and maintain
ing the temperature of the bath and the atmos
phere surrounding the fabric while it is out of the
bath at substantially the same temperature until
is substantially completed.
10. A method of dyeing fabrics containingrcel
lulose acetate yarns, which comprises intermit
tently immersing the fabric in a heated bath con
tainingr a dyestuff and withdrawing the same from
said bath and maintaining the temperature of
the lbath and the atmosphere surrounding the
dyeing is substantially completed. y
fabric while it is out of the bath at substantially
the same temperature until dyeing is substantially
completed.
'
'
t
20
.
HERBERT PLATT.
CYRIL `M. CROF’I‘.
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