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mg. 13, 14. A. Y. LEECH, JR, ETAL 2,405,840 FUSE Filed Sept. 1 ,' v1942 2% 2,] wu We, w \NM) 3% $22209. Jk 2,405,840 Patented Aug. 13, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,840 FUSE Abner Y. Leech, Jr., and Henry H. Mohaupt, Washington, D. C., assignors to Societe Ano nyme de Gestion et D’exploitation dc Brevets, Switzerland Application September 1, 1942, Serial No. 456,919 8 Claims. (01. 1024-78) 1 This invention relates to impact fuses espe cially suitable for use in bombs dropped from planes against submarines but is applicable to 2 impact with a second surface, that is a submerged solid object irrespective of the depth of submer gence. - A further object is to provide a fuse having relatively few parts which may be inexpensively manufactured and assembled. ciate the present invention, it may be explained A further object is to provide a fuse which will that bombs carried by aeroplanes must be abso be safe to handle either directly or indirectly at lutely safe at all times until actually dropped and all times. should remain so to prevent explosion even should A further object is to provide a fuse which will the plane be forced down at sea. The bombs must 10 be certain in its operation only under circum be able to withstand very severe dropping and use in projectiles for certain purposes. In order more fully to understand and appre bumping tests without premature detonation. This is especially true for bombs used by carrier stances as above set forth. Other objects will be in part obvious from the annexed drawing and in part hereinafter indi based aeroplanes which may land on deck under 15 cated in connection therewith by the following adverse conditions and with great shock. analysis of the invention. A bomb exploding a short distance from a sub This invention accordingly consists in the fea merged submarine may do little more than shake tures of construction, combination of parts and in the unique relation of the members and in combatting modern submarines which submerge 20 the relative proportioning and disposition there of, all as more completely outlined herein. before the actual moment of attack and may be To enable others skilled in the art fully to far below the surface. Due to the perfecting of comprehend the underlying features of this in aeroplane listening devices carried by submarines, vention, that they may embody the same by the it is rarely that a submarine is actually attacked numerous modi?cations in structure and relation by aeroplane while on the surface. On ?rst sign contemplated by the invention, a drawing depict of an attacking plane, the submarine makes a ing several forms of the invention has been an crash dive and is under water by the time the nexed as part of this disclosure, and in such aeroplane actually reaches the scene of attack, drawing like characters of reference denote cor but often is not out of sight from the aeroplane responding parts throughout all of the views, in overhead. which The present invention deals with an impact Figs. 1 and 2 are longitudinal elevational views fuse ideally suited for just such conditions and of one form of fuse showing the parts in normal work; namely, drop bombs which are adapted to safe position and armed position, respectively; be salvoed over the submerged submarine and up the crew. Consequently, hydrostatic pressure or time-actuated fuses are of little use in actually Fig. 3 is a similar view showing a modi?ed form of fuse in safe position; and Fig. 4 is a similar view showing a further modi ?ed form of fuse in safe position. Referring now to the drawing in detail, and especially suited for this specialized use because of the safety feature which permits detonation ‘5 more particularly to Fig. 1, 10 indicates the body member of the fuse which is of general cylindri only when the target is hit regardless of the depth cal shape adapted to be screwed into the base of the submarine may be submerged. It will not eX the drop bomb in the usual well known manner. plode on a crash of the carrying plane, at sea, The body member has a depending tube I l and is land, or on deck. It is accordingly one of the main objects of the ‘l vi provided with a through bore l2 adapted to be closed by a screw plug [3 at the upper part and a invention to provide a reliable and e?icient fuse detonator carrying plug M at the lower part. of the above character which will be absolutely Within this closed tubular bore H is positioned safe at all times prior to actual impact with water the ?ring mechanism for the detonator. after the bomb is launched or dropped. Referring ?rst to the detonator carrying plug A further object is to provide a fuse of the Hi, there is provided an open chamber for re above character which will be instantly condi ceiving a booster l5 and a passage [6 at the upper tioned only on impact with a first surface such end is sealed by a transversely movable safety as water as distinguished from arming by pull block ll carrying a detonator l8 which is nor wires. spinners, hydrostatic pressure or time ele ments, and which will explode the charge only on 55 mally out of line with the ?ring pin 20 and the which will automatically arm only on striking the surface of the water and explode only on striking a second surface or a solid object beneath the water. It is obvious that such a construction is 2,405,840 3 booster I5. This detonator safety block H is 4 held in its normal position against lateral move locking plate 35, the stem 3| and plunger 28, thereby instantly releasing the balls 21 from their ment by means of a locking device 2| held in its raised position, as shown, by any suitable means engagement with the groove in the interior wall such as a small shear pin 22. On the moment of impact, however, with the surface water, the pin 22 is sheared and the mass 2| moves down wardly to carry a detent 23 out of a recess 24 in the detonator carrying member H. The instant the impact or inertia member 2| moves down wardly, then a small coiled spring 25 which is under compression, instantly forces the detonator carrying member I‘! towards the ‘left, thereby bringing the detonator l8 into line with the ?ring pin 26 so that when the ?ring pin is subsequently released on contact with a second surface or tar get impact, the train of explosives |8—|5 is ig nited to the usual bursting charge of conventional type carried by the bomb, but not herein shown. of the tubular portion II of the fuse body, but the cup 23 and plunger 28 remain locked together. Thereupon the spring 33 being under high com pression, as shown in Fig. 2, is free to force the cup member 25 carrying the ?ring pin 23 down wardly to engage the detonator l8 and ?re chain of explosives to the main charge. The operation of this device is substantially as follows: Assuming the parts to be in safe, un armed position, as shown in Fig. 1, the bomb is launched or dropped and on the instant of impact with water the various movable parts instantly and simultaneously function to arm the bomb, that is, the member 2| moves downwardly to re lease the detonator carrying member H which is instantly forced towards the left by the com Immediately above the detonating mechanism 20 pressed spring 25 thereby bringing the detonator is positioned a cup-like cylindrical part 23 carry-' l8 in line with the booster l5. Simultaneously ing the ?ring pin 20, and this is locked in posi the inertia member 32 moves downwardly to com tion by means of balls ‘21 engaging recesses in the cup 26 and an annular groove in the tubular por press the spiral spring 33 and becomes locked by means of the latch 34 in the position shown in tion II of the fuse body. These balls 21 are held 25 Fig. 2. Also simultaneously with the movement in looking position by means of a plunger 28 of these parts the inertia member 33 is forced normally held in the ‘position shown in Fig. 1 by downwardly against the action of spring 12-4 but means of a coiled spring 30. The plunger mem this movement still holds the locking ball 39 in ber is provided with an upwardly extending stem ‘ engagement with the recess in the member 36' 3| upon which is mounted a momentum member whereby movement of the firing pin release mech 32 which is free to slide downwardly 0n the stem anism is prevented. However, immediately after against the action of spring 33 on the instant of the instant of water impact, the inertia member water impact, thereby to assume the position 38 is forced upwardly to the position shown in shown in Fig. 2‘ and hold the spring 33 in com Fig. 2, allowing the locking ball 39 to roll down pressed condition as shown. ' the inclined wall of the recess in part Ill into the This member 32 which may also be termed an position shown in Fig. 2 whereupon the hammer abutment member, is locked in its lower position member 46 is free to move on the instant of tar shown in Fig. 2 by any suitable means such, for get impact, that is, the deck of the submarine example, as a spring catch 34 housed in a suitable which may be any distance beneath the surface opening or recess 35 in the side of the tubular of the water. When the target is contacted, the portion ll of the fuse body. entire movement of the bomb is arrested and the The plunger 28, however, and the coacting ?r hammer member 43 immediately moves down ing pin 20 are still retained locked in the position wardly by reason of its momentum, thereby car shown in Fig. 1 by means of a ball locking device rying the part 36 and the stem 3| to instantly 33 engaging a recessed or grooved member 36 4: release the locking balls 2'! from their coactive permanently secured to the top of the stem 3|. engagement with the wall of the fuse body and the compressed spring 33 functions to forcibly The ball 39, as herein shown, is partially in a recess 3‘! in the fuse body and partially in the drive the ?ring pin 23 into engagement with the recess of the member 36 and is locked in position detonator and explode the bomb. by means of a momentum actuating part 33 The mechanism shown in Fig. 3 is very similar housed in a separate air cushion bore 45 at one to that above described, that is, the lower part side of the fuse body ID. of thev fuse body 50 is closed by a detonator car If desired, a small shear pin 4|, or the like, rying plug exactly the same as shown in Fig. l may be employed to prevent any longitudinal and it is unnecessary to describe that part again. movement of this part 38 up to the moment of Likewise the means for holding the cup 5| is the water impact. It will be noted, however, that this member 38 has a downwardly extending por tion 42 free to move in a recess 43 in the lower part of the fuse body l5 and against the action of a partially compressed coil spring 44. The upper end of this bore 40 is closed by a screw plug 45 for the purpose of protecting the movable parts. ' . By reference to Fig. 2 it will be seen that on the moment of impact with the water, the part 38 moves ?rst downwardly against the action of spring M and continues to hold the ball 3!} in its same, except that instead of having the firing pin integrally formed with the cup, a separate ?ring pin 52 is mounted upon the lower end of the lock release member 53 and at the lower end of stem 54 upon which a similar inertia member 55 is free to slide. Between the cup 5| and in ertia member 55 is positioned a coiled spring 56 which is compressed on the downward movement of the inertia member 55 on the ?rst impact and locking position, but as soon as the effect of the this member is locked in its lower position with the spring compressed by a similar detent 51. The upper end of the stem 54,-however, carries various locking and safety devices, all of which ?rst impact is over, then the part 38 is forced constitute the hammer member which functions upwardly by the spring 134 allowing the ball 39 70 on target impact to drive the ?ring pin 52 forc to roll out of engagement with the groove in the ibly into engagement with the detonator I3. This member 35 and into the position shown in Fig. 2. hammer member comprises a general cylindrical Thereafter, on target impact, a hammer member block 58 provided with two vertically disposed 156 is free to slide downwardly by reason of it's arrested momentum and carry with it the recessed, bores 60 and 6| and a single transverse bore 62 each of which is provided with a slidable mem 2,405,840 5 her, 63, 64 and 65 respectively. Considering ?rst the bore 60 and inertia member 63, the latter is provided with a shear pin 66 or the like for hold ing the same in normal position. However, on the moment of water impact the shear pin 66 is broken and the inertia member 63 moves rela tively downwardly to bring the groove 61 oppo site a locking ball 68 into the ?xed partition wall 10. Until this happens, however, the inertia This plunger or member 8| has positioned be tween the shoulder on the hammer 88 and a shoulder 84 a compressed spring 85. The look ing pin 83 has a shoulder engaging the recess 86 and is held in this position by means of a water actuated cup 81' or spinner, if desired. The cup is shown with the outwardly flaring skirt portion which is adapted to be engaged by the water as it hits the surface, thereby to raise the stem 83 and release its lower engagement with the bore member 64 is positively held against movement, 82. A packing ring 88 prevents leakage of water but by the time that the e?ect of water impact after ‘the bomb is submerged, for obviously if the is over, the ball 68 is moved downwardly towards bomb should sink a hundred feet or more before the right into the groove 51 allowing the second it hits its target or second surface of impact the movable member 64 to move upwardly under the water pressure might permit a certain amount of 15 action of the compressed spring 1|. This move water to pass into the fuse detonator. To fur ment, of course, carries the stem 12 upwardly, ther guard against this contingency the stem 83 thereby relieving the laterally movable member is tapered as at 90 to coact with a similarly 65 which is instantly forced relatively towards tapered watertight surface in nut 9| screwed the left by spring ‘I3, carrying with it the ex into the top of the fuse plug. treme right hand end ‘I4 ?tting within a suitable At one side of the stem 83 is an inertia member recess in the side wall of the body member 58, thus completely releasing the hammer member whereby it is free to move downwardly on target impact to drive the ?ring pin into engagement with the detonator. The three movements of the parts 63, 54 and 65 occur almost instantaneously, yet there is a su?icient delay due to air cushion in bore 6| to prevent any movement of the hammer member 58 on water impact yet will permit the bomb to obtain normal sinking speed which kills inertia and then allows the hammer to move on target 92 normally mounted in an almost airtight cup and held in raised position by means of spring 94. On the moment of first impact, this inertia member 82 moves‘downwardly into a cavity 95 at one side of the member 8|, thus preventing any movement of the member 8| until after the effect of inertia on the part 92 has been elimi nated. Immediately thereafter, however, the member 92 moves slowly back to the position shown because of the air cushion, whereupon the member 8| can move towards the left, pulling the bolt 85 out of the recess in the fuse body, impact immediately thereafter. The point of the ?ring pin 52 is normally screened from the detonator by being locked in the position shown by the device above described. thereby permitting the hammer an to move downwardly at the moment of second impact. The cup 5| is held in position by balls 13 seated partly in recesses in the fuse body 58 and partly in openings in the cup 5| and are held by the described in connection with Fig. 3, except that part '53. On impact with the second surface the hammer moves downwardly by its inertia and weight to lower the parts 53, thus allowing the balls 13 to move out from the recesses in the fuse body, whereupon the balls jam below the top surface of part 53 and the tops of the recesses in cup 5| and lock these parts together, where upon the spring 55 under compression expands to drive the cup and pin and these with the ham mer cause the desired detonation. The operation of this mechanism is broadly ' almost identical to the operation of the modi? cation shown in Fig. 1 and it is unnecessary to further comment on the same. It must be noted, however, that the parts 5| and 53 are locked together on target impact and the spring 55 augments the action of inertia. In Fig. 4 a further modi?cation is shown, it being understood that the lower part of this fuse may be either of the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2 or in Fig. 3. In this view the fuse casing 50 is the same as previously described, together with the ?ring pin stem 54 and inertia member 55 and spring 56. The safety device, however, is some what different. Here a cylindrical hammer 88 with self-contained safety devices is adapted to slide in the fuse body 50 and is normallylocked in the position shown by means of a laterally movable member 8| having a vertical bore 82 in line with a locking pin 83. This member 8| has positioned between the shoulder on the hammer 80 and a shoulder 84 a normally compressed spring 85. The locking pin 83 has a shoulder engaging the recess 86 and is held in this posi tion by means of a laterally movable pin 8| having a bore 82 in line with a locking stem 83. The complete operation of this entire mecha nism is substantially the same as that above in this case a safety pin or other locking device 96 is preferably supplied to‘ prevent accidental movement of the cup 81, thus insuring against accidental arming during handling and loading of the bomb. This pin is of course released when or before the bomb is dropped. It will also be noted that the lower part 91 of the cup 81 should always be tight against the top of the fuse body for, if it is not, then the lower end of the stem 83 may have been with drawn from the bore 82 and the safety device eliminated, which of course would cause the bomb to explode on contact with the ?rst surface. All of these devices, it will be seen, are partic ularly suitable for accomplishing the objects and results set forth in the opening paragraphs in a reliable and effective manner. The fuses are, as above explained, particularly suitable for com batting submarines in accordance with the new technique necessitated by present war conditions. It frequently happens that a submarine on the surface is cited by an aeroplane almost simul taneously with the discovery of the aeroplane by observers on the submarine and if a crash dive is ordered, it can rarely be consummated before the aeroplane has arrived in the vicinity of the submarine and in a position to attack by launching the bombs. If the submarine is only a few feet below the surface, the bombs will func tion by becoming armed on water impact and detonated on target impact and should the sub marine still be on the surface, the weight of the bomb will be sufficient to penetrate the deck and to this extent arm the bomb shown in Fig. 3, which is analogous to the water impact feature above described; and when the bomb is ?nally arrested by a lower deck or surface in the interior 7 2,405,840 of ‘the submarine, then the effect is the same ‘as target impact and the bomb will explode. The fuse shown in Fig. 3 is especially applicable to either bombs or projectiles and would be very effective whereit is desired to arm the fuse on impact with armor and explode on hitting any second surface thereafter. It is thus seen that the present invention pro onthe upper end of said stem, locking means co acting with the recess and fuse body, and a spring-conditioned member free to move the ?r ing pin on target impact. 4’. A base fuse for drop bombs of the character described comprising, in combination, a fuse body adapted to be secured in the base of a bomb and vides a fuse ideally designed for accomplishing the particular objects and advantages herein set 10 having a main through bore, closure plugs at each end of said bore, a detonator in one of said plugs, safety means in said plug normally hold As; many changes could, be made in carrying ing the detonator in safe condition, a cup-like out the above constructions without departing member having a ?ring pin normally spacedfrom from the scope of the invention, it is intended said detonator, means for locking the ?ring pin that all matter contained in the above descrip against movement until target impact, a movable tion or shown in the accompanying drawing shall abutment member adapted to move forward on be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limit water impact, a spring adapted to be'compressed ing sense. thereby on water impact, a locking means for We claim: ' holding the abutment member in its forward 1. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de moved position with the spring in compressed scribed comprising, in combination, a fuse body condition, a hammer free to move only on target having a main through bore, closure means at impact, a locking means for said hammer, and each end of said bore, a detonator in one of said a spring controlled member for releasing the closure means, safety means normally holding hammer upon target impact. ‘ the detonator in safe position, ,a member having 5. A base fuse for drop bombs of the character a ?ring pin normally spaced from said detonator, described comprising, in combination, a fuse body means for locking the ?ring pin against move adapted to be secured in the base of a bomb of ment until target impact, a movable abutment general cylindrical shape and having a main member, a spring between said two last members through bore, closure plugs at each end of said adapted to be compressed on water impact, a bore, a detonator in one of said plugs, safety locking means for holding the abutment member means normally holding the detonator in safe in its moved position with the spring in com position including a water impact actuated device pressed condition, a hammer in said bore and and spring means for moving said detonator to free to move only on target impact, a locking armed position at the moment of water impact, a means for said hammer, and means holding the cup-like member, a ?ring pin associated there hammer in looking position until after water with normally spaced from said detonator, means impact whereupon the hammer member is free for locking the ?ring pin against movement until forth. ' 8 hammer including a recessed member ‘mounted . - to move the ?ring pin on target impact. . 2. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de scribed comprising, in combination, a fuse body having a main through bore, closure means at each end of said bore‘, a detonator in safe out of-line position, a member having a ?ring pin normally spaced from said detonator and in line therewith only when said detonator is in armed position, means for locking the ?ring pin against movement until target impact, a movable abut ment member, a spring between said two last members adapted to be compressed on water impact, a locking means for holding the abut ment member in its moved position with the spring in compressed condition, a hammer in said bore and free to move only on target impact, target impact including locking balls coacting with the fuse body and cup and a movable mem her having a stem actuated on target impact to release the locking balls, an abutment member slidable on said stem, a spring between said last member and cup adapted to be compressed on water impact, a locking means for holding the spring in compressed condition, a hammer free to move only on target impact, a locking means for said hammer including a member mounted on the upper end of said stem, locking means coact ing with the fuse body, and a releasable spring conditioned member holding the hammer mem ber free to move the ?ring pin on target impact. 6. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de scribed comprising, in combination, a fuse body a locking means for said hammer, and means having a main through bore, closure means at holding the hammer in locking position until 65 each end of said bore, a detonator in one of said after water impact whereupon the hammer mem means, a safety device in one of said means nor her is free to move the ?ring pin on target impact. mally holding the detonator in safe position in 3. A base fuse for drop bombs of the char cluding a water impact actuated device and acter described comprising, in combination, a means for arming said detonator at the moment fuse body having a main through bore, closure 60 of water impact, a member having a ?ring pin plugs at‘ each end of said bore, a detonator in one positioned to engage with said detonator only in of said plugs, safety means in said plug normally armed position, means normally locking the ?ring holding the detonator in safe position, means to pin against movement until target impact and arm the fuse at the moment of water impact, a ?ring pin for the detonator operative only when the detonator is in armed position, means for locking the ?ring pin against movement until target impact including a movable member hav then to release the locking means, a slidable in ertia member, a spring adapted to be compressed on water impact, a locking means for holding the inertia member in its moved position, a hammer in the upper part of the bore and free to move only on target impact, a locking means for said hammer holding the same until water impact whereby the hammer member is free to move the ing a stem actuated on target impact to release the locking means, an abutment member slidable on said stem, a spring adapted to be compressed on water impact, a locking means for holding the ?ring pin on target impact. abutment member in its moved position with the 7. A fuse for drop bombs of the character de ‘spring in compressed condition, a hammer in the comprising, in combination, a fuse body upper part of the bore, a locking means for said 75 scribed of general cylindrical shape and having a main 2,405,840 through bore, closure plugs for said bore, a deto nator in one of said plugs, safety means normally holding the detonator in safe position including 10 means in said plug normally holding the deto nator in safe position including a water impact actuated device and spring means for moving said detonator to armed position at the moment a water impact actuated device‘ for relatively moving said detonator at the moment of water impact, a ?ring pin normally spaced ‘from said detonator and in line therewith only when said detonate-r is in armed position, means for locking the ?ringr pin until target impact including lock ing pin normally spaced from said detonator and in line therewith only when said detonator is in actuated on target impact to release the locking balls, an abutment member slidable on said stem, a spring between said last member and cup ated on target impact to release the locking balls, of water impact, a cup-like member having a ?r armed position, means for locking the ?ring pin against movement until target impact including ing balls and a movable member having a stem 10 locking balls coacting with the fuse body and adapted to be compressed on water impact, a cup and a movable member having a stem actu an abutment member slidable on said stem, a spring between said last member and cup adapted locking means for holding the spring in com 15 to be compressed on water impact, a locking de pressed condition, a hammer free to move only tent for holding the abutment member in its on target impact, a locking means for said ham moved position with the spring in compressed mer, and a spring-conditioned member holding condition, a hammer in the upper part of the the locking means in position until water impact bore and free to move only on target impact, a whereby the hammer member is then free to re 20 locking means for said hammer including a re lease the trigger moving the ?ring pin on target impact. 8. A base fuse for drop bombs of the character described comprising, in combination, a fuse body of general cylindrical shape adapted to be secured in the base of a bomb and having a main through bore, closure plugs at each end of said bore, a detonator and primer in one of said plugs, safety cessed member mounted on the upper end of said stem, locking balls coacting with the recess and fuse body, and a spring-conditioned member holding the balls in looking position until water impact whereby the hammer member is free to move the ?ring pin on target impact. ABNER Y. LEECH, JR. HENRY H. MOHAUPT.