Патент USA US2405888код для вставки
Aug- 13, 1946- 2,405,888 G. M. HOLLEY, JR FUEL CONTROL VALVE Filed Jan. 1, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 MUN WW gearyeM?ralley Cf]: INVENTOR ATTORNEY Aug. 13, 1946. 2,405,888 G. M. HOLLEY, JR FUEL CONTROL VALVE Filed} Jan. 1, 1945 ?early’eM?lleyJlt 3% v INVENTOR ATTORNEY _ - _ Aug- 13, 1946- G. M. HOLLEIY, JR 1 2,405,888 FUEL CONTROL VALVE Filed Jan. 1, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. ATTQPNE)’ Aug- 13, 1946- G. M. HOLLEY, JR 2,405,888 FUEL CONTROL VALVE Filed Jan. 1, 1945 114- ‘ J ' '77 _ 67 Q 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 11st v l" a 76 74 1/0 '76 a; c 69 F13; 5 m . 62. FUEL lNJECT/ON Rump I j 6, I 141 68015? M’?rollecykin ’ IN VENTOR. Aug- 13, 1946. a. M. HOLLEY, JR 2,405,888 ’ FUEL CONTROL VALVE Filed Jan. 1, 1945 _ ~ S‘ShQe‘tS-Sheet 5 5El0vaL/D as 0158 141952283 ‘Jr. > ‘ ATTORNEY ' Patented Aug. 13,1946 9 . I ‘ 2,405,888 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,888 . FUEL CONTROL VALVE George M. Holley, Jr., Grosse Pointe, Mich., as‘ signor to George M. Holley and Earl Holley Application January 1, 1945, Serial No. 570,942 11 Claims. (Cl. 60—41) 1 2 The object of this invention is to automati cally govern the speed of a prime mover and to vary the governed speed manually. Another object is to improve the control of the ?ow of liquid fuel to an engine. Another object is to improve the flow of liquid fuel to a burner in ment of a. needle I'I,,which is controlled by a manually-adjusted cam 30. The ?ow by the _' needle valve I1 is controlled by a valve I8 opened by a compression spring 98 and carried by a the combustion chamber of an external combus g the diaphragm I4, which communicates with the pressure at the entrance to the venturi I2 through . a passage 58. The valve I8 maintains a con tion engine of the gas-turbine type. Figure 1 shows the elements of the preferred form of my invention. _ Figure 2 shows the application of the elements diaphragm 54, the upper face of which is sub jected to the pressure on the right-hand side of stant pressure drop past the needle valve I‘! so that ?uctuation in pressure will not vary the shown in Figure 1 to a gas turbine power plant ?ow. , adapted for use in aircraft. The left-hand side of the diaphragm I6 is also Figure 3 shows diagrammatically the essen subjected to the same pressure. A restriction 2| tial elements of my invention in its simplest form. 15 admits a certain quantity of the fuel under pres Figure 4 shows an alternative construction to sure to the chamber on the right-hand side of the that shown in Figure 3. diaphragm I6, and this quantity ?ows past the Figure 5 shows an alternative construction to needle I‘I, valve I8, outlet 24 to bypass I5. Hence, that shown in Figure 3. the more the valve I1 is open, the greater the Figure 6 shows an alternative construction to 20 pressure drop at restriction 2| and the lower the that shown in Figure 3. ' , pressure on the right-hand “side of the dia phragm I6. , Figure 7 shows an alternative construction to that shown in Figure 1. ' _ The valve 20, which is a pilot valve (for the In Figures 1 and 2, fuel enters at I0 through valve I9), is connected to both diaphragms I4 an engine-driven fuel pump I I of the positive dis 25 and I6 and is therefore controlled by the-joint placement type to a venturi I2, past a balanced action of these two diaphragms and thus regu valve I3 (closed by a compresison spring 99) to lates the hydraulic pressure acting below the the pipe 52, burners I53 and to the turbine 40. valve I9 assisting the compression spring 63. .The The gears 3| drive the pump II and are valve I9 controls the ?ow back from the passage driven by the turbine 46, which drives the com 30 ‘96 through the bypass I5 to the fuel entrance pressor Br supercharger 39 through a shaft 51. III. The valve 20 controls the ?ow through the In Figure 2, air enters at 42, flows through passage 56, which communicates with the outlet the supercharger 39, past the burners I53, heat responsive element 34, through the gas turbine ' from the venturi I2 through a restriction 55. In Figures 1 and 2, a manually-operated lever 40 to the outlet 43. The drive shaft 51 is driven 35 I34 controls the lever 29, which controls the cam ' by the turbine 46 and drives the supercharger 30, which controls the needle II. The position 39 and pump gears 3I. Power is taken off shaft of the lever 34 and the valve I‘I controlled there 59 from shaft 51 through gears 60 located be by thus determines the governed speed, at which tween shafts 51 and 59. Shaft 59 usually drives speed the valves 26 and I9 are in equilibrium. a propeller. A solenoid 50 controls the valve 53, which 40 In Figure 1, a diaphragm I4 is responsive to establishes, when open, the connection from the the pressure drop in the venturi I2, to the throat cylinder 6| below the valve I9 and the fuel en of which, chamber I06 is connected by pipe I26. trance Il] through the passages 65, 24 and I5. The The quantity of fuel ?owing past the spring valve .53 is closed by a compression spring 62‘. loaded, balanced valve I 3 is reduced by the quan 45 When the valve 53 is opened by electricity flow tity which returns through a bypass 96—I 5. The ing through the electric magnet 56, pressure in flow through this bypass 96—I5 is determined by the cylinder 6| is lowered, which therefore causes the valve I9. This valve I9 is supported by a the valve I9 to descend and‘ thus causes the ?ow compression spring 63 and by the fuel pressure throughthe bypass I5 to increase. Hence, when admitted through the passage 23 connected to 50 the temperature responsive element “34 estab passage 56, restriction 55, as modi?ed by a pilot lishes the contact 35 due to high temperature, valve 20, which is controlled by the diaphragm electricity ?ows through the conductors 36 to I4 and also by another diaphragm I6 connected the solenoid 50. This solenoid 50, when ener to the diaphragm I4. The movement of the dia gized, attracts the needle valve 53, which is nor phragms I4 and I6 is determined by the move 55 mally seated by a spring 62. An engine-driven 2,405,888 . electric generator l0| is shown as the source of power. However, a, storage battery can be sub- - 4 type fuel injection pump is shown at I39 driven by a shaft I40, which is driven by the engine. stituted for this engine-driven generator. Oil under pressure to operate the servomotor is admitted through passage MI and escapes Description of Figure 3 b1 through passage I42. In Figure 3, 10 is the ?uid entrance, 1| is the Description of Figure 7 engine-driven pump, 13 is the venturi, 14 is the chamber connected to the throat of the venturi In Figure ‘I, the valve I04, controlling a re I3, 15 is a diaphragm forming one wall of the striction I28, replaces the valve 53, and the chamber 14, 15 is a chamber on the other side 01 pipe I05 replaces the pipe 55 and is connected the diaphragm 15 and is connected through a to the chamber I06 to the left of diaphragm I4. passage 11 to the entrance to the venturi 13. Pipe I01 replaces pipe 54 and is connected to the Passage 11 also communicates with the chamber chamber I08 to the right of diaphragm I4. 18 located to the right of a second diaphragm A by-pass I20-I29 is located downstream of 19. To the left of the diaphragm 18 is located valve I3 in the pipe 52. This bypass is inter the chamber 80, which is connected to the pas rupted by a valve I2I carried by a piston I22 in sage ‘I1 through restriction 8|. 82 is an ad' a cylinder I23. A_spring I24 pushes the piston justable needle controlling the ?ow from the I22 and the valve l2| to the left, in which posi chamber- 80 through a passage 83 back to the tion the bypass |20—|29 will communicate with reservoir 84, from which the pump 1| obtains its 20 the low pressure return passage IS. A passage supply of control ?uid. . The discharge from the I21 connects the left-hand end of the cylinder venturi 13 is shown ?owing back through a pipe I23 and the downstream end of venturi I2. By 85 and discharging past a spring-loaded valve 86 pass I20 communicates through a passage I54 to the reservoir 84. with the cylinder I23 to the right of the piston A rod 81 connects the two dlaphragms 15 and 25 I22, so that piston I22 is subjected to the pres ‘I9 together. A lever 88 is moved by the rod 81; sure drop at the valve I3. a link 89 is shown connected to a lever 90, which Operation controls a throttle 9|, which throttle controls the ?ow through a venturi 92, ‘into which venturi. In Figures 1 and 2, the pump II is driven by there discharges a fuel nozzle 93. Lever 91 con 30 the gas turbine 40, operated by the fuel passing trols the movement of the needle 82. When the the valve I3. Hence, if the turbine rotates at an needle 82 is closed and the engine running at its excessively high speed, the pump II will deliver minimum speed, the lever 88 is pressed against the an excessive quantity of liquid through the ven stop 94. Stop 95 limits the movement of the turi I2, which will cause a low pressure in cham throttle towards the wide-open position. 35 ber I06 to the left of the diaphragm I4, which will move the servomotor valve 20 to the left. Description of Figure 4 A low pressure in passage 23 results because the In Figure 4, the valve 82 has been located where passage 23 will then be connected to the passage the restriction 8| is located in .Figure 3, and the 24 through the valve 28 and the passage 56 is restriction 8| is located where thevalve 82 is 40 connected to the venturi I2 through restriction located in Figure 3. A restriction I03 replaces 55. The passage 24 communicates with the by the venturi 13; otherwise, the construction is the pass I5, and hence with the relatively low pres same as Figure 3, except that a thermostat III sure existing in the fuel entrance I0. operates a valve "2 to close the flow through an Hence, the valve I1 provides a manual control orifice “3 when the temperature of the thermo for the speed, except at high operating temper stat III exceeds ‘a predetermined value. A re atures. At high temperatures, the contacts 35 striction II4, between the chamber 14 and a point are closed and solenoid 50 becomes operative, so downstream of restriction I03, is required to make that the valve 53 is moved to the right and some the thermostat III effective. A hot spot H5 is of the fuel under pressure in cylinder 6| below controlled by valve I I1. This valve drives the ex the valve I9 escapes through the pipes 64-65. haust gases over the hot spot and through the The valve I 9 then tends to fall, as the spring 63 is outlet H6 when it is closed; when it is open, it not sti? enough to hold the valve up against the shuts the exhaust o‘? away from the hot spot. pressure in the outlet 98 leading from the ven Description of ‘Figure 5 turi I2. , Operation of Figure 3 In Figure 5, the valve 82 is located at the bot Assuming that the needle 82 is closed and the tom of chamber 18, and the restriction 8| is lo engine is idling, then the ?ow through the venturi cated at the top of chamber 18. Through 8|, the 13 causes a drop of pressure in the chamber 14. high pressure ?uid is admitted through the pas Pressure in the chamber 18 equals the pressure sage 11. The pipe “0 connects the chamber 80 60 in the chamber 80. Hence, the rod 81 is pushed to the low pressure return pipe 83. In Figure 5, over to the right against the stop 94, which de as in Figure 4, a restriction I03 in the main out— termines the minimum opening of the throttle let from the pump 1| replaces the venturi 13 9| of the carburetor 92-93, and thus the mini shown in Figure 3. mum operating speed of the engine. When the Description of Figure 6 In Figure 6, the valve 82 is located in the upper part of chamber 18, into which the ?uid under pressure is admitted from passage ‘I1. Pipe “0 85 needle 82 is opened, a ?ow occurs from the down stream side of the pump 1| through the passage 11, through the restriction 8|, into the chamber 80, past the needle 82, along the passage 83 and back to the reservoir 84. Pressure in the chamber 70 80 is reduced due to the pressure drop at restric tion 8|. The rod 81 thereupon moves to the left. The lever 88 moves away from the stop 94, the controls the movement. of ' a servomotor piston throttle 9| opens, the speed of the engine in I36, which engages with a rack I31, which is held creases, the speed of the pump 1| increases the connects the chamber 80 to the low pressure re turn pipe 83. The restriction 8| is located at the bottom of chamber 18. A servomotor valve I35 in engagement by spring I38. A Diesel-engine 76 ?ow through the venturi 13, and increases the 2,405,888 depression in the chamber 14 until it is equal full value. Hence, the venturi drop becomes to the depression in the chamber 80. When the more effective and the valve 20 responds to a low er revolution per minute of the displacement pump I I. Hence, the governor continues to gov ‘ system is in equilibrium, the throttle 9| no longer opens. This system therefore consists of an en . gine-driven pump, which produces a flow of gov ' em, but governs at a lower speed, erning ?uid proportional to the speed of the en gine. A venturi in the path of this ?ow creates When the cam 30 is moved so that valve I1 is opened suddenly, an increased ?ow is established a pressure difference, which acts on a diaphragm through the restriction 2|, the servomotor valve ‘I5, which moves in opposition to the diaphragm 20 suddenly moves over to the right. The fuel "IS, the pressure difference acting upon which is 10 will no longer ?ow down passage 56. Hence, the controlled by the valve 82 and represents the full pressure of the fuel pump II is transmitted simplest form of my invention. Assuming that through the passage 23 to the underside of the the throttle 9I is free from friction, a constant valve I9, which suddenly closes, causing a sud speed will be maintained at each position of the den increase in ?ow in the pipe 52 past the valve valve 82, regardless of the load on the engine 15 I3. The inertia effect of the sudden increase in until such time as the throttle 9| is Wide open. flow down the pipe 52 causes a decrease in the pressure drop past the valve I3, which gives an Operation of Figure 4 increase in the pressure transmitted through When the speed control valve 82 is opened, the pipe I20 to the right of the piston I22. This in‘ pressure in chamber 80 increases. An increase 20' crease, assisted by the compression spring I24, in pressure in chamber 80 tends to close the moves the valve I2I to the left, which permits throttle 9I just as in Figure 3, the closing of some of the fuel ?owing in the pipe 52 to escape valve 82 tends to open the throttle 9|. In Fig through the passage I20 past the valve I2I ure 4, when the valve 82 is closed, then the pres through the passage I29 to the return passage sure in chamber 80 falls to the minimum value I5. . established by the return pipe 83, and the pres What I claim is: sure in the chamber ‘I8 then opens the throttle 1. In a ?uid-operated governor for a variable 9| wide, and the drop across the obstruction I03 speed engine having a power control means com . would never be great enough to close the throt prising a source of operating ?uid for said gover ' tle, For this reason, the valve 82 is not permit 30 nor, a positive displacement pump connected ted to close completely. The thermostat I'II au thereto having a main outlet passage, means for tomatically reduces the governed speed. When driving said pump at a speed proportional to the III expands, valve H2 moves to the left, re speed of said engine, a leakage bypass leading stricting opening H3. Restricting H3 lowers the from the downstream side of said pump to the pressure in chamber ‘I4 because of the restriction source of operating ?uid, a manually variable H4. The resulting movement of the diaphragm leakage ori?ce and a ?xed ori?ce located in se 15 to the right closes the throttle. _ ries in said bypass, a ?rstchamber communicat ing with the bypass between said ori?ces, a mov Operation of Figure 5 able wall in said chamber responsive to the vari When the valve 82 closes, the pressure in 40 able pressure botween the ?xed ori?ce and the chamber ‘I8 increases and the lever 88 moves to variable ori?ce, an obstruction in said main pas the left and thus the throttle 9| opens. When sage adapted to create a pressure drop propor the valve 82 opens, the pressure in chamber ‘I8 tional to the square of the speed of the engine, a falls to the low pressure in the return pipe 83, and second and third chamber connected to said the throttle SI closes under the in?uence of the 45 main outlet passage, one chamber connected up pressure drop across the restriction I03. stream from said obstruction, the other cham Operation of Figure 6 ber connected downstream from said obstruc tion, a second movable wall common to said sec When the valve 82 opens, the pressure in cham ond and third chambers so as to be responsive ber ‘I8 increases and the valve I35 moves to the to pressure drop at said obstruction, means con 50 left to increase the governed speed. When the necting both moving walls to said power control valve 82 closes, the pressure in chamber ‘I8 falls means whereby the power is controlled manu to the pressure in the return pipe 83, and the ally by the manually variable leakage ori‘?ce and valve I35 moves to the right under the in?uence the maximum speed is limited automatically. of the pressure drop across the restriction I03. 2. A device as set forth in claim 1 in which The servomotor valve I35 is moved by the con there is a fourth chamber connected with the nection 89 and causes the piston I36 to move downstream side of said pump and located on and thus move the rack I31, which controls the the side of the ?rst diaphragm opposite to said discharge from the pump I39, which is driven at ?rst chamber. either engine speed or one-half engine speed. By controlling the amount of fuel by the rack 60 3. A device as set forth in claim 1 in which there is a fourth chamber connected with the outlet I3'I, the speed of the engine is also controlled. from the two ori?ces in series and located on the In Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6, the travel of the valve side of the ?rst diaphragm opposite to said ?rst 82 is limited so that at the critical speed, when chamber. there is danger from excessive speed, then the 4. In a ?uid-operated governor for variable drop in the venturi 13 (Figure 3) or the drop 65 speed engines having a power control means across the restriction I03 (Figures 4, 5 and ‘6) comprising a source of operating ?uid, a displace prevents excessive speeds occurring. ment pump connected thereto, means for driv Operation of Figure 7 ing said pump at a, speed proportional to the speed In Figure 7, when the solenoid 50 causes the 70 of said engine, a venturi in the outlet from said pump, means responsive to the drop in pressure valve I04 to move to the right, the ?ow from the in said venturi to move said power control means passage 58 through the ori?ce I28 by way of to limit the speed of said engine, a ?xed ori?ce, pipes I05 and I 01 ceases. Hence, the Venturi a passage connecting said ori?ce with the pres drop, which has been partially dissipated by this flow through the restriction I28, is restored to its 75 sure side of said pump, a second passage connect 2,405,883 ' 1118 said ori?ce with a manually variable leak venturi thereby decreasing the tendency of said age orifice in series with said ?rst ori?ce and prime mover to move so as to limit the'speed of located in the said outlet, means responsive to the variable drop across-said ?xed ori?ce to oppose the means responsive to drop in pressure in said venturi so as to vary the speed of said engine. 5. A combined manual and automatic control means for the burner of a gas turbine having a combustion chamber and a source of fuel, a tur bine-driven fuel pump of the positive displace said prime mover to the speed at which the de pression in the venturi balances the drop in pres sure in said restricted passage. 8. A device as set forth in claim 7 in which there is a temperature responsive means associ ated with said prime mover, a valve movable thereby, a passage connecting the chamber on 10 one side of said ?rst diaphragm with the chamber on the other side, a restriction in said passage, ment type, a fuel discharge passage, a fuel ven turi therein located downstream from said pump, a ?rst chamber having a ?rst moving wall re sponsive to the pressure drop in said venturi, a leakage bypass in said fuel passage leading from 15 the relatively'unrestricted portion of said fuel discharge passage downstream from said fuel pump to the entrance to said pump, a second chamber having a second moving wall connected to said bypass, a manually controlled valve in said leakage bypass adapted to cause a variable pres sure drop on one side of said second moving wall, a servomotor valve operatively connected to both of said moving walls, a fuel relief outlet, a relief valve therein adapted to open whenever said servomotor valve is moved from its neutral posi tion so as to permit the escape of a considerable portion of the fuel to the source of fuel entering the pump when the drop in pressure through said venturi is su?lcient to open said servomotor valve, 30 the determination of the speci?c drop being de termined by thev manually-controlled valve. 6. A device as set forth in‘claim 5 in which‘ there is a passage around said servomotor valve, said valve being adapted to close when the tem perature of the prime mover exceeds a prede termined maximum temperature whereby the drop in pressure due to the flow through said venturi becomes more effective and the prime - mover is governed at a lower, speed. 9. A speed governor for a prime mover, com prising a source of liquid, a pump of the positive displacement type and driven by said prime mover so as to create a flow of said'liquid proportional to speed of said prime mover, a restriction in said ?ow, speed decreasing means for said prime mover responsive to the pressure drop at said re striction, balancing means adapted to oppose said speed decreasing means comprising a leakage passage leading from the pressure side of said pump back to said source, a variable restriction in said leakage passage means responsive to the drop in pressure at said variable restriction due to the ?ow through said leakage passage to op pose and balance the said first pressure drop, manual means to vary said leakage ?ow to con trol the said second drop in pressure 50 as to con a valve in said passage adapted to open in re-, 35 ‘trol the governed speed of said prime mover. sponse to a rise in temperature of the combus 10. A device as set forth in claim 9 in which tion chamber of said gas turbine so as to open there is a bypass adapted to reduce the effective said relief valve independently of the opening ness of said pressure drop in said restriction and of said servomotor valve in response to said man valve means responsive to the temperature of said ual and automatic control means. 40 prime mover located in said bypass and adapted 7. A hydraulic’ governor for a prime mover to close said bypass when the said temperature comprising a liquid pump of the positive dis exceeds a predetermined value. placement type driven by the prime mover, an 11. A speed governor for a prime mover com outlet from the pump, a venturi in the outlet, a prising a pump of the positive displacement type, ?rst chamber, a moving wall dividing‘ said ?rst a main passage connected to said pump, means chamber into two, a passage connecting the for driving said pump so as to produce a flow of chamber on ‘one side of said diaphragm to the ?uid under pressure in said main passage propor throat of said venturi, a passage connecting the tional tag the speed of said prime mover, a cham chamber on the other side of said moving wall ber, a moving wall dividing'said chamber into two with the pressure side of said liquid pump, a sec parts, a connection from one part of said cham ond chamber, a second moving wall therein, the ber to a point in said passage, a connection from chamber to one side of said second moving wall the other part of said chamber to a point in said being in free communication with the pressure passage where the pressure is in?uenced by the side of said liquid pump, a restricted passage con-_ velocity of ?ow, a, second chamber, a second mov necting the chamber on the other side of said ing wall dividing said second chamber into two second moving wall with the pressure side of said parts, two connections, one from each ‘part of liquid pump, a second passage connecting said said second chamber to said main passage, a leak chamber with the entrance to said liquid pump, age passage from one part of said second cham a manually-controlled regulating valve in said ber leading to a low pressure outlet, manually passage adapted to control the flow through said controlled means for regulating said leakage flow restricted passage, a control means for said prime mover, a connection from said control means to both of said moving walls, said moving walls be .ing adapted to move in opposition to each other, whereby on opening said regulating valve, the prime mover control means is automatically moved to give a higher speed to the prime mover and the increase of speed of the prime mover creates a lower pressure in the throat of said so as to lower the pressure in one part of said second'chamber, means for controlling the speed c-f said prime mover connected to both of said moving walls, the low pressure responsive to said leakage flow being'adapted to oppose the differ ence of pressure due to the flow through said main passage. ‘ GEORGE M. HOLLEY, JR.