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Патент USA US2405726

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Aug. 13, 1946.
Filed Aug‘. 14, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet l
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Aug. 13, 1946.
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Filed Aug. 14, 1940
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F'ilred Aug. 14, 1940
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_ Filed Aug. 14, 1940 '
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
Edward F. Zap, .Los Angeles, Calif.
Application August 14, 1940, Serial No. 352,516
4 Claims.
(01. 244-42)
My invention relates to airfoils, with special
reference to wing construction, and is directed to
of the wing. A further difficulty is that a hinged
an improved high or variable lift’ Wing. The pre
ferred form of the invention combines a novel
flap construction with a novel lateral or aileron
In the study of numerous airfoils in aerody
namic research it has been well established that
no one airfoil con?guration is highly eiiicient at
tions over any substantial range of adjustment,
?ap does not afford smooth, unbroken configura
especially if the ‘hinged ?ap is of the type that
movesinto and out of a recess in the under por
tion of the Wing.
Notwithstanding these defects in prior art
structures, hinged ?aps have found limited ap
plication in commercial aircraft. In military air
opposite extremes of operating conditions. There 10 craft, however, not even the hinged-?ap type of
is unavoidably a con?ict between, on the one
variable lift wing has found extensive service
hand, the wing characteristics required for maxi
heretofore, in part, because of aerodynamic de
mum speed normal ?ight, and, on the other hand,
?ciencies in known ?ap structures and, in larger
the wing characteristics necessary for take-off
part, because the space available in the wing of
with short ground runs under heavy load or nec
essary for landing at steep angles at low speeds.
For a given airplane, a wing inherently favoring
high speed invariably has insu?icient area and
camber for optimum performance in take-off and
15 a military aircraft is too restricted for conven
tional mechanism to control and operate ?ap
members. Designers of military aircraft have
therefore been limited in the past to airfoils suit
able for take-off and landing and in compromising
landing; and, conversely, a wing affording the 20 between con?icting requirements have been forced
high maximum lift coefficient required for opti
to use wing con?guration in which the wing area
mum take-off and landing is inherently incapable
and camber are excessive for high speed ?ight and
of performance in the highest speed ranges.
yet insu?icient to afford adequate lift for quick
In recognition of these contradictory require
‘take-off and low speed landing. That wings of
ments, numerous types of so-called variable or 25 ?xed con?guration are employed on military air
craft at this late date is a striking fact because it
ing conception being that a wing having a normal
has been known for years that the maximum co
con?guration inherently suitable for high speed
e?‘icient of'lift of a basic airfoil section may be in
?ight may be made adjustable to a con?guration
creased from 40% to 60% by the addition of a con
high-lift Wings have been designed, the underly
for relatively high lift when required. In general, 30 trollable ?ap.
such a variable lift wing comprises a main airfoil
The general object of my invention is to provide
and an auxiliary airfoil movable relative to the
a normally high speed airfoil that is readily ad
main airfoil to vary the effective camber of the
justable to relatively high lift for take-off and
wing and in some cases to vary the effective chord
is further adjustable to both relatively high lift
as Well.
Q: in and increased drag for landing. It is proposed to
One line of development has been directed to
provide for such variability with safe, e?icient,
extensible wings. Theoretically a wing of-exten
and relatively .simple structure, and to do so with
sible construction is quite desirable since it may
in the strict requirements of military aircraft.
be designed for smooth transition from one un
Among the objects relating to the variable air
broken con?guration to another over a wide range 40 foil itself are: To provide a telescoping type of
of extension, but no extensible wing of the prior
art has been widely successful in practice. It is
a di?icult engineering problem to design a prac
tical telescoping internal wing structure and this
problem is especially di?‘icult for military aircraft.
A military Wing is so largely employed for storage
and for housing military devices that very little
room is left for telescoping structure and for
mechanism to actuate the telescoping structure.
Another line of development has been directed
to the use of a hinged ?ap mounted on the under
surface or at the trailing edge of an aircraft wing.
While a hinged ?ap may be employed to vary the
effective camber of an airplane wing, it is not so
readily employed to increase the effective chord
auxiliary airfoil retractible into the wing but re
quiring relatively little housing space along the
chord dimension of the wing; to provide a mount
ing structure for such an auxiliary airfoil that in
retracted disposition is substantially coextensive
with the auxiliary airfoil; to provide an ex
tensible flap movable to a position of interme
diate extension for relatively high lift with nomi
nal drag and movable to an extreme position of
extension for both relatively high lift and rela
tively high drag; to provide an auxiliary airfoil
that inherently requires only minor control
forces; to .provide an extensible air ?ap having
an inherent but moderate tendency to retract at
55 all positions of extension; to provide a construc
of my invention will be apparent in my following
tion in which it is feasible to employ a flap for
detailed description of a preferred wing construc
the full span of the wing; to providea retractible
tion considered with the accompanying draw
?ap that may be extended to the end of a tapered
wing; to provide an extensible ?ap for a tapered
In'the drawings, which are to be taken as
wing that will vary the chord and camber of the
illustrative only:
wing in proportion to the basic chord of the wing
Fig. l is a diagrammatic view in perspective
at various wing stations; to provide a wing that
showing my flap and flap control incorporated
may be extended in chord dimension with smooth
in an aircraft;
transition from one ideal airfoil con?guration
Fig. 2 is a similar view showing how my aileron
to another, with special reference to the main 10
and aileron-control mechanism may be incorpo
tenance of a smooth upper wing surface; to pro
rated in an aircraft;
vide a wing variable in chord and camber in
Fig. 3 is a plan view of an aircraft wing em
which an air jet passage opens automatically at
the proposed form of my invention;
relatively high camber; to provide a flap adapted
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of a straight
to serve as an automatic valve for a jet-type
wing embodying the invention;
aileron control; to provide a flap .comprising
Fig. 5 is an enlarged transverse section taken
easily replaceable sections of convenient size for
as indicated by the line 5-5 of Fig. 3, showing
fabrication; to add a flap and flap-control mech
the flap in retracted disposition;
anism to a basic airfoil without addition of para
Fig. 6 is a similar view with the flap extended
site drag; to provide control and actuating
an intermediate position;
mechanism for a’ flap without subjecting the flap
Fig. '7 is a similar view with the flap at maxi
to lateral stress; to provide ‘a mechanism for a
mum extension;
flap that in response to an actuating movement
of given magnitude shifts'the flap by various
predetermined amounts at various stations to
maintain to a substantial extent proportional
con?guration of a tapered wing; and to provide a
flap-operating mechanism that is substantially
frictionless and exerts maximum force as the
?apapproaches maximum extension. ' A further 30
‘object of the invention is to provide a telescop
ing rearward flap of greater camber than the
camber of the wing and movable along a rear
ward and downward path of greater camber than ..
the mean camber of the wing, whereby the ex 35
Fig. 8 shows a fragment of Fig. 7 on an en
larged scale;
Fig. 9 is a diagram indicating how the design
of the ?ap may be approached;
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary section on an en
larged scale taken as indicated by the line l0--l 0
of Fig. 5;
Fig. 11 is a similar view taken near the tip of
the wing;
Fig. 12 is a section on an enlarged scale taken
as indicated by the curved line l2—l2 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 13 is a plan view on an enlarged scale of
one of the actuating units that operate the flap;
tended panel curves downwardly substantially
Figs. 14, 15, and 16 are greatly enlarged sec
below the extended mean camber line of the wing
taken as indicated by the corresponding
to result in substantially greater increase in drag
lines l4—l4, l5-—-l5, and l6—l6 of Fig. 13;
than would be achieved by correspondingly ex
Fig. 17 is a spanwise sectionthrough a flap
tending the wing along the mean camber line of 40
compartment taken as indicated by the broken
the wing.
line ll-—l1 of Fig.3;
With reference to the aileron control incorpo
Fig. 18 is a fragmentary view of the same
rated in my wing construction as considered
apart from the wing flap, some of my objects are: .
character at another station of the wing; I
To provide an ei?cient lateral or rolling control
that may be applied to a wing having a full-span
flap at its under surface or at its trailing edge;
to provide an effective aileron on the upper sur
face of a wing substantially forward from the
Fig. 20 is a fragmentary section on an enlarged
scale taken as indicated by the line 20-40 of
trailing edge of the wing; to provide such an
upper-surface aileron that is effective at high
speed and at low angles of attack and as well at
low speeds and high angles of attack; to provide
a jet-type aileron control that is effective with
substantially no aerodynamic lag; to provide an
inherently stable aileron panel that approaches
Fig. 19 is a plan view of a pair of actuating
units that may be employed in the wing of an
aircraft to control a pair of my aileron panels;
Fig. 18;
Fig. 21 is a diagrammatic view in perspective
showing aileron-actuating units that may be sub
stituted for the actuating units of Fig. 19;
Fig. 22 is a schematic view of a table type
aileron-control system that may be employed in
my invention;
Fig. 23 is a side elevation of a control stick that
aerodynamic balance to a desirable degree and‘
be incorporated in the control system of
responds substantially uniformly to a moderate
control force throughout its operative range; to
Fig. 24 is a side elevation of the control stick
provide control means and mounting means for
taken at 90° from Fig. 23;
an aileron panel that are located entirely within
Fig. 25 is an enlarged cross section taken as
the normal con?guration of the wing on which
indicated by the line 25-25 of Fig. 23; and
the panel is mounted but cause the panel to
Fig. 26 is an enlarged longitudinal section of
move about an axis external of the wing; to
upper end of the control stick shown in Figs.
provide a substantially frictionless but positive
23 and 24.
control for a pair of opposite aileron panels that
Figs. 1 and 2, which are intended to represent
will move either panel to effective disposition and
same aircraft, show a pair of tapered Wings
simultaneously lock the other panel at neutral
30 on a fuselage 3!. Each of the wings 30 in
disposition; and to provide an operating mech
cludes a main wing 32 rigidly mounted on the
anism for a pair of opposite aileron panels by
fuselage and an auxiliary airfoil or flap generally
means of which the ailerons may be moved
designated 33, that is telescoped into the main
simultaneously and synchronously upward to
wing and is adapted for retractible extension
compensate ‘for ground effect in landing an air
rearward from the wing. Preferably a trailing
portion 35 of the flap 3'3 protrudes at all times
' The above ‘and'other objects and advantages
to serve as the trailing portion of the overall
of constructing the ?ap 33 as an assembly of ?ap
‘wing,’ the flap being normally retracted and the
panels Bl that are held together in a unitary
trailing’ portion 35 of the flap normally com
manner by connector plates 52 (Fig. 3) along the
bining with the main wing 32 to form an in
trailing edge 35 of the flap. Among the advan
herently high speed airfoil con?guration.
5 tages of such a construction are, ?rst, that the
To extend and retract the flap 33, the pilot
ribs 56 may be spaced relatively closely together
turns a crank 36 connected to a sprocket 3‘! and
as required for wing strength, second, that the
thereby shifts a sprocket chain 38 that passes
flap panels 6| may be of convenient size for
around a pair of smaller sprockets 40. The
fabrication, and, third, that a ?ap with localized
sprocket chain 33 is connected to a cable 41 to 10 damage may be repaired expeditiously and
form a continuous ?exible member that extends
economically by replacement of only one panel,
in opposite directions through the two wings 35,
As indicated in Fig. 17, each of the panels 6!
of the flap, including a corresponding part of the
trailing portion 35 of the flap, has an upper skin
series of ?ap-actuating units generally desig 15 63, a corrugated internal reinforcement 65, and
nated 45, which will be described in detail later.
a lower skin 66. As indicated in Figs. 10 and 11,
Fig. 2 shows an aileron panel 56 in each of the
the sides of the ?ap panels 6| are formed by
wings 3B for lateral control of the aircraft, and
sheet metal channels 68 that are set inward from
it will be noted that the panels are on the upper
the edges of the upper skin 53 and the lower skin
side of the wing forward of the wing opening 20 66, thereby forming what may be termed longi
through which the flap 33 extends. It is ap
tudinal recesses 10 along the panel edges adja
parent that since the aileron panels 136 and the . cent the various former ribs 56.
?ap 33 do not interfere with each other, either
The panel 33 may be flat or of any suitable
the aileron panel, or the flap, or both aileron
cross-sectional shape, but in the preferred form
panel and flap may extend over the full span
of my invention the flap is of arcuate con?gura
of the wing. In a construction shown in Fig. 2,
tion. While such an arcuate ?ap may be re
for example, the flaps 33 are full length and the
tractibly extended in various rearward directions,
aileron panels 46 extend over approximately 40%
I prefer to arrange the flap to move rearward
of the span of each wing. In commercial aircraft
alongv a path conforming substantiallyto the
and in heavy bombers the aileron panels will
arcuate con?guration of the ?ap. some of the
ordinarily be of relatively short span while in
advantages inherent in such an arrangement are:
combat planes the ailerons may extend over 60%
First, a flap‘ having a surface of given dimension
or more of the wing. Fig. 2 also shows a control
fore and aft may be stored in a ?ap compartment
the cable passing around sheaves 42 near the
tip of the wing. The cable 5| is connected to a
cable 41 connected to a control stick 48 of the
aircraft for operating the aileron panels 125. The ->'
control cable 41 is operatively connected in each
of less than that dimension; second, relatively
little ?ap-actuating force is required to extend
the ?ap into the air stream; third, an arcuate
wing to an aileron-actuating unit, generally
flap moving downward in an arcuate direction
designated 50, which will be described in detail
inclines progressively from the chord of the wing
and therefore changes the effective camber of the
While the flap arrangement of Fig. 1 and the 40 wing ‘at an increasing rate; and, fourth, whether
aileron arrangement of Fig. 2 are independent‘
'the‘curvature of the ?ap‘ and/or the flap path
of each other and are separately applicable to
have one center or a plurality of centers, the
wing constructions, they are functionally inter
character of the flap movement and the aero
related in the present'preferred embodiment of
dynamic effect of the ?ap movement may be con
my wing construction and their combination is 45 trolled within wide limits at the designing stage
to be regarded as an important feature of the in
by varying the location of the center or centers
of curvature. The ?rst and third of these ad
Fig. ‘3 shows on a larger scale one of the wings
vantages may be greatly augmented by giving
3B of Figs. 1 and 2. The main wing 32 has the
the ?ap substantial curvature ‘relative to‘ the
usual internal frame-work including two main 50 wing. Thus, if the mean camber of the ?ap sub
spars 5| and 52 and numerous ribs 53. Rear
stantially exceeds the mean camber of the wing
ward of the spar 5| the main wing 32 is hollow
a ?ap of a given fore-and-aft surface length may
to provide a series of three flap compartments
be retracted into a fore-and-aft' space of the
55 that are de?ned by four former ribs 56, the
wing less than said surface length, and if such ~ >
spar 5|, the upper skin 51 of the wing, and the 55 a nap is extended rearwardly along its line of
lower skin 58. The space relationships of the
curvature or extended mean camber line the ex
various movable parts in the ?ap compartment
tension of the ?ap will result in- substantially
55 may be understood by referring to Figs. 3, 17,
greater increase in drag than would be achieved
and 18, and the various dispositions of the flap
by correspondingly extending the wing rearward
33 with respect to the flap compartments are best 60 ly along the mean camber line of the wing‘.
shown in Figs. 5, 6, and 7.
An advantageous method of laying out the'flap
It will be noted that the trailing edges of the
arrangement may be understood from Fig. 9 in
upper and lower wing skin 57 and 58 de?ne a
which the full line H de?nes a wing con?gura
spanwise slot or opening, generally designated 60,
tion for high speed flight and the point A desig
through which the flap 33 is extended and re 65 nates the trailing edge of the wing configuration.
tracted, and it will be noted that when the flap
The’designer ?rst locates a downward and rear
is in retracted disposition as shown in Fig. 5, the
flap extension point B which is calculated
trailing portion 35 of the ?ap substantially ?lls
to produce the lift required for take-off and then
the opening 60 and continues the airfoil con
locates a stilllower ?ap extension point C‘ to
?guration de?ned by the two skins of the main
give high lift and drag for landingat low speed
wing 32.
with steep approach. It is to be noted that the
Since the flap 33 must retract into the separate
inclination of the linev 13-0 is substantially
?ap compartments, 55, the ?ap must be con
than the inclination of line A—B because
structed to clear the various partitioning ribs 56.,
the designer wants greater increase in camber
One feature of my invention is the conception 75 with corresponding increase'in drag as the‘ ?ap
approaches its limit position, The’ perpendicular
‘l2 bisecting the line A-—B and the perpendicular
‘l3 bisecting the line B—'-C intersect at a point D,
which is the center ,of a circle passing through
the three points A, B, and C. The desired aero
dynamic effect may be had by basing the con
?guration of the flap and the path of movement
of the ?ap on'this circle.
position of the flap and another advantage is
that I avoid the necessity of any member extend
ing rigidly forward from the inner edge of the
The movable support means for the ?ap 33 in
the present construction comprises a plurality of
arcuate tracks 16 mounted on the ribs 56 of the
main wing 32, the tracks being shown in side
elevation in Figs. 5-7 and being shown in section
In the above de?ned procedure the location of
the points B and C determines the location of 10 in Figs. 10-12. Each of the arcuate tracks 76
extends through one of the previously mentioned
the center of curvature D. In another procedure,
longitudinal recesses lEI along a side edge of the
the locations of the points B and D are decided
flap panel GI and has one channel ll to cooper
upon thereby determining a circle on which point
ate with a pair of ?xed rollers 18 on the adjacent
C must lie. For example, a designer may achieve
the desired aerodynamic effect by locating the 15 rib 56 and has a second channel 80 to cooperate
with a pair of rollers 8| carried by the flap panel.
point B 10% of the wing chord to the rear of the
The stationary rollers 18 may be carried by suit
point A and 10% of the wing chord below the
able spindles 32 journalled in low-friction bear
point A, drawing the perpendicular 12 bisecting
ings 83 on the ribs 56 and the flap roller 8| may
the line A—B, and then dropping a perpendicular
15 from the 90% point of the wing chord. The 20 likewise be carried by spindles 84 journalled in
low-friction bearings 85 that are mounted on the
line 15 cuts the line 12 to determine the center
side edges of the ?ap panel.
of curvature D and thereby the circle on which
The retraction of each track 16 into the ?ap
the point C is to be located.
compartment 55 is limited by abutment of a stop
One feature of the preferred form of my in
vention is the automatic opening of an air-jet v25 block 86 in the track channel ‘i1 against one of
the rollers 18 and extension of the track rear
passage from the lower side of the wing to the
ward from the main wing is in like manner lim
upper side of the wing as the ?ap 33 reaches max
ited by a second similar stop block 85 in the
imum extension. Such azpassage and the auto
channel abutting the other roller 18. In like
matic controlor' the passage may be provided by
various arrangements. In the preferred form of 30 manner stop blocks 3'! are provided at opposite
ends of the various track channels 80 to cooperate
my invention shown in the drawings, the air-jet
with the flap rollers 8| to limit the forward and
passage is provided at the opening 80 through
rearward movement of the flap 33 relative to the
which the flap-extends and the valve action is
provided by'the ?ap itself. As best shown in Fig.
various tracks 16.
8, at maximum extension of the flap, the inner 35 The ?ap-actuating units 55, which by prefer
ence are placed in each of the flap compartments
end of the ?ap is spaced from both the lower and
55, may be constructed as indicated by ,Figs.
the upper edges of the opening 60 so that air may
13-17. Each of a pair of brackets 90 mounted
sweep around the forward edge of the ?ap from
on the wing spar 5| by suitable bolts 9| has a
the under side of the wing to the upper side of
the wing. Fig. 5,~in which the flap 33 is~;in re‘ 40 thimble portion 92 through which extends the
?ap-control cable 4|. The opposite ends of a
tracted position, and Fig. 6, in which the flap is
tubular member 93 are rotatably mounted on
at a position of intermediate extension, both
the thimble portion 92 of the two brackets 90
show the upper skin 63 of the flap closely adj acent
and may be provided With suitable bushings 95.
the upper skin;5l'of the main wing 32, the major
portion of the upper flap skin being concentric ml) The tubular member 93 has a longitudinal slot
96 (Figs. 14 and 15) and at one end is ?xedly
to the point D (Fig. 9). Preferabhnhowever, the
embraced by a sleeve Bl having a laterally ex
last portion ofthe‘upper skin 63 of the flap to
tended ear>98 that carries a pivot.99. Mounted
be exposed as the flap approaches maximum ex
on the tubular member 93 for movement by the
tension is bent downward to sharper curvature so
cable 4i toward and away from the ?xed pivot
that the air-jet passage opens progressively as
93 isra bracket generally designated H30 compris
the air ?ap approaches maximum extension.
ing a cylindrical body lill inside the tubular
Any suitable means may be provided to movably
member and an ear “)2 that slidingly extends
mount the ?ap 33 on the main wing 32, but in
applying my invention to military aircraft it is
essential that the mounting means to be within ,'
the capacity of the various ?ap compartments 55.
I solve the problem of achieving a compact ar
rangement by movably mounting the ?ap on a
suitable flap-support means and in turn movably
mounting the ?ap-supportmeans on the main
vwing so that the effective range of movement of
the ?ap is provided in part by a range of relative
movement between the flap and the ?ap-support
means and in part by a range of relative move
ment between the ?ap-support means and the
main wing. A further feature of my invention
here is the concept of causing such a flap to move
in the desired arcuate path by employing a com
bination of rolling means and arcuate guide
means to connect the flap with the ?ap-support
means and'employing the same combination to
mount the ?ap-support means on the main wing.
One advantage of such an arrangement is the
fact, that the movable support-means may be
coextensive with the flap in the fully retracted»
‘radially outward through the slot 96, the ear
carrying a pivot £63 for movement toward and
away from the pivot 99. The cylindrical body
IE! is connected at its opposite ends to the ?ap
control cable [H and to minimize friction the
cylindrical body may be provided with a pair of
rollers I05 in intersecting planes, the rollers
being mounted on suitable low¢friction bearings
H36 in the cylindrical body.
One end of an actuating arm llll, which end
is preferably formed as a clevis (08, is mounted
'on the pivot I03, and the pivot as indicated in
= Fig. 14 may be journalled. in a suitable low-fric
tion bearing l IS} »in the- bracket ‘ear I02. The
other end of the actuating arm I01 has a suitable
universal connection with the forward end of the
flap. 33,. the arm, for example, being connected
' by a pivot ill to a clevis H2, and the clevis in
turn being ‘pivoted by a pin M3 to a pair of
bracket members [15' on the flap 33. To com
plete the actuating unit a link H6 connects the
.pivot Siloriw the tubular member 93 to a pivot Ill’
at an intermediate point on the actuating arm
I01. The various moving parts of the actuating
unit are so dimensioned and so disposed that
movement of the bracket I00 toward and away
from the pivot 99 causes the outer end of the
actuating arm I01 to move rearward and forward
. panel 46 vwill be raised only slightly, say to angles
of 2° to 5°, to serve vas an obstacle to air ?ow and
thereby spoil the lifter” the wing, the flaps being
movable alternately, one panel remaining in its
neutral or closed position whenever the other
panel is raised to cause a wing to swing down
substantially in a vertical plane longitudinally
ward. At low speeds, however, an aileron panel
of the aircraft to move the ?ap '33 without plac
46 will be raised to higher angles and the flow
ing the flap under any lateral or spanwise stress.
of air through the panel opening will become a
In applying my invention to a wing of the 10 factor of importance in lateral control. I have
tapered platform shown in Fig. 3, I prefer to
discovered that if such a combination of panel
move the ?ap at various wing stations approxi
and air passage through the wing is placed rear
mately in proportion to the basis wing chord at
ward at least as far as the 80% point of the basic
the stations so that the effective chord and the
chord of the wing, the desired control forces
effective camber may vary in proportion to the 15 become effective with no signi?cant aerodynamic
wing taper. To this end the flap 33 is given the
lag behind the control movements of the aileron
general con?guration of a fragment of a cone.
The diameter as well as the transverse surface
One problem encountered in the design of such
dimension of the segment varies in accord with
an aileron control is to avoid an undesirable tend
the wing taper and the center of curvature D 20 ency for the aileron panel to seek a slightly open
(Fig. 9) for the various sections of the flap lie
position and to olfer relatively great resistance
along the axis of the imaginary cone. As such
to opening movement beyond that position. One
a ?ap is rotated about the .imaginary conic axis
feature of my invention‘is the concept that this
rearward away from the main wing of the air
tendency may be avoided byswinging the leading
craft, the various sections of the flap extend the 25 edge of the panel down into the wing, the ar
effective chord of the wing in proportion to the
rangement of the air passage relative to the panel
local diameters of the ‘imaginary cone and there
being such that turbulent air flow acting against
fore in proportion to the taper of the wing. If
the downwardly inclined edge approaches balance
desired, of course, the taper of the imaginary
with opposing forces about the panel axis. In
cone may differ from the taper of the wing, but 30 the preferred arrangement depicted in the draw
a feature of my invention is that by adhering
ings ‘a relatively slight tendency for the panel to
to some conic con?guration I simplify the prob
seek its closed position is effective and substan- '
lems of proportionate chord and. proportionate
tially constant throughout the range‘ of panel
camber variation at the various wing sections
movement so that the applied control forces may
as well as the problem of extending a telescoping 35 be uniform over the range of panel movement.
flap to the relatively narrow wing tip.
I have discovered that the'desired approach to
It is apparent from the foregoing that the flap
aerodynamic balance may be achieved by arrang
decreases in curvature progressively toward the
ing the aileron panel to rotate about an axis out
wing tip, that each succeeding track 16 has a
side the contour of the wing, the axis being above
shorter radius of curvature, and that each of 40 the panel and rearward of the leading edge of
the three ?ap-actuating units 45 must have a
the panel.
“throw” or ?ap-actuating movement in propor
The designer will find that the extent to which
tion to the local radius of curvature of the flap.
the leading edge of the aileron panel shifts rear
The three sliding brackets I00 in the three ?ap
ward and downward from the normal closed posi
actuating units 45 are moved equal distances by 45 tion depends upon the elevation of the aileron
control movement of the ?ap cable 4|, but a
axis and upon the rearward spacing of the aileron
feature of my invention is that by varying the
axis relative to the leading edge of theaileron at
length of the three actuating arms H11 and the
closed position. It will be found that the posi
length of the three links H6 of the actuating
tion of the panel at any given angle of inclination
units I cause the range of movement of the outer 50 may be adjusted without forward or rearward
ends of the actuating arms to vary as required
shift by moving the panel axis along some path
for proportional ?ap movement.
and that the position of the panel at thev given
Fig. 4 shows the trailing portion of a straight
inclination may be shifted rearward and forward
wing 30a designed for a high-wing monoplane,
without change in level by moving the panel axis
the straight wing including a main wing'32a, 55 along a second path. The two paths may be lo
and an extensible ?ap 33a that is cut away at
cated empirically. Each aileron panel may rotate
H8 to clear the aircraft fuselage when in ex
about a single axis or during one portion of its
tended disposition. In this embodiment of my
movement may have one center of rotation and
invention the flap 33a is shaped as a segment of
move about another axis during another portion
a cylinder and all of the ?ap-actuating units 45a
of its movement.
are identical in dimension and range of move
One of the important features of my invention
is that whether the aileron panel moves about
The means for achieving lateral control for the
one axis or shifts from one axis to another ex
aircraft by creating rolling moments includes not
terior of the airfoil contour the means for mov
only the previously mentioned aileron panels 46 65 ably supporting the panel to rotate about the
in the two wings of the aircraft but also air-jet
exterior axis or axes may lie entirely within the
passages through the wing controlled by the
con?nes of the'airfoil con?guration.
aileron panels. Each of the air-jet passages
One form of hinged construction that may be
includes the rearward opening 60 through which
employed to support the aileron panel in the de
the flap 33 extends, the ?ap compartment 55
scribed manner is shown in Fig. 18, there being
beneath the aileron panel 46 and an opening I20
at least two such hingedarrangements support
in therupper skin 51 of the main wing (Fig. 6)
ing each aileron panel at spaced points. An
that is comparable in area to the aileron panel
aileron hinge, generally designated l2! in Fig. 18,
and is normally closed by the aileron panel. It is
contemplated that at high flying speed an aileron 75 includes a bracket I22 mounted on the under side
91’ the, aileron panel 46 by means of suitable screws
tive position.‘ The indicated opposite'connection
I23 and includes a pair of spaced spindles I25 on
of the cable with the two aileron-actuating units
the bracket carrying rollers I26. As shown in
achieved simply by‘disposing the guide
Figs. 18 and 20, the two rollers I26 travel in a.
slots I53 onthe opposite sides of the aircraft in
complementary channel I21 in an‘arcuate track‘
I28 that is ?xedly attached to a false rib I36, by 5 opposite directions as may be understood by ref
erence to Fig. 19 showing the left guide slot I53
suitable rivets I3I. The particular track I28
leftward with its inoperative portion I55
illustrated is concentric to an external panel
axis I32.
and the right guide slot pointing rightward with
To facilitate operation of the aileron panel 46 . its inoperative portion I55. 'Preferably'the two
by the corresponding aileron-actuating unit 56 10 cross pins ‘I52 are normally at the neutral points
I51, but some variation is permissible in practice.
within the-?ap compartment 55, the panel may
' Fig. 21 shows diagrammatically‘another form
be provided with a downwardly extending bracket
of aileron-actuating unit, generally designated
generally designated I33. The aileron bracket
I66, which may be substitutedifor the aileron-ac
I33,_best shown in Figs. 17 and 19, includes a pair
of triangular plates I35 with ?anged edges‘that 15 tuating unit 56 of Figs. 1".’ and 19. , In Fig. ‘21,-for
simplicity each of thevtwo' aileron panels 460; is
are reinforced by metal straps I36 attached to
shown with ears I‘SI for rotation about an axis I62
the panel by rivets I31. Extending forward from
near thelleadingmedg'e of the panel. Each of the
the forwardly inclined portion of each of the metal
aileron panels 46a'is provided on its under face
straps I36 is an ear I38, the two ears being par
with a laterally inclined aileron bracket I63 in
allel for operative connection with the aileron
actuating unit 56.
which is journalled asmall block i65 to rotate
about an axis I664 that is inclined relative to the
plane of the panel." In my preferred arrangement
the ‘axis ‘I66 of each of the brackets is inclined
appmximatelye5o from the plane of the aileron
panel. Each‘of the rotaiyblocks I65‘carries a
The speci?c form of aileron-actuating unit 56
shown in Figs. 17 and 19 includes an operative
arm I40 having a universal connection with the
panel bracket I33, the arm, for example, being
connected by a pivot I4I to a small block I42, the
small block in turn having trunnions I43 jour
nalled in the ears I38 of the panel bracket. The
other end of the operating arm I46 is'formed as
atyoke I45 to cooperate with a pair of parallel
plates I46 and with an intermediate sheave I41
radially disposed arm I61 that engages a guide
member I68, which ‘guide member may ‘be
mountedon the wing sparf5l; Each of the guide
members I68 forms a guide channel, generally
designated I16, forthe end of the arm I61 and
the guide channel I16‘has an operative portion
I1 i substantially parallel to the aileron panel axis
plates I46 are an integral part of a hollow bracket
I62 and an inoperative or looking portion I12
member I48 having trunnions I56, one of the
trunnions being tubular to clear the aileron cable 35 thatv is inclined at approximately 45° from the
portion I1I, the inclination of the inoperative
41 that passes aroundrthe sheave I41. The trun
portion I12 conforming approximately to the nor
nions I50 are, journalled in a pair-‘of bearing
'journalled in the parallel plates. The parallel
members I5I mounted on the wing spar 5I.
mal or‘jclosed-panel disposition of the corre
sponding aileron panel bracket‘ I63. ‘The two
The arms of the yoke I45 extend on opposite
sides of the two parallel plates I46 and are intere
connected by a cross pin I52 whichmay carry a
portions HI" and I12 of they guide channel I16
join at what may be; termed a neutral point I13,
sleeve (not shown) for the sake of increased di
arm I61 ‘as, to normally hold the arm at approxi
matelythe‘rieutral points‘ I13 in the respective
‘guide channels I16, as indicated‘ in Fig-21.
guide means for, the cross pin I52 and to that end ,
are each provided with a guide‘slot .designated
I53 having what may be termed an inoperative
‘or locking portion I55 concentric to‘ the pivot I4I
and an operative portion I56 extending toward
It is apparent from Fig.21 thatwhen an aileron
panel 46a is in its closed or neutral'position, the
corresponding aileron arm I61 is free to move in
‘the inoperative portion I12‘of the guide channel
I16 without causing movement of the panel and
the aileron bracket I33, the two portions of the ,
guide slot joining at what may be termed a neu- ‘
tral point I51.
that the con?nement of the arm I61 by the inop
The cross pin I52 at the end of the operating
arm I46 not only extends through the guide slot
I53>of the two parallel plates I46 but also extends I
through a radial slot I58 in the intermediate
erative'portion I12 of the guide channel locks the
panel‘ against opening movement. It will be fur
55 ther ‘apparent that if the cable 41a shifts one of
‘the arms I61 "into and along the operative por
tion I" of the corresponding‘ guide channel, the
corresponding aileron panel 46'arwill be swung up
ward proportionately about the axis I62. By dis
posing the two guide channels I10 oppositely, as
sheave I41. Since the inoperative portion I55 of
the guide slot I53 in each of the parallel plates is
concentric to the pivot I4I at the opposite end of
the operating arm, it is apparent that the cross
pin I52 may be moved freely along the inoperative
portion I55 of the slot without causing movement
of the aileron panel 46, and it is further apparent
that the inoperative portion I55 of the guide slot
"shown in Fig 21, I provide an arrangement in
which shifting of the cable 41a in either lateral
direction causes one panel to be locked in neutral
‘position and causes the other panel to-be lifted
in con?ning the cross pin actually blocks the v
aileron panel against movement out of its neutral
or closed-position.
It is contemplated that the control cable 41 will
to eifective disposition."
cause either of the cross pins I52 to move into the 70
the operative portion I56 of its corresponding
guide slot, whereby one panel will be locked when
ever the other aileron panel is raised to an eifec
’ ‘of Fig. 1'? and Fig. 19 or the pair of aileron-ac
unit. 5|] in the opposite wings of the aircraft to
slot Whenever the other cross pin I52 is moved into
Either the‘pair or ‘aileron-‘actuating units 56
be oppositely connected to the aileron actuating
vinoperative portion I55 of the corresponding guide
contemplated that, the aileron cable 41a
will be so connected tointermediate points of the
ameter. The two parallel plates I46 constitute
tuating' units £60 of Fig. 21 may be operated by
vthe simple aileron-control system shown in’ Fig. 2‘.
In the preferred practice of my'invention, how
ever, I employ a control systeinthat additionally
permits the pilot at his discretion to liftb'oth of
the-"aileron panels 46 simultaneously to their
Imaximum' effective positions to cause a‘ sharp drop
Iinth'e-lift exerted by the two aircraft wings. Such
an operation of the two aileron panels may be of
telescoped over the corresponding arm I90. The
service to compensate for “ground effect.” When
two cable anchorages I18 and I8! may be in the
form of metal bars: extending through and car
ried by the corresponding tubular arm of. the
outer yoke I 86, the inner arms I88 and I9!) having
longitudinal slots I93 clearing the cable anchor
an aircraft makes a gliding approach to theele
vated deck of an aircraft carrier, for example, the
abrupt ground effect resulting from the sudden re
duction in the vertical space beneath the aircraft
tends to sustain the aircraft and delay contact
with the landing deck. Timely elevation of the
two aileron panels simultaneously, however, per
ages to permit the desired range of relative axial
movement of the outer yoke.
Normally the outer yoke I86 with its two tubu
mits an aircraft of the present type to maintain 10
lar arms is held at an upper position relative to
the desired glide angle and in fact to increase the
the inner yoke I85 by a releasable latch of suitable
glide angle to a desirable extent at the proper
construction. My preferred form of latch, shown
Fig. 22 indicates diagrammatically the essen
tial element of a control system that will permit
a pilot to operate the two aileron panels simul-~
taneously in the above indicated manner when
desired. A control stick, generally designated I15
and indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 22, is pivoted
in the usual manner for lateral oscillation about
a pivot point H6. Above the pivot point I16 the
control stick I15 carries a pair of parallel sheaves
I1‘! and an upper diagonally disposed cable an
chorage I18, and in like manner below the pivot
point I'a'5 the control stick carries a lower pair
of parallel sheaves I88 and a lower diagonally
disposed cable anchorage I8I. If the cable all»,
which is shown divided into two sections, is dis
posed around the control stick sheave and the
two sheaves Hll of the aileron-actuating unit 5c 30
in the manner indicated by Fig. 22, clockwise
movement of the control stick about the pivot
point I16 produces counter-clockwise rotation of
the two actuating sheaves I41 and vice versa.
-It will be apparent by referring torFig. 19 that
the rightward or clockwise movement of the con
trol stick H5 in rotating each of the sheaves Iél'l
counter-clockwise will cause the left aileron panel
46 to be locked in neutral position and the right
aileron panel I35 to be raised to effective disposi
tion and thereby cause the right wing of the air
craft to dip.
It is contemplated that the control stick H5
will be manipulated in the conventional manner
to control the aircraft as described above but
movement of the two cable anchorages is indi
engagement with the upper end of the inner arm
I88 as shown. _A release button 200 normally
protruding from the upper end of the latch body
I95 is mounted on the upper end of a release
plunger 228i that extends downwardly into the
latch body. The release plunger 2m has a‘ ta
pered end 2132 to act against the pawl I96 and
is held against rotation by a pin 203 that is
mounted in the latch body I95 ‘and extends into
a spline slot 205' in the plunger. When the but
ton 25c is‘depressed by'the pilot against the re
sistance of a concealedspring .256, the release
plunger 225i swings the pawl I96 inward out of
engagement‘ with the upper end of the inner arm
I88 so that the pilot may slide the outer yoke with
its two arms downward, thereby shifting the two
cable anchorages downward and lifting both the‘
aileron panels simultaneously.
The operation of my invention may be readily
foregoing ‘ description.
Preparatory'to take-off the pilot rotates'the crank
36 to shift the two ?aps 33 to positions of inter
mediateyextension, as shown in Fig. '6. At this
disposition each ?ap 33 cooperates with the main
wing 32 to form an airfoil affording relatively
high'lift and only moderate drag. After take
45 off the pilot again ‘manipulates the crank 35 to
that manually operable means will be provided '
for lowering both of the cable anchorages lid and
HM simultaneously to cause both the aileron
panels 56 to rise simultaneously. The downward
speci?cally in Fig.'26, ‘includes a latch body I95
mounted in the end of the upper outer arm HM
and telescoping into the hollow upper end ofthe
inner arm‘iafl. Normally a pawl I96 mounted
on the latch body I95 by a pivot I9]. is pressed
laterally by a leaf spring I98 ‘into a position of
retract each of the ?aps 33 to the position shown
in Fig. 5 at which position the trailing portion
35of the ?ap protruding from the main wing 32
combines with the main wing to form an in
50 herently high speed airfoil with minimum drag.
cated by dotted line positions in Fig. 22. The
For maneuvering the aircraft at normal high
movement of the upper cable anchorage I13 to
speed ?ight the pilot shifts the control stick I75
ward the upper parallel sheave Ill feeds out the
' slightly from side to side to cause the two aileron
cable 47b toward the two sheaves I ill, and the
panels to rise alternately to positions of relatively
downward movement ofthe lower cable anchor
low inclination.
age I8I away from the two lower parallel sheaves
Preparatory to gliding the aircraft to a land
I85 takes up the cable from the two sheaves Illl,
ing,- .the pilot turns the crank 36 to extend each
the result being clockwise rotation ofthe left
of the flaps 33 to the maximum position shown
sheave I47 to raise the left aileron panel Id and
'7, thereby increasing the effectivechord
simultaneously clockwise rotation of the right 60 andFig.
camber of the wing to produce relatively
sheave I41 to raise the right aileron panel,
high lift and relatively ‘high drag. As the ?ap
A suggested construction for the control stick
approaches the position of maximum extension
H5 is indicated by Figs. 23-26. A tubular rock
the air-jet passage through the main wing 32
er shaft I82 disposed longitudinally of the air
around the leading edge of the ?ap becomes in
craft carries a cross pin I83 on which is pivotally 05 creasingly effective to permit air ?ow from the
mounted an inner yoke in the form of a ring I85
under side of the wing to the upper side and over
and an outer yoke I 36. the outer yoke having
the extended ?ap. This displacement of air
a slot I 81 on each side for sliding engagement with V
through the wing improves the flow of air over
the cross pin. The inner yoke I55 has an upper
. the upper surface of the wing, delaying the burble
arm I88 carrying the upper pair of parallel
point and permitting the aircraft to descend with
sheaves I1? and has a lower arm ISE on which
the wings at high angles of attack and at rela
is mounted the lower pair of parallel sheaves
tively slow speed without danger of stalling even
I80. The outer yoke I85 has an upper tubular
at high loads.
arm ISI slidingly telescoped over the correspond
ing arm I88 and has a lower tubular arm I92
It is also to be noted that as a flap 33 ap
proaches its position of maximum extension the
' increase in the clearance between’ the flap and
the edges of the rearward wing opening 60 pro
vides increasing freedom for air ?ow through
thewing to the aileron opening on the upper
"side of the wing so that opening movement of
the aileron panel permits more effective air flow
for lateral control at the extended positions of
the flap than at the normal retracted position of
the flap.‘ The provision for" air ?ow through the
aileron opening and especially the provision for
increased freedom for air flow with increased
extension of the flap 33 results in sensitive and
effective lateral control ‘of the aircraft at rela
incorporated in said wing; a second support
member normally telescoped into said rear-por
tion of the main wing for retractible longitudi
nal movement from the wing through said rear
opening; a curved guideway rigidly mounted on
one of said support members; cooperating guide
means mounted on the other support member in
engagement with said guideway for movement
along the guideway; a flap constituting a third
member, said ?ap being normally telescoped into
said hollow portion of the wing for retractible
edgewise movement through said rear opening;
a curved guideway ?xedly mounted on one of
said last two mentioned members; guide means
15 on the other of said last two mentioned members
in cooperative engagement with said last men
The various rollers supporting each flap may
tioned guideway for movement along said guide
be given liberal clearance for freedom of move
way; and means operatively connected to said
ment without inviting vibration of the ?ap be
member to move the ?ap member to various
cause aerodynamic forces on the flap causes one
of each pair of rollers to act as a fulcrum and 20 positions of extension from said main wine.
2. In an aircraft, the combination of: a main
the other roller to limit rotation about the ful
wing having a hollow spanwise rear portion; a
crum; The leverage through each pair of rollers
support means movably mounted in said hollow
exerted by the panel causes a forward component
Portion of the wing for retractible extension rear
.of force along the arcuate path of the ?ap that
is effective at all dispositions of the ?ap and re 25 ward from the Wing along a downward curved
path; a ?ap normally telescoped into said rear
sults in a constant but moderate tendency for
portion of the wing and movably mounted on said
the flap to retract. .
support means for edgewise movement relative
One feature of my invention is the conception
the support means substantially in a curved
of housing the retractible tracks in the longitu
dinal‘recesses at the sides of the ?ap panels. 30 continuation of said curved path, said flap having
a curved upper surface substantially concentric
The tracks are concealed and protected when in
with said path and disposed as a‘ continuation of
extended positions. While the ?ap panels are
the upper surface of said wing, the under surface
separately supported at‘their longitudinal edges,
of said ?ap being relatively smooth toward the
they'are spaced apart only su?iciently to clear
the various wing ribs on which the tracks are 35 trailing end of the flap and of broken con?gura
tively low air speeds and relatively high angles
tion toward the forward end of the flap whereby
said portion of broken con?guration becomes ef
As the aircraft approaches the end of the land
fective to increase drag as the flap approaches
ing glide the pilot may press the releaseibutton
7200- on the control stick and shift thecontrol
3. In an aircraft, thecombination of z a main
stick handle downward to raise both the aileron 40
wing with a rearward spanwise opening; a plu
panels simultaneously thereby to'suddenly and
rality of spaced ribs dividing the rear portion of
sharply decrease the lift of the two wings. ,
said wing into a series of flap compartments;
For the purpose of disclosure and to teach the
support means movably mounted in each of said
principles involved, I have described a preferred
embodiment of my invention in speci?c detail, 45 compartments for retractible endwise movement
rearward through said opening; and a ?ap panel
and sufficient guidance will be found herein for
in each ofsa-id compartments movably mounted
adapting the invention and the various features
on the support means therein to retractibly
of the invention to various types of aircraft.
move relative to the support means edgewise
My speci?c disclosure will suggest to those
through said opening rearward from the trailing
skilled in the art various changes, modi?cations,
edge of the wing, the trailing portions of said
and substitutions within the scope of the under
?ap panels being interconnected to form a uni
lying inventive concept, and I speci?cally reserve
tary trailing edge of the wing.
‘the right to all such changes, modi?cations, and
4. In an aircraft, the combination as set forth
substitutions that come within the terms of my
55 in claim 3 that includes rolling means movably
appended claims.
supporting said support means on said ribs, and
I claim as my invention: includes rolling means movably supporting said
1'. In an aircraft, the combination of: a main
flap panels on said support means.
wing having a hollow rear portion with a span
wise rear opening; a ?rst support member rigidly
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