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Патент USA US2405840

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mg. 13, 14.
A. Y. LEECH, JR, ETAL
2,405,840
FUSE
Filed Sept. 1 ,' v1942
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2,405,840
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,840
FUSE
Abner Y. Leech, Jr., and Henry H. Mohaupt,
Washington, D. C., assignors to Societe Ano
nyme de Gestion et D’exploitation dc Brevets,
Switzerland
Application September 1, 1942, Serial No. 456,919
8 Claims. (01. 1024-78)
1
This invention relates to impact fuses espe
cially suitable for use in bombs dropped from
planes against submarines but is applicable to
2
impact with a second surface, that is a submerged
solid object irrespective of the depth of submer
gence.
-
A further object is to provide a fuse having
relatively few parts which may be inexpensively
manufactured and assembled.
ciate the present invention, it may be explained
A further object is to provide a fuse which will
that bombs carried by aeroplanes must be abso
be safe to handle either directly or indirectly at
lutely safe at all times until actually dropped and
all times.
should remain so to prevent explosion even should
A further object is to provide a fuse which will
the plane be forced down at sea. The bombs must 10
be certain in its operation only under circum
be able to withstand very severe dropping and
use in projectiles for certain purposes.
In order more fully to understand and appre
bumping tests without premature detonation.
This is especially true for bombs used by carrier
stances as above set forth.
Other objects will be in part obvious from the
annexed drawing and in part hereinafter indi
based aeroplanes which may land on deck under
15 cated in connection therewith by the following
adverse conditions and with great shock.
analysis of the invention.
A bomb exploding a short distance from a sub
This invention accordingly consists in the fea
merged submarine may do little more than shake
tures of construction, combination of parts and
in the unique relation of the members and in
combatting modern submarines which submerge 20 the relative proportioning and disposition there
of, all as more completely outlined herein.
before the actual moment of attack and may be
To enable others skilled in the art fully to
far below the surface. Due to the perfecting of
comprehend the underlying features of this in
aeroplane listening devices carried by submarines,
vention, that they may embody the same by the
it is rarely that a submarine is actually attacked
numerous
modi?cations in structure and relation
by aeroplane while on the surface. On ?rst sign
contemplated by the invention, a drawing depict
of an attacking plane, the submarine makes a
ing several forms of the invention has been an
crash dive and is under water by the time the
nexed as part of this disclosure, and in such
aeroplane actually reaches the scene of attack,
drawing like characters of reference denote cor
but often is not out of sight from the aeroplane
responding parts throughout all of the views, in
overhead.
which
The present invention deals with an impact
Figs. 1 and 2 are longitudinal elevational views
fuse ideally suited for just such conditions and
of one form of fuse showing the parts in normal
work; namely, drop bombs which are adapted to
safe position and armed position, respectively;
be salvoed over the submerged submarine and
up the crew. Consequently, hydrostatic pressure
or time-actuated fuses are of little use in actually
Fig. 3 is a similar view showing a modi?ed
form of fuse in safe position; and
Fig. 4 is a similar view showing a further modi
?ed form of fuse in safe position.
Referring now to the drawing in detail, and
especially suited for this specialized use because
of the safety feature which permits detonation ‘5 more particularly to Fig. 1, 10 indicates the body
member of the fuse which is of general cylindri
only when the target is hit regardless of the depth
cal shape adapted to be screwed into the base of
the submarine may be submerged. It will not eX
the drop bomb in the usual well known manner.
plode on a crash of the carrying plane, at sea,
The body member has a depending tube I l and is
land, or on deck.
It is accordingly one of the main objects of the ‘l vi provided with a through bore l2 adapted to be
closed by a screw plug [3 at the upper part and a
invention to provide a reliable and e?icient fuse
detonator carrying plug M at the lower part.
of the above character which will be absolutely
Within this closed tubular bore H is positioned
safe at all times prior to actual impact with water
the ?ring mechanism for the detonator.
after the bomb is launched or dropped.
Referring ?rst to the detonator carrying plug
A further object is to provide a fuse of the
Hi,
there is provided an open chamber for re
above character which will be instantly condi
ceiving a booster l5 and a passage [6 at the upper
tioned only on impact with a first surface such
end is sealed by a transversely movable safety
as water as distinguished from arming by pull
block ll carrying a detonator l8 which is nor
wires. spinners, hydrostatic pressure or time ele
ments, and which will explode the charge only on 55 mally out of line with the ?ring pin 20 and the
which will automatically arm only on striking the
surface of the water and explode only on striking
a second surface or a solid object beneath the
water. It is obvious that such a construction is
2,405,840
3
booster I5.
This detonator safety block H is
4
held in its normal position against lateral move
locking plate 35, the stem 3| and plunger 28,
thereby instantly releasing the balls 21 from their
ment by means of a locking device 2| held in its
raised position, as shown, by any suitable means
engagement with the groove in the interior wall
such as a small shear pin 22.
On the moment
of impact, however, with the surface water, the
pin 22 is sheared and the mass 2| moves down
wardly to carry a detent 23 out of a recess 24 in
the detonator carrying member H. The instant
the impact or inertia member 2| moves down
wardly, then a small coiled spring 25 which is
under compression, instantly forces the detonator
carrying member I‘! towards the ‘left, thereby
bringing the detonator l8 into line with the ?ring
pin 26 so that when the ?ring pin is subsequently
released on contact with a second surface or tar
get impact, the train of explosives |8—|5 is ig
nited to the usual bursting charge of conventional
type carried by the bomb, but not herein shown.
of the tubular portion II of the fuse body, but
the cup 23 and plunger 28 remain locked together.
Thereupon the spring 33 being under high com
pression, as shown in Fig. 2, is free to force the
cup member 25 carrying the ?ring pin 23 down
wardly to engage the detonator l8 and ?re chain
of explosives to the main charge.
The operation of this device is substantially as
follows: Assuming the parts to be in safe, un
armed position, as shown in Fig. 1, the bomb is
launched or dropped and on the instant of impact
with water the various movable parts instantly
and simultaneously function to arm the bomb,
that is, the member 2| moves downwardly to re
lease the detonator carrying member H which is
instantly forced towards the left by the com
Immediately above the detonating mechanism 20 pressed spring 25 thereby bringing the detonator
is positioned a cup-like cylindrical part 23 carry-'
l8 in line with the booster l5. Simultaneously
ing the ?ring pin 20, and this is locked in posi
the inertia member 32 moves downwardly to com
tion by means of balls ‘21 engaging recesses in the
cup 26 and an annular groove in the tubular por
press the spiral spring 33 and becomes locked by
means of the latch 34 in the position shown in
tion II of the fuse body. These balls 21 are held 25 Fig. 2. Also simultaneously with the movement
in looking position by means of a plunger 28
of these parts the inertia member 33 is forced
normally held in the ‘position shown in Fig. 1 by
downwardly against the action of spring 12-4 but
means of a coiled spring 30. The plunger mem
this movement still holds the locking ball 39 in
ber is provided with an upwardly extending stem ‘
engagement with the recess in the member 36'
3| upon which is mounted a momentum member
whereby movement of the firing pin release mech
32 which is free to slide downwardly 0n the stem
anism is prevented. However, immediately after
against the action of spring 33 on the instant of
the instant of water impact, the inertia member
water impact, thereby to assume the position
38 is forced upwardly to the position shown in
shown in Fig. 2‘ and hold the spring 33 in com
Fig. 2, allowing the locking ball 39 to roll down
pressed condition as shown.
'
the inclined wall of the recess in part Ill into the
This member 32 which may also be termed an
position shown in Fig. 2 whereupon the hammer
abutment member, is locked in its lower position
member 46 is free to move on the instant of tar
shown in Fig. 2 by any suitable means such, for
get impact, that is, the deck of the submarine
example, as a spring catch 34 housed in a suitable
which may be any distance beneath the surface
opening or recess 35 in the side of the tubular
of the water. When the target is contacted, the
portion ll of the fuse body.
entire movement of the bomb is arrested and the
The plunger 28, however, and the coacting ?r
hammer member 43 immediately moves down
ing pin 20 are still retained locked in the position
wardly by reason of its momentum, thereby car
shown in Fig. 1 by means of a ball locking device
rying the part 36 and the stem 3| to instantly
33 engaging a recessed or grooved member 36 4: release the locking balls 2'! from their coactive
permanently secured to the top of the stem 3|.
engagement with the wall of the fuse body and
the compressed spring 33 functions to forcibly
The ball 39, as herein shown, is partially in a
recess 3‘! in the fuse body and partially in the
drive the ?ring pin 23 into engagement with the
recess of the member 36 and is locked in position
detonator and explode the bomb.
by means of a momentum actuating part 33
The mechanism shown in Fig. 3 is very similar
housed in a separate air cushion bore 45 at one
to that above described, that is, the lower part
side of the fuse body ID.
of thev fuse body 50 is closed by a detonator car
If desired, a small shear pin 4|, or the like,
rying plug exactly the same as shown in Fig. l
may be employed to prevent any longitudinal
and it is unnecessary to describe that part again.
movement of this part 38 up to the moment of
Likewise the means for holding the cup 5| is the
water impact.
It will be noted, however, that
this member 38 has a downwardly extending por
tion 42 free to move in a recess 43 in the lower
part of the fuse body l5 and against the action
of a partially compressed coil spring 44. The
upper end of this bore 40 is closed by a screw plug
45 for the purpose of protecting the movable
parts.
'
.
By reference to Fig. 2 it will be seen that on
the moment of impact with the water, the part
38 moves ?rst downwardly against the action of
spring M and continues to hold the ball 3!} in its
same, except that instead of having the firing
pin integrally formed with the cup, a separate
?ring pin 52 is mounted upon the lower end of
the lock release member 53 and at the lower end
of stem 54 upon which a similar inertia member
55 is free to slide. Between the cup 5| and in
ertia member 55 is positioned a coiled spring 56
which is compressed on the downward movement
of the inertia member 55 on the ?rst impact and
locking position, but as soon as the effect of the
this member is locked in its lower position with
the spring compressed by a similar detent 51.
The upper end of the stem 54,-however, carries
various locking and safety devices, all of which
?rst impact is over, then the part 38 is forced
constitute the hammer member which functions
upwardly by the spring 134 allowing the ball 39 70 on target impact to drive the ?ring pin 52 forc
to roll out of engagement with the groove in the
ibly into engagement with the detonator I3. This
member 35 and into the position shown in Fig. 2.
hammer member comprises a general cylindrical
Thereafter, on target impact, a hammer member
block 58 provided with two vertically disposed
156 is free to slide downwardly by reason of it's
arrested momentum and carry with it the recessed,
bores 60 and 6| and a single transverse bore 62
each of which is provided with a slidable mem
2,405,840
5
her, 63, 64 and 65 respectively. Considering ?rst
the bore 60 and inertia member 63, the latter is
provided with a shear pin 66 or the like for hold
ing the same in normal position.
However, on
the moment of water impact the shear pin 66 is
broken and the inertia member 63 moves rela
tively downwardly to bring the groove 61 oppo
site a locking ball 68 into the ?xed partition wall
10. Until this happens, however, the inertia
This plunger or member 8| has positioned be
tween the shoulder on the hammer 88 and a
shoulder 84 a compressed spring 85. The look
ing pin 83 has a shoulder engaging the recess 86
and is held in this position by means of a water
actuated cup 81' or spinner, if desired. The cup
is shown with the outwardly flaring skirt portion
which is adapted to be engaged by the water as
it hits the surface, thereby to raise the stem 83
and release its lower engagement with the bore
member 64 is positively held against movement,
82. A packing ring 88 prevents leakage of water
but by the time that the e?ect of water impact
after ‘the bomb is submerged, for obviously if the
is over, the ball 68 is moved downwardly towards
bomb should sink a hundred feet or more before
the right into the groove 51 allowing the second
it hits its target or second surface of impact the
movable member 64 to move upwardly under the
water
pressure might permit a certain amount of
15
action of the compressed spring 1|. This move
water to pass into the fuse detonator. To fur
ment, of course, carries the stem 12 upwardly,
ther guard against this contingency the stem 83
thereby relieving the laterally movable member
is tapered as at 90 to coact with a similarly
65 which is instantly forced relatively towards
tapered watertight surface in nut 9| screwed
the left by spring ‘I3, carrying with it the ex
into the top of the fuse plug.
treme right hand end ‘I4 ?tting within a suitable
At one side of the stem 83 is an inertia member
recess in the side wall of the body member 58,
thus completely releasing the hammer member
whereby it is free to move downwardly on target
impact to drive the ?ring pin into engagement
with the detonator.
The three movements of the parts 63, 54 and
65 occur almost instantaneously, yet there is a
su?icient delay due to air cushion in bore 6| to
prevent any movement of the hammer member
58 on water impact yet will permit the bomb to
obtain normal sinking speed which kills inertia
and then allows the hammer to move on target
92 normally mounted in an almost airtight cup
and held in raised position by means of spring
94. On the moment of first impact, this inertia
member 82 moves‘downwardly into a cavity 95
at one side of the member 8|, thus preventing
any movement of the member 8| until after the
effect of inertia on the part 92 has been elimi
nated. Immediately thereafter, however, the
member 92 moves slowly back to the position
shown because of the air cushion, whereupon
the member 8| can move towards the left, pulling
the bolt 85 out of the recess in the fuse body,
impact immediately thereafter.
The point of the ?ring pin 52 is normally
screened from the detonator by being locked in
the position shown by the device above described.
thereby permitting the hammer an to move
downwardly at the moment of second impact.
The cup 5| is held in position by balls 13 seated
partly in recesses in the fuse body 58 and partly
in openings in the cup 5| and are held by the
described in connection with Fig. 3, except that
part '53.
On impact with the second surface
the hammer moves downwardly by its inertia and
weight to lower the parts 53, thus allowing the
balls 13 to move out from the recesses in the
fuse body, whereupon the balls jam below the
top surface of part 53 and the tops of the recesses
in cup 5| and lock these parts together, where
upon the spring 55 under compression expands
to drive the cup and pin and these with the ham
mer cause the desired detonation.
The operation of this mechanism is broadly '
almost identical to the operation of the modi?
cation shown in Fig. 1 and it is unnecessary to
further comment on the same. It must be noted,
however, that the parts 5| and 53 are locked
together on target impact and the spring 55
augments the action of inertia.
In Fig. 4 a further modi?cation is shown, it
being understood that the lower part of this fuse
may be either of the type shown in Figs. 1 and
2 or in Fig. 3. In this view the fuse casing 50
is the same as previously described, together with
the ?ring pin stem 54 and inertia member 55 and
spring 56. The safety device, however, is some
what different. Here a cylindrical hammer 88
with self-contained safety devices is adapted to
slide in the fuse body 50 and is normallylocked
in the position shown by means of a laterally
movable member 8| having a vertical bore 82 in
line with a locking pin 83. This member 8| has
positioned between the shoulder on the hammer
80 and a shoulder 84 a normally compressed
spring 85. The locking pin 83 has a shoulder
engaging the recess 86 and is held in this posi
tion by means of a laterally movable pin 8|
having a bore 82 in line with a locking stem 83.
The complete operation of this entire mecha
nism is substantially the same as that above
in this case a safety pin or other locking device
96 is preferably supplied to‘ prevent accidental
movement of the cup 81, thus insuring against
accidental arming during handling and loading
of the bomb. This pin is of course released when
or before the bomb is dropped.
It will also be noted that the lower part 91 of
the cup 81 should always be tight against the
top of the fuse body for, if it is not, then the
lower end of the stem 83 may have been with
drawn from the bore 82 and the safety device
eliminated, which of course would cause the bomb
to explode on contact with the ?rst surface.
All of these devices, it will be seen, are partic
ularly suitable for accomplishing the objects and
results set forth in the opening paragraphs in a
reliable and effective manner. The fuses are, as
above explained, particularly suitable for com
batting submarines in accordance with the new
technique necessitated by present war conditions.
It frequently happens that a submarine on the
surface is cited by an aeroplane almost simul
taneously with the discovery of the aeroplane
by observers on the submarine and if a crash
dive is ordered, it can rarely be consummated
before the aeroplane has arrived in the vicinity
of the submarine and in a position to attack by
launching the bombs. If the submarine is only
a few feet below the surface, the bombs will func
tion by becoming armed on water impact and
detonated on target impact and should the sub
marine still be on the surface, the weight of the
bomb will be sufficient to penetrate the deck and
to this extent arm the bomb shown in Fig. 3,
which is analogous to the water impact feature
above described; and when the bomb is ?nally
arrested by a lower deck or surface in the interior
7
2,405,840
of ‘the submarine, then the effect is the same ‘as
target impact and the bomb will explode. The
fuse shown in Fig. 3 is especially applicable to
either bombs or projectiles and would be very
effective whereit is desired to arm the fuse on
impact with armor and explode on hitting any
second surface thereafter.
It is thus seen that the present invention pro
onthe upper end of said stem, locking means co
acting with the recess and fuse body, and a
spring-conditioned member free to move the ?r
ing pin on target impact.
4’. A base fuse for drop bombs of the character
described comprising, in combination, a fuse body
adapted to be secured in the base of a bomb and
vides a fuse ideally designed for accomplishing
the particular objects and advantages herein set 10 having a main through bore, closure plugs at
each end of said bore, a detonator in one of said
plugs, safety means in said plug normally hold
As; many changes could, be made in carrying
ing the detonator in safe condition, a cup-like
out the above constructions without departing
member having a ?ring pin normally spacedfrom
from the scope of the invention, it is intended
said detonator, means for locking the ?ring pin
that all matter contained in the above descrip
against movement until target impact, a movable
tion or shown in the accompanying drawing shall
abutment member adapted to move forward on
be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limit
water impact, a spring adapted to be'compressed
ing sense.
thereby on water impact, a locking means for
We claim:
'
holding the abutment member in its forward
1. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de
moved position with the spring in compressed
scribed comprising, in combination, a fuse body
condition,
a hammer free to move only on target
having a main through bore, closure means at
impact, a locking means for said hammer, and
each end of said bore, a detonator in one of said
a spring controlled member for releasing the
closure means, safety means normally holding
hammer upon target impact.
‘
the detonator in safe position, ,a member having
5.
A
base
fuse
for
drop
bombs
of
the
character
a ?ring pin normally spaced from said detonator,
described comprising, in combination, a fuse body
means for locking the ?ring pin against move
adapted to be secured in the base of a bomb of
ment until target impact, a movable abutment
general cylindrical shape and having a main
member, a spring between said two last members
through bore, closure plugs at each end of said
adapted to be compressed on water impact, a
bore, a detonator in one of said plugs, safety
locking means for holding the abutment member
means normally holding the detonator in safe
in its moved position with the spring in com
position including a water impact actuated device
pressed condition, a hammer in said bore and
and spring means for moving said detonator to
free to move only on target impact, a locking
armed position at the moment of water impact, a
means for said hammer, and means holding the
cup-like member, a ?ring pin associated there
hammer in looking position until after water
with normally spaced from said detonator, means
impact whereupon the hammer member is free
for locking the ?ring pin against movement until
forth.
'
8
hammer including a recessed member ‘mounted
.
-
to move the ?ring pin on target impact.
.
2. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de
scribed comprising, in combination, a fuse body
having a main through bore, closure means at
each end of said bore‘, a detonator in safe out
of-line position, a member having a ?ring pin
normally spaced from said detonator and in line
therewith only when said detonator is in armed
position, means for locking the ?ring pin against
movement until target impact, a movable abut
ment member, a spring between said two last
members adapted to be compressed on water
impact, a locking means for holding the abut
ment member in its moved position with the
spring in compressed condition, a hammer in
said bore and free to move only on target impact,
target impact including locking balls coacting
with the fuse body and cup and a movable mem
her having a stem actuated on target impact to
release the locking balls, an abutment member
slidable on said stem, a spring between said last
member and cup adapted to be compressed on
water impact, a locking means for holding the
spring in compressed condition, a hammer free
to move only on target impact, a locking means
for said hammer including a member mounted on
the upper end of said stem, locking means coact
ing with the fuse body, and a releasable spring
conditioned member holding the hammer mem
ber free to move the ?ring pin on target impact.
6. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de
scribed comprising, in combination, a fuse body
a locking means for said hammer, and means
having a main through bore, closure means at
holding the hammer in locking position until 65
each end of said bore, a detonator in one of said
after water impact whereupon the hammer mem
means, a safety device in one of said means nor
her is free to move the ?ring pin on target impact.
mally holding the detonator in safe position in
3. A base fuse for drop bombs of the char
cluding a water impact actuated device and
acter described comprising, in combination, a
means for arming said detonator at the moment
fuse body having a main through bore, closure 60 of
water impact, a member having a ?ring pin
plugs at‘ each end of said bore, a detonator in one
positioned to engage with said detonator only in
of said plugs, safety means in said plug normally
armed position, means normally locking the ?ring
holding the detonator in safe position, means to
pin against movement until target impact and
arm the fuse at the moment of water impact, a
?ring pin for the detonator operative only when
the detonator is in armed position, means for
locking the ?ring pin against movement until
target impact including a movable member hav
then to release the locking means, a slidable in
ertia member, a spring adapted to be compressed
on water impact, a locking means for holding the
inertia member in its moved position, a hammer
in the upper part of the bore and free to move
only on target impact, a locking means for said
hammer holding the same until water impact
whereby the hammer member is free to move the
ing a stem actuated on target impact to release
the locking means, an abutment member slidable
on said stem, a spring adapted to be compressed
on water impact, a locking means for holding the
?ring pin on target impact.
abutment member in its moved position with the
7. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de
‘spring in compressed condition, a hammer in the
comprising, in combination, a fuse body
upper part of the bore, a locking means for said 75 scribed
of general cylindrical shape and having a main
2,405,840
through bore, closure plugs for said bore, a deto
nator in one of said plugs, safety means normally
holding the detonator in safe position including
10
means in said plug normally holding the deto
nator in safe position including a water impact
actuated device and spring means for moving
said detonator to armed position at the moment
a water impact actuated device‘ for relatively
moving said detonator at the moment of water
impact, a ?ring pin normally spaced ‘from said
detonator and in line therewith only when said
detonate-r is in armed position, means for locking
the ?ringr pin until target impact including lock
ing pin normally spaced from said detonator and
in line therewith only when said detonator is in
actuated on target impact to release the locking
balls, an abutment member slidable on said stem,
a spring between said last member and cup
ated on target impact to release the locking balls,
of water impact, a cup-like member having a ?r
armed position, means for locking the ?ring pin
against movement until target impact including
ing balls and a movable member having a stem 10 locking balls coacting with the fuse body and
adapted to be compressed on water impact, a
cup and a movable member having a stem actu
an abutment member slidable on said stem, a
spring between said last member and cup adapted
locking means for holding the spring in com 15 to be compressed on water impact, a locking de
pressed condition, a hammer free to move only
tent for holding the abutment member in its
on target impact, a locking means for said ham
moved position with the spring in compressed
mer, and a spring-conditioned member holding
condition, a hammer in the upper part of the
the locking means in position until water impact
bore and free to move only on target impact, a
whereby the hammer member is then free to re 20 locking means for said hammer including a re
lease the trigger moving the ?ring pin on target
impact.
8. A base fuse for drop bombs of the character
described comprising, in combination, a fuse body
of general cylindrical shape adapted to be secured
in the base of a bomb and having a main through
bore, closure plugs at each end of said bore, a
detonator and primer in one of said plugs, safety
cessed member mounted on the upper end of said
stem, locking balls coacting with the recess and
fuse body, and a spring-conditioned member
holding the balls in looking position until water
impact whereby the hammer member is free to
move the ?ring pin on target impact.
ABNER Y. LEECH, JR.
HENRY H. MOHAUPT.
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