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Патент USA US2405881

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Aung. 13, 1946.
J. R. FREI
' 2,405,881
ELECTRICAL CONNECTING MEANS AND RADIO SHIELDI'NG MEANS THEREFÓR
Filed.> May 6, 1941
l
n
I
l
M
È
0d .' INVENTOR
ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
2,405,881
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,881
ELECTRICAL CÜNNECTING MEANS AND
RADIO SHIELDING MEANS THERE
FOR
i
Jakob R. Frei, Sidney, N. Y., assignor to Bendix
Aviation Corporation, South Bend, Ind., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application May 6, 1941, Serial No. 392,032
14 Claims.
l
(Cl. 174-35)
2
This invention relates to electrical apparatus,
and more particularly to electrical connector
ters refer to like parts throughout the several
means adapted for use in a radio shielded ignition
system of an internal combustion engine.
Fig. l is a full size side elevation, partly in sec
tion and with parts broken away, of apparatus
embodying one form of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged detail view, partly in sec
tion and with parts broken away, showing the
plug portion of the connector of the apparatus of
In
been
tems
spite
spite of the fact that radio-shielding has
considered an essential part of ignition sys
on aircraft engines for many years, and in
of the fact that the connection between the
views,
shielded high tension supply cable and the shield
Fig. 1;
ed spark plug has long been recognized as the l0
Figs. 3 and 4 are enlarged detail views, partly
weakest link in such systems, no truly satisfactory
in section and with parts broken away, illustrat
connector for this purpose has been heretofore
ing other embodiments of the insulated connector
devised, although innumerable attempts have
constituting a part of the present invention and
been made to solve this diñicult problem in a
adapted for use in the apparatus of Fig. 1; and,
practical manner.
15
Fig. 5 is a View similar to Fig. 2 of another em
It is accordingly an object of this invention to
bodiment of the plug portion of a connector.
provide a novel and practical connector of the
The embodiment of the invention shown, by
above character.
way of example, in Fig. 1 of the drawing is illus
Another object of the invention is to provide a
trated in conjunction with a shielded spark plug
novel insulating member which is associated in a
5 of the type now in almost universal use on air
novel manner with an electrical conductor and
craft engines. Said spark plug may be of any
radio-shielding means therefor.
suitable internal construction and comprises a
Still another object is to provide insulating
center electrode 6 which is insulated from the
means for an electrical conductor which is so con
outer shell or casing ‘I’ 8 which includes a shield
stl‘ucted as to _cooperate in a novel manner with a
ing barrel or socket 9 that surrounds and extends
radio-shielding conduit for said conductor and
beyond the upper end of said electrode and is
the radio-shield of a spark plug.
lined with a tube of electrical insulating material
A further object is to provide novel insulated
I0, such as sheet mica. The upper portion of
conductor means for electrically connecting a
barrel 9 is externally threaded at I I for a purpose
pair of conductors of high tension electrical n to appear hereafter.
current.
For the purpose of- conducting high tension
A still further object is to provide novel means
electrical current to electrode 6 of the spark plug
for electrically connecting a high tension insu
there is provided an insulated cable I2, the con
lated cable to the center electrode of a radio
ducting portion I3 of which is preferably consti
shielded spark plug whereby the cable insulation
tuted by several strands of stainless steel or other
is protected from the deleterious effects of high
suitable conducting material. 'Ille insulation I4
temperatures, hot gases and moisture,
on said cable is preferably constituted by a mate
Another object is to provide novel plug and
rial which will resist the deleterious effects of
socket connecting means for electrically connect
high temperatures, such as an insulation having
ing high tension electrical conductors whereby 40 a base of polymerized cashew nut shell oil. Cable
good electrical contact between the conducting
I2 is encased in a metallic conduit I5 to obviate
parts is obtained and the possibility of arcing be
the radiation of electrical disturbances which in
tween the high tension conductors and the con
terfere with radio reception. Said conduit may
necting means is reduced to a minimum.
comprise a flexible portion I6, a rigid elbow I1
The above and further objects and novel fea
and a ferrule I8, said parts being secured to
tures of the invention will more fully appear from
gether by any suitable means, such as soldering
the following detailed description when the same
or brazing. In order to removably secure the
is read in connection with the accompanying
shielded conduit to spark plug barrel 9, ferrule
drawing. It is to be expressly understood, how
I8 is preferably provided with an external liange
ever, that the drawing is for the _purpose of illus 50 I9 for cooperation with an internally threaded
tration only and is not intended as a definition of
coupling nut 20 which also cooperates with
the limits of the invention, reference for this lat
threaded portion II of said barrel. The space
ter purpose being had primarily to the appended
within conduit portions I6 and I‘I, around cable
claims.
I2, is preferably filled with a suitable solid in
In the drawing, wherein like reference charac 55 sulating material 2| which serves to prevent vi
2,405,881
3
to obviate arcing therebetween must be assured.
bration of the cable relative to the conduit and to
To this end, therefore, insulating tube 22 and
prevent any accumulation of moisture in the con
ferrule I8 of conduit I5 are operatively connected
duit by condensation or otherwise. The filling
in a novel manner. Said ferrule is provided with
material also prevents any substantial axial
a small number of internal threads 30 which are
movement of cable I2 relative to the shielding
adapted tc cooperate with external threads 3I
conduit and may consist of polymerized cashew
on the upper end of molded tube 22. The inner
nut shell oil. This material may be inserted in
diameter of ferrule I8 interiorly of threads 30 is
the conduit in liquid form and permitted to set
sufñciently large to accommodate the threaded
through chemical reaction without appreciable
portion of tube 22 so that the latter may be freely
10
shrinkage.
rotated
relative to the shielding conduit when the
Novel means adapted to slidably extend into
cooperable threads are disengaged and may be
socket 9 are provided for electrically connecting
conductor l2 to center electrode or conductor E of
the spark plug, for spacing exposed portions of
moved axially relative to said conduit to insure
good electrical contact between cable I2 and
23 when the parts of the apparatus are
the high tension conductors from the grounded 15 member
assembled and to obviate placing said tube under
portions of the radio shielding parts a suñicient
a stress which might cause the same to crack.
distance to prevent flash-overs under normal opn
rThis relative axial movement may be limited to
erating conditions and for protecting that portion
the diiierence between the axial extent of threads
of cable I2 which projects from elbow I'I from
3| and the distance between threads 3d and a
the deleterious efîects of high temperatures, hot
shoulder 32 within ferrule I8. Preferably, how
gases which may leak through the spark plug in
ever, said axial movement is limited to the dii~
sulation, electrical arcing from the high tension
ference between the axial extent of threads 30
conductors to grounded portions of the shielded
and the distance between threads 3i and an anN
parts, and moisture. Said novel means in the
form shown in Figs. l and 2 comprise a cylindri 25 nular shoulder 33 which is formed integrally with
tube 22.
cal sleeve or tube 22 of insulating material, such
Although annular shoulder 33 is not absolutely
as molded ceramic, “Melmac” (a synthetic resin)
necessary,
the same is preferably provided for
or the like, which is capable of withstanding high
temperatures and rough usage and has a high re
`the purpose of ñxing tube 22 against move
sistance to carbonization under arcing conditions. 30 ment relative to barrel S and conduit I5 when
the parts are in assembled relation. Said shoul
der may be covered with a gasket 34 of copper
or other suitable material and is adapted to ex
end of insulated cable I2 which projects from
tend between the adjacent ends of said conduit
conduit I5 and the lower portion thereof may be
slightly enlarged for receiving a hollow metallic 35 and barrel. Cable I2 .preferably projects from the
shielding conduit a sufficient distance so that it
member 23, the latter being closed at its upper
engages
member 23, 24 just prior t0 the engage
end and having a pointed projection or spike 24 ,
ment of ferrule I3 and shoulder 33, 34 (Fig. 2)
adapted for abutting engagement with stranded
so that when coupling nut 25 is screwed home
conductor I3 at the end of cable I2. Cup-shaped
(Fig. l) to ñrmly clamp said shoulder between
40
member 23 is iitted into the bore of tube 22 and~
the
ends of barrel il and ferrule i8 the cable will
held therein in substantially gas-tight relation
be placed under some compression and may
with the walls of said tube by cement or other
buckle slightly, thereby insuring good electrical
suitable means. If cement is used for this pur
contact even though the cable may shrink soma
pose, the outer surface of member 23 may be pro
what under the action of the hea-t during use.
vided with shallow annular or helical grooves or 45
Securing the parts together in the above man
the like to enhance the effectiveness of the ce
ner also results in the provision of a seal at
ment as a retaining and sealing medium.
shoulder 33, 34 against the entrance of moisture
A contact pin 25, having a ball-like portion 2G
from outside the shielding means and against
at its lower end and a piston-like portion 2l at its
any leakage of hot gases from the spark plug well
50
upper end, is slidably mounted in ‘the hollow or
into the space within ferrule I8 around cable l2
recessed part of member 23 and projects from
and insulating tube 22. The seal thus provided
tube 22 for yieldable electrical contact with cen
is effected without subjecting the insulating ma
ter electrode 6. Suitable means are provided for
terial of tube 22 to any twisting moments or
limiting the outward movement of contact mem
strains which might cause breakage thereof. Vi~
ber 25 and, in the form shown, such means is
bration of the insulating tube relative to the spark
constituted by a washer 28 held in member 23 by
.plug is also avoided by clamping the tube in po
spinning the edge of the latter inwardly. In
sition.
terposed between the closed end of member 23
In order to further insure against arcing or
and contact pin 25 is a compression spring 2S
between terminal 26 and the inter
which normally holds said pin in extended posi 60 flash-overs
nally exposed metal at the upper end of barrel 9
tion (Fig. 2) and is adapted to insure goed elec
and between the end of cable l2 and metallic
trical contact between ball 25 and electrode 5
conduit I5, the annular spaces 35 and 36 between
when the plug and socket portions of the inven
tube 22 and barrel 9 and between cable I2 and
tion are assembled (Fig. l). The parts 23, 25 and
said tube, respectively, may be sub-stantially iîlled
29 thus constitute axially yieldable means for 65
with a viscous insulating material, such as “Tite
electrically connecting conductors 6 and I3, said
Seal,” which is a mixture comprising castor oil
means having abutting engagement with said
and mica powder and having the consistency of
conductors to facilitate disassembly of the parts.
grease. This material also avoids the formation
It is highly desirable that the insulating sleeve
of moisture paths along the insulating materials
70
22 be operatively secured to conduit I5 for re
which might promote flash-overs between the
moval therewith from spark plug 5 and yet be
high tension conducto-rs and the grounded metal
readily removable from said conduit for purposes
lic parts.
of inspection and replacement. At the same time
rI’he embodiment illustrated in Fig, 3 differs
a sufficiently good contact between the conduce
from that above described in that spike 24 is re
tors 6 and I3 and the connecting means therefor
The upper portion of the bore in sleeve 22 is pref
erably just large enough to slidably receive the
5
2,405,881
6
\
placed by a spirally coiled spring 31. The latter
has the largest turn thereof interposed and
clamped between member 23 and an internal
shoulder 38 in the bore of insulating tube 22.
When this embodiment is used, good electrical
contact with conductor i3 is doubly insured. In
order to prevent any possible catching between
conductor I3 and spring 3l, a tack 39 with a
smooth, enlarged head may be stuck into the end
of cable l2.
In the modiiication illustrated in Fig. 4, an
open-ended cylinder 4D is provided in lieu of
member 23 of Fig. 1. lI‘he upper end of said cyl
inder is closed by a cup-like member 4| having
an external ñange or bead 42 at the open end
thereof which is slidable in the cylinder and re
tained therein by an internal iiange 43. A co-m
.pression spring 44 is interposed between mem
ber 4l and contact plunger 25, thereby providing
out departing from the spirit and scope of the
invention as the same will now be understood by
those skilled in the art. For a deñnition of the
limits of the invention, reference is had primarily
to the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. In apparatus of the class described a me
tallic socket lined with electrical insulating ma
terial and having an electrical conductor therein,
a radio shielding conduit, means for securing
said socket and conduit together in axial align
ment with each other, a tube of electrical insu
lating material removably mounted in said con
duit and slidably extending into said socket, said
15 tube having an enlarged annular portion inter
posed between and in sealing relation with the
adjacent ends of said conduit and socket, an in
sulated electricalr conductor extending through
said conduit into said tube, means in said conduit
yielding contact means for both conductors 6 and 20 for holding said insulated conductor against sub
i3, Member 4| may, of course, be replaced by a
stantial axial movement relative thereto, a hol
plunger similar to plunger 25 or by any other
low metallic member filling a portion of the bore
suitable equivalent structure.
in said tube at the end of the latter within said
In Fig. 5 there is illustrated still another em
socket, the closed end of said member being ad
bodiment of the plug portion of the connector- in 25 jacent said insulated conductor and having abut
which an insulating spacer sleeve 22a is remov
ting electrical contact therewith, resilient means
ably mounted by means of cooperating screw
in said member, a contact plunger slidably mount
threads in a metallic ferrule [8a that is secured
ed in said member and interposed between said
to metallic shielding elbow Il to form a shield
resilient
means and the conductor in said socket,
ing conduit. The cooperating screw threads on
and cooperable screw threads on said tube and
parts |8a and 22a are coextensive and the latter
in said conduit, said threads being disengaged
is screwed home, so to speak, in the ferrule so
when the conduit and tube are assembled to
that the upper end of the insulating tube or sleeve
thereby permit limited axial movement of the
engages an internal shoulder 32a of the shielding
tube relative to the conduit.
conduit to thereby form a gas-tight seal and 35
2. In connector means for radio-shielded con
prevent the leakage of gases and moisture from
ductors of high tension electrical current, a metal
the spark plug well into the space around cable
lic conduit, an electrical insulating tube project
l‘2. When this embodiment is assembled with a
ing from one end of said conduit and removable
spark plug 5 (Fig. l), the lower face of flange
Illa is pressed into sea-ling engagement with the 40 therefrom through said end, and cooperable
means integral with said conduit and tube for
upper end of shielding barrel 8 by nut 23, thus
normally retaining the end of said tube in said
obviating any strains or stresses on insulating
conduit
while permitting rotational and limited
tube 22a. Any suitable electrical conducting
axial movements of said tube relative to the con
duit,
said rotational and axial movements being
22a, the means shown being identical with that 4.5 adapted
to take place independently of each other.
illustrated in Fig. 3.
means may be provided in the lower end of tube
There is thus provided novel means for elec
3. In connector means for radio-shielded con
ductors of high tension electrical current, a radio
shielding conduit, an insulated electrical con
ductor in said conduit, means in said conduit for
nection and the connection of the shielding means GO ñxing said conductor against substantial move
therefor may be readily and quickly effected and
ment relative thereto, a tube of insulating mate~
whereby good electrical connections are assured.
rial extending into the end of said conduit and
Novel means of the above character are also pro
surrounding a projecting portion of said conduc
vided whereby the effects of high temperatures,
tor, and means including cooperable screw threads
moisture, arcing and rough handling are eilec 65 on said tube and in said conduit for removably
tively minimized. A novelly constructed insulat
retaining an end of said tube in said conduit
ing and spacer sleeve adapted for use in connect
independently of said conductor, said screw
ing means of the above character is also com
threads being out of cooperating screw-thread en
bined in a novel manner with radio shielding
gagement when said tube and conduit are assem
means for high tension conductors whereby said 60 bled.
sleeve may be readily installed or removed for
4. In apparatus ci the class described, a pair
inspection or replacement in the field without the
‘of axially aligned radio shielding conduits, an
aid of tools of any kind. Said spacer sleeve is
electrical conductor ñxed in and insulated from
also combined in a novel manner with yieldable
each of said conduits, the end or" one of said
means for eñecting an electrical connection be
conductors projecting from one of said conduits
tween two high tension conductors, the parts
into the other of said conduits, means for secur
being so constructed and assembled that no me
ing said conduits together, a sleeve of insulating
chanical connections to the spark plug ends of
material removably mounted in said one conduit
the shielding harness cables are necessitated.
Although only a limited number of modifica
for free angular movement and limited axial
tions of the invention are illustrated and de
movement relative thereto and slidably extend
scribed, it is to be expressly understood that the
ing into said other conduit, said sleeve loosely
same is not limited thereto. The invention may
surrounding said projecting end of the conductor
be adapted to other applications, and the arrange
and said axial movement being independent of
ment and design of the parts may be varied with 75 said angular movement, and axially yieldable
trically connecting radio shielded conductors of
high tension electrical current whereby such con
2,405,881
7
means having abutting engagement with said con
ductors for electrically connecting the same.
5. A radio shielded plug and socket connector
for high tension electrical conductors comprising
a metallic socket having an insulating lining and
a conductor therein, a plug adapted to cooperate
with said socket comprising a metallic conduit
having an electrical conductor therein, said last
named conductor projecting from said conduit,
an insulating tube surrounding the projecting por
tion of said last-named conductor and having a
portion intermediate its ends disposed between
said socket and conduit, means for removably
securing said tube in said conduit for limited
gas-tight manner, and axially yieldable conduct
ing means interposed between said first-named
conducting means and said conductor.
10. In apparatus of the class described, a me
tallic socket lined with electrical insulating ma
terial and having an electrical conductor there
in, a metallic conduit, means for securing said
socket and conduit together in axial alignment
with each other, a tube of electrical insulating
material removably mounted in said conduit and
slidably extending into said socket, said tube hav
ing an enlarged annular portion interposed be
tween and in sealing relation with the adjacent
ends of said conduit and socket, an insulated
electrical conductor extending through said con
duit into said tube, a hollow metallic member iill
able means mounted in the bore of said tube in
ing a portion of the bore in said tube adjacent
abutting contact with said conductors for elec-_
the
end of the latter within said socket, the closed
trically connecting the latter, and means for se
end oi said member being adjacent said insu
curing said conduit to said socket.
lated conductor, yieldable means interposed be
6. Insulated connector means for radio shielded 20
tween said member and insulated conductor for
conductors of high tension electrical current Com
electrically connecting the same, resilient means
prising an .insulating tube having a differential
in said member, a contact plunger slidably mount
bore therein, a recessed conducting member
ed in said member and interposed between said
mounted in the larger portion of said bore in sub
resilient means and said first-named conductor,
stantially gas-tight relation with the walls there
and cooperable means on said conduit and tube
of, a spiral coil spring in the smaller portion of
for
removably retaining the end of said tube in
said bore and having a portion thereof securely
said
conduit while permitting rotary and limited
clamped between said member and an internal
axial movements or said tube relative to said
shoulder in said tube, plunger means slidable in
conduit.
the recess of said member and projecting from
l1. In apparatus of the class described, a me
axial movement relative thereto, and axially yield
one end of said tube, means for limiting the move
ment of the plunger means out of said tube, and
resilient means in said recess for yieldably re
sisting movement of said plunger means into said
tube.
7. In apparatus of the class described, a tube
of insulating material, a recessed electrically con
ducting member mounted in the bore of said tube,
tallic socket lined with electrical insulating ma
terial and having an electrical conductor there
in, a metallic conduit, means for securing said
socket and conduit to each other, a tube com
prising electrical insulating material removably
mounted in said conduit and slidably extending
yinto said socket, said tube having an enlarged
external portion interposed between and in seal
a coil spring in said bore having a portion at one
end thereof securely clamped between the closed 40 ing relation with adjacent end portions of said
end of said member and an internal shoulder in
said tube, and a spring pressed contact plunger
slidably mounted in the recess in said member.
8. In combination with a spark plug having a
center electrode and a shielding barrel surround
ing the upper end of said electrode, a metallic
radio shielding conduit, an insulating tube ex
tending from said conduit into said barrel, an
enlarged annular portion or" said tube being dis
posed between and engageable with the adjacent
ends of said conduit and barrel, screw threads
on said tube, screw threads in said conduit adapt
ed to cooperate with said ñrst-named threads
and normally disposed between the latter and said
annular portion, whereby said tube may have
limited axial movement relative to said conduit,
an insulated conductor extending from said con
duit into said tube, axially yieldable means
mounted in said tube for electrically connecting
said conductor and said electrode, and means en
conduit and socket, an insulated electrical con
ductor extending from said conduit into said tube,
an electrically conducting member filling a por
tion of the bore of said tube and being in sub
` stantially gas-tight relation with the walls there
of, separate yieldable means at opposite ends of
`said member for electrically connecting said mem
ber with said conductors, and cooperable means
`on said conduit and tube for removably retaining
the end of said tube in said conduit while per
mitting rotary and axial movements of said tube
relative to said conduit.
l2. Connector means for radio-shielded con
ductors of high tension electrical current com
prising an electrical insulating tube, a recessed
conductor member mounted in the bore of said
tube in substantially gas-tight relation with the
walls thereof, resilient means secured within said
,bore and having electrical contact with a portion
60 of said member nearest one end of said tube,
gaging said conduit and barrel for securely clamp
ing said annular portion therebetween.
plunger means slidable in the recess of said mem
conductor against substantial movement relative
thereto, a tube of insulating material extending
a metallic conduit for receiving said one end of
ber and projecting from the other end of said
tube, means for limiting the movement of the
9. In connector means for radio-shielded con
plunger means out of said member, resilient
ductors of high tension electrical current, a ra
means
in said recess for yieldably resisting move
65
dio-shielding conduit for an insulated electrical
ment of said plunger means into said member,
conductor, means in said conduit for fixing said
said tube, an insulated conductor extending from
said conduit into said tube for engagement with
into one end of said conduit and surrounding a
projecting portion or" said conductor, cooperable 70 „said first-named resilient means, and means in
‘said conduit for ñxing said conductor against
means formed integrally with said tube and con
'appreciable
longitudinal movement relative to said
duit for removably securing said tube in said con
duit independently of said conductor, electrical
conducting means sealing the bore of said tube
adjacent the outer end thereof in a substantially
i conduit.
13. In apparatus of the class described, a tube
of electrical insulating material, an electrically
2,405,881
conducting member having a recess in one end
thereof mounted in the bore of said tube in sub
stantially gas-tight relation with the Walls there
cf, yieldable means secured Within said bore and
having electrical contact with the end of said
member opposite said recess, a spring pressed
contact plunger slidably mounted in said recess
and projecting from said tube, a metallic conduit
10
lic conduit, an electrical insulating tube project
ying from one end of said conduit, cooperable
means integral with said conduit and tube for
normally retaining an end of said tube in said
`conduit While permitting rotational and limited
axial movements of said tube relative to the con
duit, said rotational and axial movements being
independent of each other, a metallic socket for
for receiving an end portion of said tube, an in
-"receiving the projecting end of said tube, the lat
sulated conductor extending from said conduit l0 ter having an enlarged annular portion thereof
into said tube for electrical contact with said
.interposed between adjacent surfaces of said con
yieldable means, and means in said conduit for
duit and socket, and means for securing said ccn
'-_fixing said conductor against appreciable move
Vduit and socket together for holding said surfaces
ment relative to the conduit.
in sealing engagement with Said enlarged por
14. In connector means for radio-shielded con
tion.
ductors of high tension electric current, a metal
JAKOB R. FREI.
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