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Патент USA US2405791

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Aug. 13, 1946.‘
H. J. LAMOUREUX
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WIG CONSTRUCTION
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Filed May 15, 1945 -
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INVENTOR.
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MLAIREJZAMOUREl/X
BY in‘
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AT.T0312271’
3, 394.
H. J. LAMOUREUX
Filed May 15, 1945
2,4®,1
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
* 2,405,791
UNITED STATES PATEN
2,405,791 ‘
} OFFICE
'
WIG CONSTRUCTION
Hilaire J. Lamoureux, New York, N. Y.
Application May 15, 1945, Serial No. 593,889
10 Claims. (01. 46-472)
1
This invention relates to a wig construction,
particularly for models or dolls such as may be
provide for the applying of hair to a backing ma
terlal as aforesaid, and then to. provide for the
cutting up of the backing material with hair ap
plied thereto into small pieces, which may be
used as hairdressers’ models, although the fea
tures of the invention are not restricted to this
particular use.
.
“
More particularly the present invention relates
to a method of construction of such wigs and to
the wigs and doll or model head assemblies as
"
U!
separately ?tted on to the head of a doll as afore
said so that the stiff characteristics of the back-'
ing materialwill not interfere with the substan-. I
tial conforming of the individual pieces to the
thus constructed.
curvatures of the model or doll head to which
It has been found that many, if not all, the 10 they are applied.
. .
methods hereto-fore generally used for the con
A
further
object
of
the
present
invention is
struction of hairdressers’ models by which there,
to provide a wig. construction as aforesaid,
may be demonstrated various hair stylings has
been such that when a model is prepared in a
particular manner, it cannot readily be changed
by the hairdressers themselves, but must be re
wherein selected di?erent portions of the hair on
different parts of the head maybe of a di?erent
character, for example, a di?erent color, texture
or length.
,
,
.
turned to the factory by which it is made in order
Other and more detailed objects of the present
that the hair styling be changed or for other rea
invention will become apparent from the follow
sons wherein it is desired to do various things
speci?cation and appended claims when
to the hair of the model which could readily be 20 ing
taken in connection with the accompanying 7
done to the hair of a living person, but which,
drawings, in which:
by reason of the arti?cial construction of the
Figure 1 is a plan view on an enlarged scale
models cannot readily be done to the aforesaid
of a portion of backing material held in a frame
models. This is a substantial hardship in many
instances as it is often desired not only to keep 25 during the application of hair thereto;
Fig. 2 is a view substantially in vertical section
the model properly clean by normal washing
on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
methods, including shampooing of the hair, but
also it is highly desirable from time to time to
make changes in the hair styling to show cus
tomers new styles as they are created.
I
An important object of the present invention
is to provide a wig construction for models or
dolls and particularly for those used as hair
dressers’ models, wherein the hair can be treated
in any manner that the hair growing on the head
of a living person may be treated, that is, by
washing, combing, bleaching and dyeing, waving
. Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view of a portion of the
_ backing material of Figs. 1 and 2 showing the
manner of securing the hair therein, the showing
30 being inverted in respect to that of Fig. 2 and
illustrating the step of securing the hair of the
backing material.
,
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevation of a‘model or
doll head showing the manner of applying to the
head of individual pieces of backing material
having hair secured thereto; and
Fig. 5 is a view of the same head completely
provided with the wig of this invention, but prior A further and more detailed object of the pres
ent invention is to provide a method of construct 40 to the application of any hair styling thereto.
Turning now to the accompanying drawings,
ing wigs for models or dolls of the character set
there
is illustrated in Fig. 1, a suitable frame I
forth, wherein the hair will ?ow from various
by which a relatively sti?, mesh-like backing fab
portions of the head in the several directions that
ric 2 may be held, suitable clamps 3 holding the
it would flow on the head of a living person, so
fabric
in the frame. While the fabric 2 is shown
that various hair stylings may simulate closely
as a straight woven fabric, that is with warp and
those which could be applied using living persons.
weft threads as shown, woven so- loosely as to pro
I A further object of the invention is‘to provide
vide a plurality of rows of apertures 4, each sub
a. detailed method of constructing a wig for mod
_ or curling, and permanently waving.
els or dolls as hereinabove set forth, including ,
the several steps necessary to apply and secure
the hair. to a, backing material,-so that it will
appear to grow therein at an angle to the surface
thereof in the manner in which hair normally
‘grows on a human scalp.
stantially square in shape, it is contemplated that
any mesh-like fabric, preferably relatively stiff
in nature, may be employed, such as fabric made
by knitting or other methods. The particular
type of fabric is further substantially immaterial
from the point of view of this invention so long
as it hasthe necessary physical characteristics
A further detailed object of the invention is'to 55 of inherent stiffness and rigidity
as hereinabove’ I
2,405,791
set forth and provides a plurality of rows of aper
tures to and through which the hair may be
passed and secured,
The hair may be introduced through the aper
tures 4 in any desired manner, but I have found
that one advantageous way of accomplishing this
is to insert a suitable tool, such as a crochet hook,
through each aperture of a row thereof, such as
a rOW 5, and drawdownwardly through theaper
which hair grows on a human head, which in
the usual case is generally radially outward from
a point at the center rear portion of the head.
In some instances it may be desirable to pro
vide further means for insuring the adherence
of the cement to the head model. Such means
are particularly advantageous when the head
is of material to which the cement may not
otherwise closely adhere. For this purpose a
plurality of small holes l4 may be formed in the
tures a group of perhaps ?ve or .ten hairs from a 10 scalp portion at suitably spaced intervals, so
bundle thereof held in one hand of the operator,
while with the other hand, the tool is manipug .
that there will preferably be several holes for
an area to be covered by one of the pieces l2.
lated. In this way there will be provided a plug
Then when the pieces are cemented to the head
rality of hairs as shown at 6, Fig. 2, extending
model as aforesaid, some of the cement may
through each aperture of a row, suchas the row 15 penetrate into or through the holes l4 and be
5, which is shown provided with‘ hairextending
U _
>
1 securely
held
to the head model either by fric
through about half the apertures;
T -
The next step in making the wig is to turn
tionalior adhesive engagement with the sides of
the‘ holes or by mushrooming out as shown at
I5 into the usually hollow interior portion of the
the fabric all extend upwardly as shown in Fig. 20 head and, 'upon,hal‘dening,, forming a sort ‘of
3,».1at which time the hairs extending. through
rivfet, securing, the cementlto the head. For
azsingle row. may be cut off as at a level shown
this
purpose a suf?cient amount of cement is
at "I by scissors, this cutting off being above but
is
used,
so that some of it will penetrate at least
adjacent to the fabric as shown on an enlarged
scale in Fig. 3 and the hair extending perhaps 25 into, and preferably through, such holes into'the,
Tie of an inch through the fabric. A water
The making of the wig by a plurality of small
proof cement is then applied on to the cut ends‘
pieces further enables the production of par
the frame over until the hairs extending through '
inside.
of the hairs as shown at 8, so as to flow around
.
r
ticular effects, which may in some cases be espe
each of the hairs and into the row of apertures
cially desired from an artistic point of view.
through which the hairs pass, and to seal ‘the 30 Thus by providing pieces having hair of diner
hair into the fabric. It is‘noted at this time
ent characters in different portions of the head,
and during the drying of this cement all the
such as di?erent color, different hair type or
hair‘ is held at an acute angle shown at 9 (Fig.
texture, and/or different lengths, it is possible
3) and-also shown in Fig. 2 to the plane of the
to secure many desired artistic effects. For ex»,
fabric, so as to flow. in a predetermined direction 35 ample, it may be desired in order to illustrate
in respect to the fabric for the purposes which
the potentialities of the establishment display
will appear hereinafter.
ing a model or head as herein set forth, .to illus
‘Once the cement B. has at least partially dried,
trate their capacity in hair dying by having hair
hairimay' be similarly applied to another row of
of two,‘ or more different colors on different por
40
apertures and so on until a selected area of the
fabric has been provided withihair. While it is
possible that each row of apertures may be sup
plied with hair as hereinabove set forth, I have
found it to be desirable in the usual case, to use
alternate rowsonly, so that rows as shown at
H] and H in addition to the row 5 (Fig. 1) will
be ‘supplied with hair as indicated inthat ?gure.
This is also. illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. If neces
sary or desired, after the cement 8 has substan
tially full dried, any excessively protruding ends
onthe reverse side of the fabric (as shown on
Fig. 3) may be further cut off closely adjacent
to the fabric,.but not so close but that the hair
is securely fastened in the backing fabric 2.
The next step involves the making of the wig
itself. If it were attempted to place-a large
size portion of the fabric provided with hair
as aforesaid onto the head of the model or doll‘
or other surfaces having curvatures in two
tions. of the same head.
'
In order that there be .a substantially unin
terrupted surface at and adjacent to the hair
line of the scalp and for mechanical reasons in
1 the construction of wigs for models .or dolls as_
hereinabove set forth, it is desired that the doll
headbe undercut, at and adjacent to the scalp
line as illustrated particularly at l3 in Fig.1.
This undercutting is preferably to a depth sub
stantially equal to the thickness of the backing
pieces including the cement used in securing
hair thereto and as made up by the method
hereinabove set forth. Thus when these pieces
are secured, preferably adhesively and individ
uallylto the scalp as. generally indicated for the
pieces I2‘ in Fig. 3, there will be a smooth un
interrupted surface across the scalp line and
adjacent portions of the model or dolljhead.
While it is possible to make model or doll heads
initially'with this undercut construction as just i
directions at right angles to each other, the (ill set forth, it is. also contemplatedthat model
initially relatively stiff backing fabric, which has
or doll heads of a vitreous or .ceramic. nature.
been further ‘stiffened by the application thereto _
may be ?rst prepared by cutting away that
of the cement as aforesaid, would not properly
portion of the head to be covered by'hair to-a
conform to the surface to which it was applied._
depth approximately equal to the backing por
65
However, I have found thatrthis di?iculty may
tion of the wig. This may be done by carefully
be overcome by cutting the fabric into relatively
chiseling *this part of .the model or doll head
small pieces l2 and then ?tting such pieces in
away, thus providing a relatively porous, rough
dividually onto the head of the model ordoll to
enedsurface to which the backing portions of
which the wig is to be applied. This also has a , the. pieces l2 may be individually adhesivelyzsee
furtheri desirable feature that it is possible by
cured by the use. of a water-proof cement, the
suitably'choosing the size, number and arrange
cement adhering better to the roughened and.
ment of the pieces to have the wig so constructed
somewhat’ porous surfaces or the model 1 or doll‘
that. the hair thereon will flow in the proper
head than to the smooth vitrified surface.
directions in respect to the scalp or head of the
model or. doll so‘ as to simulate'the manner in
1 thereof .'
2,405,791
"'It' is contemplated that the same or some dif-'
ferent type of cement may be used for securing
the pieces I 2 to the model or doll head from that
used'for the cementing of the hair to the back
ing material 2 as hereinabove set forth at the
election of manufacturer. ‘The type of cement
used in either or both cases is not critical except .
that it. is essential that it be some water-proof
, type of ‘cement which will accomplish the pur
poses set forth, so as to enable the head ascom
pl'eted to be treated with water for shampooing
6
pieces to the'cur'vature'of the headfto which they;
are attached.
_
' 2. The ‘method of claim‘ 1, wherein hair is
.1
passed through and cemented in alternate rows
only of ‘the apertures of said fabric.
3."The method of claim 1, wherein said pieces
areiindiv'idually cemented to the head of the
model With a water-proof cement.
"
4. The method of constructing a wig for a head
10 model, comprising the steps of passing a plural
ity of hairs through each of a row of apertures
or otherwise without danger of destruction or.
damage. For this purpose some of the cellulose
in a stiff, mesh-like, backing fabric, cutting off
nitrate or cellulose ester base cements now com
the hairs passing through the fabric on the reverse
side thereof at a, level adjacent thereto, ?owing
mercially available may be employed, these ce
ments usually including one or more organic sol
15 onto and around the cut ends of the hairs and
vents which, upon evaporation, leave a body of
the cement which is essentially water-proof.
I have found that a wig constructed in accord
ance with the present invention may be washed
into the meshes of the fabric through which they
pass a water-proof cement, drying the cement
While the hair secured thereby is retained in sub
stantially parallel lines at an acute angle to the
20 plane of the fabric, repeating the above series of
or shampooed to the same extent that this treat
ment may be applied to the head of a living per
son; that the hair may be combed in the ordinary
manner without danger of the teeth of the comb
catching in the backing material or into any
knots by which it has been customary, at least
in some instances, to hold the hair to the backing
material; and that the hair may be treated by
waving, and by hot or cold permanent waving
steps to provide a predetermined area of fabric
having hair secured thereto, all of which flows in
a single direction in respect to the fabric, cutting
the portion of the fabric to which hair is at
tached as aforesaid into pieces of selected sizes
and shapes, separately preparing several series of
such pieces having hair of a different characteris
tic respectively for each of said series, and ad
hesively securing such pieces to the head of a
processes in substantially the same way as the
hair of a living person Without essential danger 30 model to form a Wig in such manner that the
direction of flow of the hair from the several por
to the construction. I have also found that the
tions of the wig W111 simulate the Way hair grows
hair may be bleached or dyed in whole or in part
and flows on a living person and so that the stiff
in a way similar to that of the hair of a living
ness of the fabric will not interfere substantially
person. Thus the model or doll heads having
wigs constructed in accordance with this inven CO CI with the conforming of the individual pieces to
tion may be used not only for display purposes as
the curvature of the head to which they are at
hereinabove suggested, but also, in some in
tached, and employing the pieces from the sev
stances, may be used as practice models for per
eral series on different selected areas of the head
sons learning the art of hair dressing, without 40 to give predetermined characteristic effects in
herent from the different characteristics of the
danger that the mistakes of such beginners will
different series of said pieces.
involve them in law suits or other claims for
damages.
5. The method in accordance with claim 4,
wherein the pieces of said different series respec
While I have shown and described herein but
tively are dyed different colors so as to get selected
one principal embodiment of the inventionfrom
a method and article point of view, I donot wish 45 artistic effects for models used by hairdressers
for demonstration purposes.
,
to be limited except by the
claims, which are to be
6. A wig construction for a head model, com
prising a plurality of backing pieces to each of
broadly as the state of the prior art permits.
What I claim is:
~
which hair is attached in such manner that the
50 hair flows in a single predetermined direction in
1. The method of constructing a wig for a
respect to the surface of each piece, said direc
head model, comprising the steps of passing a
tion being at an acute angle to the plane of the
plurality of hairs through each of a row of aper
tures in a stiff, mesh~like backing fabric, cutting
surface thereof, said pieces being individually
adhesively secured throughout their respective
off the hairs passing through the fabric on the
reverse side thereof at a level adjacent thereto, 55 areas to the doll head in such manner that the
angular directions of flow of the hair of the as
?owing onto and around the cut ends of the hairs
sembled pieces simulates that of the hair on a
and into the meshes of the fabric through which
living person.
they pass a water-proof cement, drying the oc
7. A wig construction for a head model in ac
ment while all the hair secured thereto is re
tained in substantially parallel lines at an acute 60 cordance with claim 6, wherein each of said pieces
is of such small size that its initial plane surface
angle to the plane of the fabric, repeating the
thereof will substantially conform to the cur
series of steps aforesaid to provide a predeter
vatures of the portion of the head to which it
'
fabric having hair secured
is secured.
65
8. A wig construction for a head model in ac
cordance with claim 6, wherein each of said pieces
is of such small size that‘its initial plane surface
will substantially conform to the curvatures ‘of
that portion of the head to which it is attached,
hesively securing such pieces to the head of a
model to form a wig in such manner that the
direction of flow of the hair from the several 70 and wherein each of said pieces is independently
secured to the head by a, water-proof cement.
portions of the wig will simulate the way hair
9. A Wig construction for a head model in ac
grows and ?ows on a living person and so that
cordance with claim 6, wherein a plurality of
the stiffness of the fabric will not interfere sub~
groups of hairs are secured to each of said back
stantially to the conforming of the individual
75 ing pieces solely by waterproof cementitious ad
2,405,791
hesive material-enveloping the ends of said groups
of hairs and said backing pieces.
10. A wig construction for a head model of
vitreous ceramic construction having the scalp
portion to which hair is to be attached and which
is circumscribed by the scalp line undercut by a
thickness substantially equalto that of backing
pieces to which'hair is attached, saidvscalpr por
ings of alternate rows and secured to said fabric
by a water-proof cement with the hair all ?ow
ing in a single acute angular direction in respect
to the surface of each of said pieces, said pieces
being so small that their plane surfaces will sub
stantially conform respectfully to the curvature
of the head and being placed on the head in an
arrangement such that the hair flow from the
various portions thereof simulates the direction
tlon being roughened and porous for adhesive
of
hair ?ow on a living person, each of said pieces
attachment thereto of such backing pieces, each 10 being individually adhesively attached to’ said
of said pieces comprising. a backing member of
head by a water-proof cement.
sti? mesh-like. fabric having a plurality of strands
V
HILAIRE J. LAMOUREUX.
of hair passing through each of the mesh open
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