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Aug. I3, I%% 2,495,832 T. w. BINDER AIR CONDITIONING Filed May 30, 1944 s sheets-sheet 1 v ' INVENTOR Thomas "(Binder _v I BY’ 1 I ' djZm/Mvr , ATTORN W Aug. 13, 1946. 2,405,812 T. w. BINDER AIR CONDITIONING , Filed May 30, 1944 3 Shee?s-Sheet 2 50 . a 8B./ w 6% m Y . Z owa . .W. NE,EirO@M mm Aug. 13, 1946. 2,405.812' T. W. BINDER AIR CONDITIONING ' Filed May 30, 1944 . s Sheets-Sheét' 3 5-1 a 3.4 INVENTOR Thomas W?indei" 2,405,812 Patented Aug. 13, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,812 AIR CONDITIONING Thomas W. Binder, Maplewood, N. J. Application May 30, 1944, Serial No. 538,042 15 Claims. (01. 62-129) 1 This invention relates to air conditioning, and, more particularly, to controlling humidity by causing excess moisture to pass from the air into a low pressure zone where the moisture is con densed; thus the air is brought to the proper humidity without excessive cooling of the air. An object of this invention is to provide for continuously controlling the humidity of air with out necessarily changing the temperature of the air. A further object is to provide a method and apparatus for removing moisture from the air with a minimum of expense and in a manner which is suitable for use under varying conditions met with in this art. A further object is to pro vide for the removal of latent heat from air with out necessarily removing sensible heat. A fur ther object is to provide apparatus of the above character which is practical and sturdy in con struction and which is inexpensive to manufac 2 tion will be discussed. The term “air condition ing” has been loosely applied to many methods of treating air but it is more commonly applied to applications where air is cooled and its humid- ' ity is regulated. Even though it is recognized that humidity is a very important factor in ob taining comfort, far too little emphasis has been given to humidity control. In practice it is known that the average person is comfortable even though the temperature and humidity vary over a rather wide range. However, the humidity and temperature should be considered together in order to stay within the “comfort zone”; that is, a rather high temperature will appear com fortable to the average person if the humidity is low, whereas a much lower temperature will appear uncomfortable at high humidity. As the temperature rises in a room where there are people, the evaporation of perspiration and ture and operate. A still further object is to pro 20 the expelled vapor causes a rise in humidity, and in order to maintain a condition of comfort the vide for condensing moisture from air by caus moisture should be removed from the air; it is ing the moisture to pass to a condensing zone true that cooling alone will give some temporary without passing the air through the zone. These relief but the moisture must be removed if con and other objects will be in part obvious and in tinued comfort is desired. In the past, tempera part pointed out below. ture and humidity have been considered together The invention accordingly consists in the fea and it has been conventional with some systems tures of construction, combinations of elements, arrangements of parts and in the several steps and relation and order to each of the same to one or more of the others, all as will be illustra to simultaneously cool air and dehumidify it by passing it into direct contact with cold surfaces or liquids. 30 The heat removed in treating air in this man tively described herein, and the scope of the ap ner is the latent heat of condensation of the plication of which will be indicated in the fol moisture and the sensible heat. In the past it lowing claims. has been considered necessary to remove the In the drawings in which are shown three of sensible heat in order to remove the latent heat; the several embodiments of the invention: this is on the basis that the latent heat is removed Figure 1 is a perspective View of one embodi only by bringing the temperature of the air down ment of the invention with parts broken away below the dew point. In the average installa and with certain of the apparatus represented tion the‘ removal of the sensible heat constitutes schematically ; Figure 2 is a vertical section of the dehumidify 40 approximately 75% of the refrigeration load and the removal of latent heat constitutes the other ing unit of Figure 1; 25% of the load. Thus, when no air cooling effect Figure 3 is a perspective view of the dehumidi is desired and moisture removal is the entire fying unit of another embodiment of the inven problem, the unit is really only 25% efficient be tion; , Figure 4. is a side elevation, partially schematic, 45 cause 75% of the cooling effect is for the purpose of removing sensible heat and steps must be taken showing one manner of using the unit of Figure 3; to reheat the air up to the desired temperature. Figure 5 is a sectional view on the line 5-5 Furthermore, these systems are not flexible in of Figure 4; . their use because each unit must be engineered, Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 4 but show constructed and operated to solve the particular ing another embodiment of the invention; and 50 problem at hand. This has been a serious handi Figure '7 is a plan View of the dehumidifying cap in the ?eld of air conditioning because it vunit of Figure 6. interferes with the mass production of air condi As conducive to a clearer understanding of the tioning units. In addition to this, the many vary invention, the problems involved in connection with the illustrative embodiments of the inven 55 ing conditions of operation cause many air con-, 3 2,405,812 ditioning systems to be unsatisfactory for a large part of the time. In actual practice, the main emphasis in air conditioning has been placed upon the cooling of 4 the problem of dehumidifying the air. It is an object of the present invention to provide a solu tion to the above problems with a simple system wherein the temperature and humidity of the air the air and the problem of obtaining proper are controlled independently. By doing this humidity has been considered secondary or even primary consideration may be given to the con ignored completely. For example, with some sys trol of the humidity so that moisture can be re tems air is passed into direct contact with cool moved from the air without any substantial cool ing coils with the result that the air is cooled to a ing of the air. Furthermore, with the illustra very low temperature and moisture is‘ condensed 10 tive systems the air may be dehumidi?ed and onto the coils. With some of these systems a cooled with the same apparatus that is used for relatively small stream of air is cooled to a tem dehumidifying the air and yet complicated con perature far below that which is acceptable for ‘trols are unnecessary. use and this small stream of air is either blown In the illustrative embodiments of the inven directly into the air conditioned space or it is 15 tion the moisture is removed from the air by mixed with a stream of warm, humid air. With creating a low vapor-pressure zone to which the this type of system the air may be maintained at ' moisture passes and in which it is condensed. a desired temperature, but there is no real con- . This low vapor-pressure zone is produced in a trol on the humidity; the only way to really re refrigerated cold chamber where the air is more duce the humidity is to cool more air or to reduce 20 or less strati?ed, and the moisture enters this the temperature of the stream of air being cooled. Strati?ed air due to the low vapor-pressure con Thus, when there is an excessive humidity load dition. The cold chamber has an opening or a the temperature may be within an acceptable number of openings through which the moisture range but the humidity may be too high, or the passes from the high-humidity, warm air to the humidity may be reduced to a satisfactory, level 25 low vapor-pressure stratified air in the cold only by reducing the temperature below that de chamber but the air which is being dehumidi?ecl sired. ' does not pass through the cold chamber. The Air conditioning systems are ‘in use wherein the cold chamber may be positioned within the air air is cooled, washed and reheated with the re conditioned chamber, or it may be positioned out sult that air of a desired temperature and some side the air conditioned chamber and connected 30 what near an acceptable humidity is delivered. thereto by air ducts through which air is directed However, these systems are complicated and in by a suitable fan. The air is passed in a stream volve the use of large and expensive equipment along the side of the cold chamber and the mois and air ducts. Furthermore, these systems op ture leaves the warm air and passes into the cold erate upon the principle referred to above of ex chamber. In the accompanying drawings, the pending approximately 75% of the cooling effect cold chambers and the air ducts associated there in cooling the air and the other 25% in dehumidi with are shown broken away and the remaining fying the air. This ratio between the two eifects structure is represented schematically on a re is satisfactory for some loads, particularly where duced scale. the load does not vary, but in most installations 40 In the embodiment of Figures 1 and 2 the only this ratio between the loads is unsatisfactory and substantial effect which is desired is the de the load varies over av wide range. The variations humidifying of the air and this effect is obtained in the load may take the form of a rapid rise or by passing the air through a dehumidifying unit. fall in the relative humidity or temperature, or Referring to Figure 1, this dehumidifying unit is both. represented at 2 and includes a horizontally dis Another factor which is important in consider posed casing 4. Casing 4 (see also Figure 2) has ing the ?eld of air conditioning is the variation atop wall 6 and a bottom wall 8 and end walls in the efficiency of the refrigeration unit itself. l0. A perforated wall l2 having perforations ll When air is used for cooling the condenser of the therein is positioned between walls 6 and B and refrigeration system the minimum cooling eifect F parallel thereto, and along the sides of the casing on the condenser is apt to occur at the time of the are two side walls [4 (Figure 1) extending be maximum refrigeration load so that the e?ioiency tween wall 8 and wall l2. Thus, a cold chamber of the refrigeration system fails when the load i3 is formed beneath the perforated‘ wall 12, rises. Water is used for condenser cooling, but which is closed except for the perforations II in in some cities the public water system has been wall l2, and a flat horizontal air passageway l 5 is so overloaded by such use that steps have been formed above this perforated wall. Within cold taken to curtail this use of the water. In all chamber I3 is a ?nned evaporator l6 formed by a cases Where refrigeration systems are used in con coil ll having ?ns I 8 thereon. nection with air conditioning the condenser cool Evaporator I6 is supported adjacent the ends ing problem is a serious one, and it is aggravated (it) of the casing by ?anged plates 20 on coil I‘! which by the extra load of removing all of the sensible are vertically disposed between walls 8 and I2. heat when it is desirable to remove only latent Evaporator I6 is held out of contact with the heat and perhaps part of the sensible heat. That casing walls with the result that there is very is, the inef?cient air conditioning apparatus little heat transfer through the walls to the evap places an excessive load upon the cooling system orator. Liquid refrigerant is supplied to evap for the condenser so that the system is'apt to be orator l6 through a pipe 22 and the gas refrig ineffective under maximum load conditions, and erant is withdrawn through a pipe 24 by a com the refrigerating system might even break down pressor, represented schematically 'at 26 ‘and completely. ' driven by a motor 28. The compressed refrig Attempts have been made to meet this problem 70 erant is‘ passed to a condenser 30 where it is con by providing more careful control upon the ap densed and flows to a receiver 32. I paratus and by providing larger and more com Air is directed through the horizontal passage plicated air duct systems. Howeven'even with way [5 by a fan 34 driven by a motor 36. This these complicated systems the problem of remove air moves along the passageway past the perfora ing heat from the air has not been divorced from 75 tions 1 I in wall l2 in a thin sheet. Within cham 2,405,812 5 ber 13 evaporator 16 cools the vapor and causes it to condense so that a low vapor-pressure zone is created within the chamber. However, there is no substantial circulation of air and the air tends to become strati?ed. Assuming that the air ?owing through passageway I5 contains a 6 through passageways 66 and 68 (Figure 5); In moving upwardly the air is subjected to the same action as that to which the air is subjected in the embodiment of Figures 1 and 2 in passing through passageway 15. Accordingly, moisture from the air passes through the perforations E3 ' in walls 42 and 4d and is condensed on evaporator [6 in cold chamber 40. The condensed moisture flows from chamber d0 through a drain pipev 86 l3 and perforations H are of su?icient size and number to permit this movement of the vapor. 10 shown best in Figure 4. With this embodiment, substantially saturated However, wall 12 con?nes the flow of air to the air or at least air of a predetermined relative hu passageway so that the strati?cation of the air midity ?ows through duct 12 into the passageways in chamber I3 is not disturbed. 66 and G8. The rate of movement of air upwardly The moisture which is condensed on evapora tor l6 drips from the condenser and flows from 15 through passageways 68 and 63 is such that air of the desired humidity is delivered into the air the bottom of casing 4 through a drain pipe 38. _ conditioned chamber. By changing the rate at As indicated above, evaporator 16 is held from which the air moves upwardly through passage contact with casing 4 so that there is no substan ways 65 and t3 the dehumidi?cation eifect of the tial cooling of air by contact of the air with the casing. When desired, the casing is insulated, 20 unit is changed; that is, by increasing the rate of movement of air, the dehumidifying effect upon and perforated wall I2 is made of a material the air is reduced, and by slowing down the rate which is a poor heat conductor. However, in of movement of air this effect is increased. In the present embodiment this heat transfer is not addition to this control the dehumidifying e?ect appreciable and casing 4 is made of sheet metal. is increased by'maintaining evaporator It at a In the embodiment of Figures 3, 4 and 5 the lower temperature. In this way the moisture is dehumidi?cation unit is similar to that of the condensed more readily and the low vapor-pres embodiment of Figures 1 and 2 except that the sure zone tends to draw more moisture from the cold chamber extends vertically and it has two two streams of air. Under some circumstances perforated side walls along which the air passes for dehumidification. Furthermore the system 30 it may be desirable to have no dehumidi?cation effect in which event the refrigeration system sup is arranged in such a manner that the tempera plying the refrigerant to evaporator 56 is stopped. ture and humidity are both controlled automati The air which passes from the top of passageways cally. Referring particularly to Figure 3 the 6t and 53 is directed by means (not shown) to evaporator l6, formed by a coil i1 and having a: the desired portion of the air-conditioned cham ?ns I8 thereon, is positioned in a chamber lit .~.' ber. Similarly air is directed into the top of having two perforated side walls 152 and 4d (see passageways B2 and 64 by means not shown. also Figure 5) with perforations 43 therein. In the embodiment of Figures 6 and 7 the sys~ Coil l‘! receives refrigerant at the top-through a tem is generally similar to the embodiment of pipe 22 and gas is withdrawn at the bottom through a pipe 25 by a refrigeration system of the . .. Figures 2, 3 and 5. However, the dehumidifying unit is cylindrical and includes an outer cylin type schematically shown in Figure 1 and ex drical casing 83 which encloses concentric perfo plained above. Chamber at is formed in a casing rated cylinder 95, having perforations 92 therein, having end walls 186 and 48 and side walls 59 and a concentric cylindrical baffle 94. The cold and 52. The top of chamber 49 is closed by a top wall 54 and the bottom is closed by a bottom 45 chamber is formed between casing 83 and cylinder iii and is indicated at $53. Within cold chamber wall 56. 96 is a helical coil E53 which receives liquid re Positioned intermediately between perforated frigerant at the top and from which gas re wall 42 and side wall 58 is a partition 58, and frigerant is withdrawn in the manner explained similarly, between perforated wall M and side wall 52 is a partition 68. These partitions form 50 above in connection with Figure l. The incoming air passes downwardly through the cylindrical a pair of outer passageways 62 and 64 through ba?le 95% and is delivered by a duct 589 to a unit which the unconditioned incoming air passes l5 where the ‘air is subjected to the treatment as downwardly, and a pair of passageways 66 and _ explained above in connection with Figure 4. 68 through which the outgoing air passes out , large amount of moisture, this moisture will tend to pass to the low vapor-pressure zone in chamber wardly along the perforated walls 152 and 44, re 55 The humidi?ed, clean, ?ltered air is withdrawn spectively. At their lower ends passageways t2 by centrifugal fan 81% and directed by a duct M2 and 64 are joined by a duct ‘lil (see also Figure to the annular passageway I'M between the outer ll); similarly passageways 66 and 68 receive air wall of cylindrical baflie 9d and the perforated from a common duct 12. The air from duct ‘ill cylinder 92. In passing upwardly‘ through pas passes into the spray chamber ‘M of a unit 75; 60 sageway HM the air is subject to the same treat in chamber ‘M the air is subjected to the action ment as the air received in the dehumidifying unit of a spray ‘it. The spray T6 washes the air, and of Figures 3, e, and 5. The outgoing air is treated the excess water falls to a sump at 18. If the as explained above in connection with the em air which enters the unit is exceedingly dry a large amount of water is evaporated into the 65 bodiment of Figures 3, 4, and 5. The water con densed on coil 93 is drained from the bottom of air with the result that the air is cooled. How chamber 85 through a drain pipe H36. ever, if the air is quite moist the action will be As many possible embodiments may be made mainly that of washing the air. of the mechanical features of the above invention The air passes from the right-hand side of chamber ‘M into chamber 82 through a ?lter 80 70 and as the art herein described might be varied in various parts, all without departing from the which removes the unvaporized moisture from scope of the invention, it is to be understood that the air along with particles of dirt which tend all matter hereinabove set forth, or shown in the to pass with the air. The clean, moist air is with accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as drawn from the top of chamber 82 by centrifugal fan 84 and is directed through duct 72 upwardly 75 illustrative and not in a limiting sense. 2,405,812 7 8 I claim: 1. In the art of air conditioning, cooling a body below the dew point ‘whereby vapor is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is created with the result that vapor passes from said passageway into said chamber through said one or more vapor of air with the result that the vapor therein is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is created, passing the air to be conditioned along openings due to the difference in the partial pres a path adjacent said zone, and independently sures of the vapor. washing and cleaning the air before it passes said zone. , 7. In apparatus for removing vapor from air, , the combination of, wall means forming an en 2. In apparatus of the character described for closure having a pair of air inlet openings and a removing vapor from air, the combination of, a 10 pair of air outlet openings and a pair of passage substantially rectangular casing, duct means ways connecting said openings, said wall means forming a substantially thin passageway for the also de?ning a cold chamber which is positioned air through said casing from one side thereof to between said passageways and is connected to said the other, said duct means having as one wall a passageways through a plurality of vapor open perforated sheet, a cold chamber Within said 15 ings, and means within said chamber to cool the casing and separated from said passageway by air therein below the dew point whereby vapor is said perforated sheet, and means to cool the air condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is in said chamber whereby a low vapor-pressure created with the result that vapor passes from area is created within said cold chamber with the said passageways into said chamber through said result that vapor passes from the air in said pas 20 vapor openings due to the di?erence in the par sageway into said cold chamber where it is con tial pressures of the vapor. ' densed. 3. In apparatus of the character described for removing vapor from air, the combination of, means forming a casing which is substantially 8. In apparatus for removing vapor from air, thegcombination of, wall means forming a cylin drical enclosure having an air inlet opening and an air outlet opening and a passageway connect_ closed but which has an air inlet and an air out ingvsaid openings, said wall means also defining let connected by' an air passageway whereby air a cylindrical cold chamber which encloses said passes into said casing through said air inlet and passageway and is connected to said passageway is discharged from said casing through said air through one or more vapor openings, and means outlet, said casing having a cold chamber which 30 withinsaid cold chamber to cool the air therein is separated from said passageway by wall means below the dew point whereby vapor is condensed which is provided with an opening through which and a low vapor-pressure zone is created with the gases may pass freely, and means to cool the air result that vapor passes from said passageway in said cold chamber to a temperature suiliciently into said chamber through said one or more open low to condense moisture thereby to create a low ings due to the difference in the partial pressures vapor-pressure area within said eold chamber with the result that vapor passes from the air in of the vapor. '9. In apparatus of the character described for removing vapor from air, the combination of, wall said passageway into said cold chamber by the difference in the vapor partial pressures. 4. In apparatus for removing vapor from air, the combination of, means forming a casing hav ing an inlet opening and an outlet opening, wall means within said casing forming a chamber and a passageway connecting said air inlet opening to said outlet opening, said chamber being connected . _ to said passageway through one or more openings, and means within said chamber to condense vapor thereby to create a low vapor-pressure zone with in said chamber whereby vapor passes from said passageway to said chamber by the di?erence in the partial pressures of the vapor. 5. In apparatus of the character described for removing vapor from air, the combination of, wall means forming a casing having a passageway therethrough which connects an air inlet opening and an air outlet opening whereby air may be directed in a stream along said passageway, said wall means also forming Within said casing a cold chamber having an opening at one side to said passageway with the opening being in a plane parallel to the normal flow of air along said pas sageway whereby the air flowing along said pas sageway passes into contact with the air in said chamber without passing through said chamber, and refrigerating means to cool the air in said cold chamber below the dew point whereby vapor is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is created within the cold chamber with the result that when relatively warm air having vapor there having an air inlet opening and an air outlet _ in flows along said passageway the vapor tends to opening, partition means forming within said cas ?ow from the stream of air into said cold cham ing an air passageway from said air inlet opening ber where it is condensed. to said air outlet opening and also forming a cold 10. Apparatus as described in claim 9 which chamber which is open to said passageway at a includes air-washing means, air-?lter means, wall plurality of openings spaced along said passage means forming a heat-exchange passageway posi way, refrigerating means to cool the air in said 60 tioned in heat-exchange relationship with the cold chamber whereby the vapor is condensed ?rst-named passageway, and means to pass the means forming a substantially rectangular casing and a low vapor-pressure zone is created within said cold chamber with the result that vapor passes from the air in said passageway into said cold chamber where it is condensed, and means to direct a stream of air through said passageway. 6. In apparatus for removing vapor from air, the combination of, wall means forming an en closure having an air inlet opening and an air outlet opening and a passageway connecting said air-successively through said heat-exchange pas sageway and said air-washing means and thence through said air-?lter means to said air inlet opening. . 11. Apparatus as described in claim 9 which includes means forming a heat-exchange pas sageway through which the air ?ows to said air , inlet opening in counter-current heat-exchange relationship with respect to the air passing through the ?rst-named passageway. 12. In the art of air conditioning, the steps of, cooling a body of air to a temperature below within said cold chamber to cool the air therein 75 its dew point with the result that vapor therein openings, said wall means also de?ning a cold chamber which is connected to said passageway through one or more vapor openings, and means 2,405,812 is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is created within which zone the air is relatively cold and relatively strati?ed, and passing a stream of relatively warm air having vapor therein along a path in contact with said body of air at one side of ~ said zone with the air in the stream being open to the body of air for the free ?ow of vapor from the stream of air to the body of air and with the - air in the stream ?owing parallel to said side of the zone whereby the Strati?ed condition of the air is not disturbed materially. 13. In the art of air conditioning, the steps of, cooling a body of air to a temperature below its dew point with the result that vapor therein is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is created within which zone the air is relatively cold and relatively strati?ed, and passing two streams of relatively warm air having vapor there in along paths in contact with the opposite sides of said body of air at the sides of said Zone with the air in the streams being open to the body of air for the free flow of vapor from the streams of air to the body of air and with the air in the streams flowing parallel to said sides of the zone whereby the stratified condition of the air is not disturbed materially. 14. In the art of controlling the humidity of air, the steps of, cooling a body of air to a predeter mined temperature below its dew point with the result that water vapor therein is condensed and 10 with said body of air at one side of said zone, the path being open to the zone for the free ?ow of Water vapor from the stream of air to the body of air and the air in the stream ?owing parallel to said side of the zone, whereby the Strati?ed condition of the air is not disturbed materially and whereby the temperature of the air in said stream is maintained substantially above said predetermined temperature. 15. In apparatus ‘for removing water vapor from air thereby to control the relative humidity of the air in a room or the like without an accom panying material change in the temperature of said air, the combination of, wall means forming an enclosure having an air inlet opening and an air outlet opening and forming a pair of parallel spaced passageways connecting said openings, said wall means also de?ning a cold chamber which is positioned between said passageways and is con nected to each of said passageways through one or more openings with said passageways being relatively thin transversely of the direction of flow of the air whereby all of the air in said passage ways flows relatively close to said openings, heat~ - exchange means within said cold chamber to cool the air therein below the dew point whereby water vapor is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone temperature and is relatively stratified, and pass ing a stream of relatively humid air the tempera is created within said cold chamber with the re sult that water vapor passes from said passage ways into said cold chamber through said vapor openings due to the partial pressures of the water vapor, and an electric fan to direct air from said inlet opening and along said passageways and thence through said outlet opening and to said ture of which is substantially above said prede room or the like. a low vapor-pressure zone is created within which zone the air is maintained at said predetermined termined temperature along a path in contact THOMAS W. BINDER.