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Aug. I3, I%%
2,495,832
T. w. BINDER
AIR CONDITIONING
Filed May 30, 1944
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INVENTOR
Thomas "(Binder
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Aug. 13, 1946.
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Filed May 30, 1944
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Aug. 13, 1946.
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T. W. BINDER
AIR CONDITIONING
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Filed May 30, 1944 .
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INVENTOR
Thomas W?indei"
2,405,812
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,812
AIR CONDITIONING
Thomas W. Binder, Maplewood, N. J.
Application May 30, 1944, Serial No. 538,042
15 Claims. (01. 62-129)
1
This invention relates to air conditioning, and,
more particularly, to controlling humidity by
causing excess moisture to pass from the air into
a low pressure zone where the moisture is con
densed; thus the air is brought to the proper
humidity without excessive cooling of the air.
An object of this invention is to provide for
continuously controlling the humidity of air with
out necessarily changing the temperature of the
air. A further object is to provide a method and
apparatus for removing moisture from the air
with a minimum of expense and in a manner
which is suitable for use under varying conditions
met with in this art. A further object is to pro
vide for the removal of latent heat from air with
out necessarily removing sensible heat. A fur
ther object is to provide apparatus of the above
character which is practical and sturdy in con
struction and which is inexpensive to manufac
2
tion will be discussed. The term “air condition
ing” has been loosely applied to many methods
of treating air but it is more commonly applied
to applications where air is cooled and its humid- '
ity is regulated. Even though it is recognized
that humidity is a very important factor in ob
taining comfort, far too little emphasis has been
given to humidity control. In practice it is
known that the average person is comfortable
even though the temperature and humidity vary
over a rather wide range.
However, the humidity
and temperature should be considered together
in order to stay within the “comfort zone”; that
is, a rather high temperature will appear com
fortable to the average person if the humidity
is low, whereas a much lower temperature will
appear uncomfortable at high humidity.
As the temperature rises in a room where there
are people, the evaporation of perspiration and
ture and operate. A still further object is to pro 20 the expelled vapor causes a rise in humidity, and
in order to maintain a condition of comfort the
vide for condensing moisture from air by caus
moisture should be removed from the air; it is
ing the moisture to pass to a condensing zone
true that cooling alone will give some temporary
without passing the air through the zone. These
relief but the moisture must be removed if con
and other objects will be in part obvious and in
tinued comfort is desired. In the past, tempera
part pointed out below.
ture and humidity have been considered together
The invention accordingly consists in the fea
and it has been conventional with some systems
tures of construction, combinations of elements,
arrangements of parts and in the several steps
and relation and order to each of the same to
one or more of the others, all as will be illustra
to simultaneously cool air and dehumidify it by
passing it into direct contact with cold surfaces
or liquids.
30
The heat removed in treating air in this man
tively described herein, and the scope of the ap
ner is the latent heat of condensation of the
plication of which will be indicated in the fol
moisture and the sensible heat. In the past it
lowing claims.
has been considered necessary to remove the
In the drawings in which are shown three of
sensible heat in order to remove the latent heat;
the several embodiments of the invention:
this is on the basis that the latent heat is removed
Figure 1 is a perspective View of one embodi
only by bringing the temperature of the air down
ment of the invention with parts broken away
below the dew point. In the average installa
and with certain of the apparatus represented
tion the‘ removal of the sensible heat constitutes
schematically ;
Figure 2 is a vertical section of the dehumidify 40 approximately 75% of the refrigeration load and
the removal of latent heat constitutes the other
ing unit of Figure 1;
25% of the load. Thus, when no air cooling effect
Figure 3 is a perspective view of the dehumidi
is desired and moisture removal is the entire
fying unit of another embodiment of the inven
problem, the unit is really only 25% efficient be
tion;
,
Figure 4. is a side elevation, partially schematic, 45 cause 75% of the cooling effect is for the purpose
of removing sensible heat and steps must be taken
showing one manner of using the unit of Figure 3;
to reheat the air up to the desired temperature.
Figure 5 is a sectional view on the line 5-5
Furthermore, these systems are not flexible in
of Figure 4;
.
their use because each unit must be engineered,
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 4 but show
constructed and operated to solve the particular
ing another embodiment of the invention; and
50
problem at hand. This has been a serious handi
Figure '7 is a plan View of the dehumidifying
cap in the ?eld of air conditioning because it
vunit of Figure 6.
interferes with the mass production of air condi
As conducive to a clearer understanding of the
tioning units. In addition to this, the many vary
invention, the problems involved in connection
with the illustrative embodiments of the inven 55 ing conditions of operation cause many air con-,
3
2,405,812
ditioning systems to be unsatisfactory for a large
part of the time.
In actual practice, the main emphasis in air
conditioning has been placed upon the cooling of
4
the problem of dehumidifying the air. It is an
object of the present invention to provide a solu
tion to the above problems with a simple system
wherein the temperature and humidity of the air
the air and the problem of obtaining proper
are controlled independently. By doing this
humidity has been considered secondary or even
primary consideration may be given to the con
ignored completely. For example, with some sys
trol of the humidity so that moisture can be re
tems air is passed into direct contact with cool
moved from the air without any substantial cool
ing coils with the result that the air is cooled to a
ing of the air. Furthermore, with the illustra
very low temperature and moisture is‘ condensed 10 tive systems the air may be dehumidi?ed and
onto the coils. With some of these systems a
cooled with the same apparatus that is used for
relatively small stream of air is cooled to a tem
dehumidifying the air and yet complicated con
perature far below that which is acceptable for
‘trols are unnecessary.
use and this small stream of air is either blown
In the illustrative embodiments of the inven
directly into the air conditioned space or it is 15 tion the moisture is removed from the air by
mixed with a stream of warm, humid air. With
creating a low vapor-pressure zone to which the
this type of system the air may be maintained at '
moisture passes and in which it is condensed.
a desired temperature, but there is no real con- .
This low vapor-pressure zone is produced in a
trol on the humidity; the only way to really re
refrigerated cold chamber where the air is more
duce the humidity is to cool more air or to reduce 20 or less strati?ed, and the moisture enters this
the temperature of the stream of air being cooled.
Strati?ed air due to the low vapor-pressure con
Thus, when there is an excessive humidity load
dition. The cold chamber has an opening or a
the temperature may be within an acceptable
number of openings through which the moisture
range but the humidity may be too high, or the
passes from the high-humidity, warm air to the
humidity may be reduced to a satisfactory, level 25 low vapor-pressure stratified air in the cold
only by reducing the temperature below that de
chamber but the air which is being dehumidi?ecl
sired.
'
does not pass through the cold chamber. The
Air conditioning systems are ‘in use wherein the
cold chamber may be positioned within the air
air is cooled, washed and reheated with the re
conditioned chamber, or it may be positioned out
sult that air of a desired temperature and some
side the air conditioned chamber and connected
30
what near an acceptable humidity is delivered.
thereto by air ducts through which air is directed
However, these systems are complicated and in
by a suitable fan. The air is passed in a stream
volve the use of large and expensive equipment
along the side of the cold chamber and the mois
and air ducts. Furthermore, these systems op
ture leaves the warm air and passes into the cold
erate upon the principle referred to above of ex
chamber. In the accompanying drawings, the
pending approximately 75% of the cooling effect
cold chambers and the air ducts associated there
in cooling the air and the other 25% in dehumidi
with are shown broken away and the remaining
fying the air. This ratio between the two eifects
structure is represented schematically on a re
is satisfactory for some loads, particularly where
duced scale.
the load does not vary, but in most installations 40
In the embodiment of Figures 1 and 2 the only
this ratio between the loads is unsatisfactory and
substantial effect which is desired is the de
the load varies over av wide range. The variations
humidifying of the air and this effect is obtained
in the load may take the form of a rapid rise or
by passing the air through a dehumidifying unit.
fall in the relative humidity or temperature, or
Referring to Figure 1, this dehumidifying unit is
both.
represented at 2 and includes a horizontally dis
Another factor which is important in consider
posed casing 4. Casing 4 (see also Figure 2) has
ing the ?eld of air conditioning is the variation
atop wall 6 and a bottom wall 8 and end walls
in the efficiency of the refrigeration unit itself.
l0. A perforated wall l2 having perforations ll
When air is used for cooling the condenser of the
therein is positioned between walls 6 and B and
refrigeration system the minimum cooling eifect F parallel thereto, and along the sides of the casing
on the condenser is apt to occur at the time of the
are two side walls [4 (Figure 1) extending be
maximum refrigeration load so that the e?ioiency
tween wall 8 and wall l2. Thus, a cold chamber
of the refrigeration system fails when the load
i3 is formed beneath the perforated‘ wall 12,
rises. Water is used for condenser cooling, but
which is closed except for the perforations II in
in some cities the public water system has been
wall l2, and a flat horizontal air passageway l 5 is
so overloaded by such use that steps have been
formed above this perforated wall. Within cold
taken to curtail this use of the water. In all
chamber I3 is a ?nned evaporator l6 formed by a
cases Where refrigeration systems are used in con
coil ll having ?ns I 8 thereon.
nection with air conditioning the condenser cool
Evaporator I6 is supported adjacent the ends
ing problem is a serious one, and it is aggravated (it) of the casing by ?anged plates 20 on coil I‘! which
by the extra load of removing all of the sensible
are vertically disposed between walls 8 and I2.
heat when it is desirable to remove only latent
Evaporator I6 is held out of contact with the
heat and perhaps part of the sensible heat. That
casing walls with the result that there is very
is, the inef?cient air conditioning apparatus
little heat transfer through the walls to the evap
places an excessive load upon the cooling system
orator. Liquid refrigerant is supplied to evap
for the condenser so that the system is'apt to be
orator l6 through a pipe 22 and the gas refrig
ineffective under maximum load conditions, and
erant is withdrawn through a pipe 24 by a com
the refrigerating system might even break down
pressor, represented schematically 'at 26 ‘and
completely.
'
driven by a motor 28. The compressed refrig
Attempts have been made to meet this problem 70 erant is‘ passed to a condenser 30 where it is con
by providing more careful control upon the ap
densed and flows to a receiver 32.
I
paratus and by providing larger and more com
Air is directed through the horizontal passage
plicated air duct systems. Howeven'even with
way [5 by a fan 34 driven by a motor 36. This
these complicated systems the problem of remove
air moves along the passageway past the perfora
ing heat from the air has not been divorced from 75 tions 1 I in wall l2 in a thin sheet. Within cham
2,405,812
5
ber 13 evaporator 16 cools the vapor and causes
it to condense so that a low vapor-pressure zone
is created within the chamber. However, there
is no substantial circulation of air and the air
tends to become strati?ed. Assuming that the
air ?owing through passageway I5 contains a
6
through passageways 66 and 68 (Figure 5); In
moving upwardly the air is subjected to the same
action as that to which the air is subjected in
the embodiment of Figures 1 and 2 in passing
through passageway 15. Accordingly, moisture
from the air passes through the perforations E3
'
in walls 42 and 4d and is condensed on evaporator
[6 in cold chamber 40. The condensed moisture
flows from chamber d0 through a drain pipev 86
l3 and perforations H are of su?icient size and
number to permit this movement of the vapor. 10 shown best in Figure 4.
With this embodiment, substantially saturated
However, wall 12 con?nes the flow of air to the
air or at least air of a predetermined relative hu
passageway so that the strati?cation of the air
midity ?ows through duct 12 into the passageways
in chamber I3 is not disturbed.
66 and G8. The rate of movement of air upwardly
The moisture which is condensed on evapora
tor l6 drips from the condenser and flows from 15 through passageways 68 and 63 is such that air
of the desired humidity is delivered into the air
the bottom of casing 4 through a drain pipe 38.
_ conditioned chamber. By changing the rate at
As indicated above, evaporator 16 is held from
which the air moves upwardly through passage
contact with casing 4 so that there is no substan
ways 65 and t3 the dehumidi?cation eifect of the
tial cooling of air by contact of the air with the
casing. When desired, the casing is insulated, 20 unit is changed; that is, by increasing the rate of
movement of air, the dehumidifying effect upon
and perforated wall I2 is made of a material
the air is reduced, and by slowing down the rate
which is a poor heat conductor. However, in
of movement of air this effect is increased. In
the present embodiment this heat transfer is not
addition to this control the dehumidifying e?ect
appreciable and casing 4 is made of sheet metal.
is increased by'maintaining evaporator It at a
In the embodiment of Figures 3, 4 and 5 the
lower temperature. In this way the moisture is
dehumidi?cation unit is similar to that of the
condensed more readily and the low vapor-pres
embodiment of Figures 1 and 2 except that the
sure zone tends to draw more moisture from the
cold chamber extends vertically and it has two
two streams of air. Under some circumstances
perforated side walls along which the air passes
for dehumidification. Furthermore the system 30 it may be desirable to have no dehumidi?cation
effect in which event the refrigeration system sup
is arranged in such a manner that the tempera
plying the refrigerant to evaporator 56 is stopped.
ture and humidity are both controlled automati
The air which passes from the top of passageways
cally. Referring particularly to Figure 3 the
6t and 53 is directed by means (not shown) to
evaporator l6, formed by a coil i1 and having
a: the desired portion of the air-conditioned cham
?ns I8 thereon, is positioned in a chamber lit .~.'
ber. Similarly air is directed into the top of
having two perforated side walls 152 and 4d (see
passageways B2 and 64 by means not shown.
also Figure 5) with perforations 43 therein.
In the embodiment of Figures 6 and 7 the sys~
Coil l‘! receives refrigerant at the top-through a
tem is generally similar to the embodiment of
pipe 22 and gas is withdrawn at the bottom
through a pipe 25 by a refrigeration system of the . .. Figures 2, 3 and 5. However, the dehumidifying
unit is cylindrical and includes an outer cylin
type schematically shown in Figure 1 and ex
drical casing 83 which encloses concentric perfo
plained above. Chamber at is formed in a casing
rated cylinder 95, having perforations 92 therein,
having end walls 186 and 48 and side walls 59
and a concentric cylindrical baffle 94. The cold
and 52. The top of chamber 49 is closed by a
top wall 54 and the bottom is closed by a bottom 45 chamber is formed between casing 83 and cylinder
iii and is indicated at $53. Within cold chamber
wall 56.
96 is a helical coil E53 which receives liquid re
Positioned intermediately between perforated
frigerant at the top and from which gas re
wall 42 and side wall 58 is a partition 58, and
frigerant is withdrawn in the manner explained
similarly, between perforated wall M and side
wall 52 is a partition 68. These partitions form 50 above in connection with Figure l. The incoming
air passes downwardly through the cylindrical
a pair of outer passageways 62 and 64 through
ba?le 95% and is delivered by a duct 589 to a unit
which the unconditioned incoming air passes
l5 where the ‘air is subjected to the treatment as
downwardly, and a pair of passageways 66 and _
explained above in connection with Figure 4.
68 through which the outgoing air passes out
, large amount of moisture, this moisture will tend
to pass to the low vapor-pressure zone in chamber
wardly along the perforated walls 152 and 44, re 55
The humidi?ed, clean, ?ltered air is withdrawn
spectively. At their lower ends passageways t2
by centrifugal fan 81% and directed by a duct M2
and 64 are joined by a duct ‘lil (see also Figure
to the annular passageway I'M between the outer
ll); similarly passageways 66 and 68 receive air
wall of cylindrical baflie 9d and the perforated
from a common duct 12. The air from duct ‘ill
cylinder 92. In passing upwardly‘ through pas
passes into the spray chamber ‘M of a unit 75; 60 sageway HM the air is subject to the same treat
in chamber ‘M the air is subjected to the action
ment as the air received in the dehumidifying unit
of a spray ‘it. The spray T6 washes the air, and
of Figures 3, e, and 5. The outgoing air is treated
the excess water falls to a sump at 18.
If the
as explained above in connection with the em
air which enters the unit is exceedingly dry a
large amount of water is evaporated into the 65 bodiment of Figures 3, 4, and 5. The water con
densed on coil 93 is drained from the bottom of
air with the result that the air is cooled. How
chamber 85 through a drain pipe H36.
ever, if the air is quite moist the action will be
As many possible embodiments may be made
mainly that of washing the air.
of the mechanical features of the above invention
The air passes from the right-hand side of
chamber ‘M into chamber 82 through a ?lter 80 70 and as the art herein described might be varied
in various parts, all without departing from the
which removes the unvaporized moisture from
scope of the invention, it is to be understood that
the air along with particles of dirt which tend
all matter hereinabove set forth, or shown in the
to pass with the air. The clean, moist air is with
accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as
drawn from the top of chamber 82 by centrifugal
fan 84 and is directed through duct 72 upwardly 75 illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
2,405,812
7
8
I claim:
1. In the art of air conditioning, cooling a body
below the dew point ‘whereby vapor is condensed
and a low vapor-pressure zone is created with the
result that vapor passes from said passageway
into said chamber through said one or more vapor
of air with the result that the vapor therein is
condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is
created, passing the air to be conditioned along
openings due to the difference in the partial pres
a path adjacent said zone, and independently
sures of the vapor.
washing and cleaning the air before it passes said
zone.
,
7. In apparatus for removing vapor from air,
,
the combination of, wall means forming an en
2. In apparatus of the character described for
closure having a pair of air inlet openings and a
removing vapor from air, the combination of, a 10 pair of air outlet openings and a pair of passage
substantially rectangular casing, duct means
ways connecting said openings, said wall means
forming a substantially thin passageway for the
also de?ning a cold chamber which is positioned
air through said casing from one side thereof to
between said passageways and is connected to said
the other, said duct means having as one wall a
passageways through a plurality of vapor open
perforated sheet, a cold chamber Within said 15 ings, and means within said chamber to cool the
casing and separated from said passageway by
air therein below the dew point whereby vapor is
said perforated sheet, and means to cool the air
condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is
in said chamber whereby a low vapor-pressure
created with the result that vapor passes from
area is created within said cold chamber with the
said passageways into said chamber through said
result that vapor passes from the air in said pas 20 vapor openings due to the di?erence in the par
sageway into said cold chamber where it is con
tial pressures of the vapor.
'
densed.
3. In apparatus of the character described for
removing vapor from air, the combination of,
means forming a casing which is substantially
8. In apparatus for removing vapor from air,
thegcombination of, wall means forming a cylin
drical enclosure having an air inlet opening and
an air outlet opening and a passageway connect_
closed but which has an air inlet and an air out
ingvsaid openings, said wall means also defining
let connected by' an air passageway whereby air
a cylindrical cold chamber which encloses said
passes into said casing through said air inlet and
passageway and is connected to said passageway
is discharged from said casing through said air
through one or more vapor openings, and means
outlet, said casing having a cold chamber which 30 withinsaid cold chamber to cool the air therein
is separated from said passageway by wall means
below the dew point whereby vapor is condensed
which is provided with an opening through which
and a low vapor-pressure zone is created with the
gases may pass freely, and means to cool the air
result that vapor passes from said passageway
in said cold chamber to a temperature suiliciently
into said chamber through said one or more open
low to condense moisture thereby to create a low
ings due to the difference in the partial pressures
vapor-pressure area within said eold chamber
with the result that vapor passes from the air in
of the vapor.
'9. In apparatus of the character described for
removing vapor from air, the combination of, wall
said passageway into said cold chamber by the
difference in the vapor partial pressures.
4. In apparatus for removing vapor from air,
the combination of, means forming a casing hav
ing an inlet opening and an outlet opening, wall
means within said casing forming a chamber and
a passageway connecting said air inlet opening to
said outlet opening, said chamber being connected . _
to said passageway through one or more openings,
and means within said chamber to condense vapor
thereby to create a low vapor-pressure zone with
in said chamber whereby vapor passes from said
passageway to said chamber by the di?erence in
the partial pressures of the vapor.
5. In apparatus of the character described for
removing vapor from air, the combination of, wall
means forming a casing having a passageway
therethrough which connects an air inlet opening
and an air outlet opening whereby air may be
directed in a stream along said passageway, said
wall means also forming Within said casing a cold
chamber having an opening at one side to said
passageway with the opening being in a plane
parallel to the normal flow of air along said pas
sageway whereby the air flowing along said pas
sageway passes into contact with the air in said
chamber without passing through said chamber,
and refrigerating means to cool the air in said cold
chamber below the dew point whereby vapor is
condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is
created within the cold chamber with the result
that when relatively warm air having vapor there
having an air inlet opening and an air outlet _ in flows along said passageway the vapor tends to
opening, partition means forming within said cas
?ow from the stream of air into said cold cham
ing an air passageway from said air inlet opening
ber where it is condensed.
to said air outlet opening and also forming a cold
10. Apparatus as described in claim 9 which
chamber which is open to said passageway at a
includes air-washing means, air-?lter means, wall
plurality of openings spaced along said passage
means forming a heat-exchange passageway posi
way, refrigerating means to cool the air in said 60 tioned in heat-exchange relationship with the
cold chamber whereby the vapor is condensed
?rst-named passageway, and means to pass the
means forming a substantially rectangular casing
and a low vapor-pressure zone is created within
said cold chamber with the result that vapor
passes from the air in said passageway into said
cold chamber where it is condensed, and means
to direct a stream of air through said passageway.
6. In apparatus for removing vapor from air,
the combination of, wall means forming an en
closure having an air inlet opening and an air
outlet opening and a passageway connecting said
air-successively through said heat-exchange pas
sageway and said air-washing means and thence
through said air-?lter means to said air inlet
opening.
.
11. Apparatus as described in claim 9 which
includes means forming a heat-exchange pas
sageway through which the air ?ows to said air
, inlet opening in counter-current heat-exchange
relationship with respect to the air passing
through the ?rst-named passageway.
12. In the art of air conditioning, the steps
of, cooling a body of air to a temperature below
within said cold chamber to cool the air therein 75 its dew point with the result that vapor therein
openings, said wall means also de?ning a cold
chamber which is connected to said passageway
through one or more vapor openings, and means
2,405,812
is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is
created within which zone the air is relatively cold
and relatively strati?ed, and passing a stream of
relatively warm air having vapor therein along a
path in contact with said body of air at one side of ~
said zone with the air in the stream being open
to the body of air for the free ?ow of vapor from
the stream of air to the body of air and with the -
air in the stream ?owing parallel to said side of
the zone whereby the Strati?ed condition of the
air is not disturbed materially.
13. In the art of air conditioning, the steps of,
cooling a body of air to a temperature below its
dew point with the result that vapor therein is
condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone is
created within which zone the air is relatively
cold and relatively strati?ed, and passing two
streams of relatively warm air having vapor there
in along paths in contact with the opposite sides
of said body of air at the sides of said Zone with
the air in the streams being open to the body of
air for the free flow of vapor from the streams of
air to the body of air and with the air in the
streams flowing parallel to said sides of the zone
whereby the stratified condition of the air is not
disturbed materially.
14. In the art of controlling the humidity of air,
the steps of, cooling a body of air to a predeter
mined temperature below its dew point with the
result that water vapor therein is condensed and
10
with said body of air at one side of said zone, the
path being open to the zone for the free ?ow of
Water vapor from the stream of air to the body
of air and the air in the stream ?owing parallel
to said side of the zone, whereby the Strati?ed
condition of the air is not disturbed materially
and whereby the temperature of the air in said
stream is maintained substantially above said
predetermined temperature.
15. In apparatus ‘for removing water vapor
from air thereby to control the relative humidity
of the air in a room or the like without an accom
panying material change in the temperature of
said air, the combination of, wall means forming
an enclosure having an air inlet opening and an
air outlet opening and forming a pair of parallel
spaced passageways connecting said openings, said
wall means also de?ning a cold chamber which is
positioned between said passageways and is con
nected to each of said passageways through one
or more openings with said passageways being
relatively thin transversely of the direction of flow
of the air whereby all of the air in said passage
ways flows relatively close to said openings, heat~ -
exchange means within said cold chamber to cool
the air therein below the dew point whereby water
vapor is condensed and a low vapor-pressure zone
temperature and is relatively stratified, and pass
ing a stream of relatively humid air the tempera
is created within said cold chamber with the re
sult that water vapor passes from said passage
ways into said cold chamber through said vapor
openings due to the partial pressures of the water
vapor, and an electric fan to direct air from said
inlet opening and along said passageways and
thence through said outlet opening and to said
ture of which is substantially above said prede
room or the like.
a low vapor-pressure zone is created within which
zone the air is maintained at said predetermined
termined temperature along a path in contact
THOMAS W. BINDER.
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