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Патент USA US2405888

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Aug- 13, 1946-
Filed Jan. 1, 1945
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
gearyeM?ralley Cf]:
Aug. 13, 1946.
Filed} Jan. 1, 1945
Aug- 13, 1946-
Filed Jan. 1, 1945
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Aug- 13, 1946-
Filed Jan. 1, 1945
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5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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68015? M’?rollecykin
Aug- 13, 1946.
2,405,888 ’
Filed Jan. 1, 1945
~ S‘ShQe‘tS-Sheet 5
as 0158 141952283 ‘Jr.
Patented Aug. 13,1946 9 .
I ‘ 2,405,888
2,405,888 .
George M. Holley, Jr., Grosse Pointe, Mich., as‘
signor to George M. Holley and Earl Holley
Application January 1, 1945, Serial No. 570,942
11 Claims.
(Cl. 60—41)
The object of this invention is to automati
cally govern the speed of a prime mover and to
vary the governed speed manually. Another
object is to improve the control of the ?ow of
liquid fuel to an engine. Another object is to
improve the flow of liquid fuel to a burner in
ment of a. needle I'I,,which is controlled by a
manually-adjusted cam 30. The ?ow by the _'
needle valve I1 is controlled by a valve I8 opened
by a compression spring 98 and carried by a
the combustion chamber of an external combus
g the diaphragm I4, which communicates with the
pressure at the entrance to the venturi I2 through .
a passage 58. The valve I8 maintains a con
tion engine of the gas-turbine type.
Figure 1 shows the elements of the preferred
form of my invention.
Figure 2 shows the application of the elements
diaphragm 54, the upper face of which is sub
jected to the pressure on the right-hand side of
stant pressure drop past the needle valve I‘! so
that ?uctuation in pressure will not vary the
shown in Figure 1 to a gas turbine power plant
adapted for use in aircraft.
The left-hand side of the diaphragm I6 is also
Figure 3 shows diagrammatically the essen
subjected to the same pressure. A restriction 2|
tial elements of my invention in its simplest form. 15 admits a certain quantity of the fuel under pres
Figure 4 shows an alternative construction to
sure to the chamber on the right-hand side of the
that shown in Figure 3.
diaphragm I6, and this quantity ?ows past the
Figure 5 shows an alternative construction to
needle I‘I, valve I8, outlet 24 to bypass I5. Hence,
that shown in Figure 3.
the more the valve I1 is open, the greater the
Figure 6 shows an alternative construction to 20 pressure drop at restriction 2| and the lower the
that shown in Figure 3.
' ,
pressure on the right-hand “side of the dia
phragm I6.
Figure 7 shows an alternative construction to
that shown in Figure 1.
The valve 20, which is a pilot valve (for the
In Figures 1 and 2, fuel enters at I0 through
valve I9), is connected to both diaphragms I4
an engine-driven fuel pump I I of the positive dis 25 and I6 and is therefore controlled by the-joint
placement type to a venturi I2, past a balanced
action of these two diaphragms and thus regu
valve I3 (closed by a compresison spring 99) to
lates the hydraulic pressure acting below the
the pipe 52, burners I53 and to the turbine
valve I9 assisting the compression spring 63. .The
The gears 3| drive the pump II and are
valve I9 controls the ?ow back from the passage
driven by the turbine 46, which drives the com 30 ‘96 through the bypass I5 to the fuel entrance
pressor Br supercharger 39 through a shaft 51.
III. The valve 20 controls the ?ow through the
In Figure 2, air enters at 42, flows through
passage 56, which communicates with the outlet
the supercharger 39, past the burners I53, heat
responsive element 34, through the gas turbine
' from the venturi I2 through a restriction 55.
In Figures 1 and 2, a manually-operated lever
40 to the outlet 43. The drive shaft 51 is driven 35 I34 controls the lever 29, which controls the cam '
by the turbine 46 and drives the supercharger
30, which controls the needle II. The position
39 and pump gears 3I. Power is taken off shaft
of the lever 34 and the valve I‘I controlled there
59 from shaft 51 through gears 60 located be
by thus determines the governed speed, at which
tween shafts 51 and 59. Shaft 59 usually drives
speed the valves 26 and I9 are in equilibrium.
a propeller.
A solenoid 50 controls the valve 53, which
In Figure 1, a diaphragm I4 is responsive to
establishes, when open, the connection from the
the pressure drop in the venturi I2, to the throat
cylinder 6| below the valve I9 and the fuel en
of which, chamber I06 is connected by pipe I26.
trance Il] through the passages 65, 24 and I5. The
The quantity of fuel ?owing past the spring
valve .53 is closed by a compression spring 62‘.
loaded, balanced valve I 3 is reduced by the quan 45 When the valve 53 is opened by electricity flow
tity which returns through a bypass 96—I 5. The
ing through the electric magnet 56, pressure in
flow through this bypass 96—I5 is determined by
the cylinder 6| is lowered, which therefore causes
the valve I9. This valve I9 is supported by a
the valve I9 to descend and‘ thus causes the ?ow
compression spring 63 and by the fuel pressure
throughthe bypass I5 to increase. Hence, when
admitted through the passage 23 connected to 50 the temperature responsive element “34 estab
passage 56, restriction 55, as modi?ed by a pilot
lishes the contact 35 due to high temperature,
valve 20, which is controlled by the diaphragm
electricity ?ows through the conductors 36 to
I4 and also by another diaphragm I6 connected
the solenoid 50. This solenoid 50, when ener
to the diaphragm I4. The movement of the dia
gized, attracts the needle valve 53, which is nor
phragms I4 and I6 is determined by the move 55 mally seated by a spring 62. An engine-driven
electric generator l0| is shown as the source of
However, a, storage battery can be sub- -
type fuel injection pump is shown at I39 driven
by a shaft I40, which is driven by the engine.
stituted for this engine-driven generator.
Oil under pressure to operate the servomotor is
admitted through passage MI and escapes
Description of Figure 3
b1 through passage I42.
In Figure 3, 10 is the ?uid entrance, 1| is the
Description of Figure 7
engine-driven pump, 13 is the venturi, 14 is the
chamber connected to the throat of the venturi
In Figure ‘I, the valve I04, controlling a re
I3, 15 is a diaphragm forming one wall of the
striction I28, replaces the valve 53, and the
chamber 14, 15 is a chamber on the other side 01
pipe I05 replaces the pipe 55 and is connected
the diaphragm 15 and is connected through a
to the chamber I06 to the left of diaphragm I4.
passage 11 to the entrance to the venturi 13.
Pipe I01 replaces pipe 54 and is connected to the
Passage 11 also communicates with the chamber
chamber I08 to the right of diaphragm I4.
18 located to the right of a second diaphragm
A by-pass I20-I29 is located downstream of
19. To the left of the diaphragm 18 is located
valve I3 in the pipe 52. This bypass is inter
the chamber 80, which is connected to the pas
rupted by a valve I2I carried by a piston I22 in
sage ‘I1 through restriction 8|. 82 is an ad'
a cylinder I23. A_spring I24 pushes the piston
justable needle controlling the ?ow from the
I22 and the valve l2| to the left, in which posi
chamber- 80 through a passage 83 back to the
tion the bypass |20—|29 will communicate with
reservoir 84, from which the pump 1| obtains its 20 the low pressure return passage IS. A passage
supply of control ?uid. . The discharge from the
I21 connects the left-hand end of the cylinder
venturi 13 is shown ?owing back through a pipe
I23 and the downstream end of venturi I2. By
85 and discharging past a spring-loaded valve 86
pass I20 communicates through a passage I54
to the reservoir 84.
with the cylinder I23 to the right of the piston
A rod 81 connects the two dlaphragms 15 and 25 I22, so that piston I22 is subjected to the pres
‘I9 together. A lever 88 is moved by the rod 81;
sure drop at the valve I3.
a link 89 is shown connected to a lever 90, which
controls a throttle 9|, which throttle controls the
?ow through a venturi 92, ‘into which venturi.
In Figures 1 and 2, the pump II is driven by
there discharges a fuel nozzle 93. Lever 91 con 30 the gas turbine 40, operated by the fuel passing
trols the movement of the needle 82. When the
the valve I3. Hence, if the turbine rotates at an
needle 82 is closed and the engine running at its
excessively high speed, the pump II will deliver
minimum speed, the lever 88 is pressed against the
an excessive quantity of liquid through the ven
stop 94. Stop 95 limits the movement of the
turi I2, which will cause a low pressure in cham
throttle towards the wide-open position.
35 ber I06 to the left of the diaphragm I4, which
will move the servomotor valve 20 to the left.
Description of Figure 4
A low pressure in passage 23 results because the
In Figure 4, the valve 82 has been located where
passage 23 will then be connected to the passage
the restriction 8| is located in .Figure 3, and the
24 through the valve 28 and the passage 56 is
restriction 8| is located where thevalve 82 is 40 connected to the venturi I2 through restriction
located in Figure 3. A restriction I03 replaces
55. The passage 24 communicates with the by
the venturi 13; otherwise, the construction is the
pass I5, and hence with the relatively low pres
same as Figure 3, except that a thermostat III
sure existing in the fuel entrance I0.
operates a valve "2 to close the flow through an
Hence, the valve I1 provides a manual control
orifice “3 when the temperature of the thermo
for the speed, except at high operating temper
stat III exceeds ‘a predetermined value. A re
atures. At high temperatures, the contacts 35
striction II4, between the chamber 14 and a point
are closed and solenoid 50 becomes operative, so
downstream of restriction I03, is required to make
that the valve 53 is moved to the right and some
the thermostat III effective. A hot spot H5 is
of the fuel under pressure in cylinder 6| below
controlled by valve I I1. This valve drives the ex
the valve I9 escapes through the pipes 64-65.
haust gases over the hot spot and through the
The valve I 9 then tends to fall, as the spring 63 is
outlet H6 when it is closed; when it is open, it
not sti? enough to hold the valve up against the
shuts the exhaust o‘? away from the hot spot.
pressure in the outlet 98 leading from the ven
Description of ‘Figure 5
turi I2.
Operation of Figure 3
In Figure 5, the valve 82 is located at the bot
Assuming that the needle 82 is closed and the
tom of chamber 18, and the restriction 8| is lo
engine is idling, then the ?ow through the venturi
cated at the top of chamber 18. Through 8|, the
13 causes a drop of pressure in the chamber 14.
high pressure ?uid is admitted through the pas
Pressure in the chamber 18 equals the pressure
sage 11. The pipe “0 connects the chamber 80 60 in the chamber 80. Hence, the rod 81 is pushed
to the low pressure return pipe 83. In Figure 5,
over to the right against the stop 94, which de
as in Figure 4, a restriction I03 in the main out—
termines the minimum opening of the throttle
let from the pump 1| replaces the venturi 13
9| of the carburetor 92-93, and thus the mini
shown in Figure 3.
mum operating speed of the engine. When the
Description of Figure 6
In Figure 6, the valve 82 is located in the upper
part of chamber 18, into which the ?uid under
pressure is admitted from passage ‘I1. Pipe “0
85 needle 82 is opened, a ?ow occurs from the down
stream side of the pump 1| through the passage
11, through the restriction 8|, into the chamber
80, past the needle 82, along the passage 83 and
back to the reservoir 84. Pressure in the chamber
70 80 is reduced due to the pressure drop at restric
tion 8|. The rod 81 thereupon moves to the left.
The lever 88 moves away from the stop 94, the
controls the movement. of ' a servomotor piston
throttle 9| opens, the speed of the engine in
I36, which engages with a rack I31, which is held
creases, the speed of the pump 1| increases the
connects the chamber 80 to the low pressure re
turn pipe 83. The restriction 8| is located at the
bottom of chamber 18. A servomotor valve I35
in engagement by spring I38. A Diesel-engine 76 ?ow through the venturi 13, and increases the
depression in the chamber 14 until it is equal
full value. Hence, the venturi drop becomes
to the depression in the chamber 80. When the
more effective and the valve 20 responds to a low
er revolution per minute of the displacement
pump I I. Hence, the governor continues to gov
‘ system is in equilibrium, the throttle 9| no longer
opens. This system therefore consists of an en
. gine-driven pump, which produces a flow of gov
' em, but governs at a lower speed,
erning ?uid proportional to the speed of the en
gine. A venturi in the path of this ?ow creates
When the cam 30 is moved so that valve I1 is
opened suddenly, an increased ?ow is established
a pressure difference, which acts on a diaphragm
through the restriction 2|, the servomotor valve
‘I5, which moves in opposition to the diaphragm
20 suddenly moves over to the right. The fuel
"IS, the pressure difference acting upon which is 10 will no longer ?ow down passage 56. Hence, the
controlled by the valve 82 and represents the
full pressure of the fuel pump II is transmitted
simplest form of my invention. Assuming that
through the passage 23 to the underside of the
the throttle 9I is free from friction, a constant
valve I9, which suddenly closes, causing a sud
speed will be maintained at each position of the
den increase in ?ow in the pipe 52 past the valve
valve 82, regardless of the load on the engine 15 I3. The inertia effect of the sudden increase in
until such time as the throttle 9| is Wide open.
flow down the pipe 52 causes a decrease in the
pressure drop past the valve I3, which gives an
Operation of Figure 4
increase in the pressure transmitted through
When the speed control valve 82 is opened, the
pipe I20 to the right of the piston I22. This in‘
pressure in chamber 80 increases. An increase 20' crease, assisted by the compression spring I24,
in pressure in chamber 80 tends to close the
moves the valve I2I to the left, which permits
throttle 9I just as in Figure 3, the closing of
some of the fuel ?owing in the pipe 52 to escape
valve 82 tends to open the throttle 9|. In Fig
through the passage I20 past the valve I2I
ure 4, when the valve 82 is closed, then the pres
through the passage I29 to the return passage
sure in chamber 80 falls to the minimum value
established by the return pipe 83, and the pres
What I claim is:
sure in the chamber ‘I8 then opens the throttle
1. In a ?uid-operated governor for a variable
9| wide, and the drop across the obstruction I03
speed engine having a power control means com
. would never be great enough to close the throt
prising a source of operating ?uid for said gover
' tle, For this reason, the valve 82 is not permit 30 nor, a positive displacement pump connected
ted to close completely. The thermostat I'II au
thereto having a main outlet passage, means for
tomatically reduces the governed speed. When
driving said pump at a speed proportional to the
III expands, valve H2 moves to the left, re
speed of said engine, a leakage bypass leading
stricting opening H3. Restricting H3 lowers the
from the downstream side of said pump to the
pressure in chamber ‘I4 because of the restriction
source of operating ?uid, a manually variable
H4. The resulting movement of the diaphragm
leakage ori?ce and a ?xed ori?ce located in se
15 to the right closes the throttle. _
ries in said bypass, a ?rstchamber communicat
ing with the bypass between said ori?ces, a mov
Operation of Figure 5
able wall in said chamber responsive to the vari
When the valve 82 closes, the pressure in 40 able pressure botween the ?xed ori?ce and the
chamber ‘I8 increases and the lever 88 moves to
variable ori?ce, an obstruction in said main pas
the left and thus the throttle 9| opens. When
sage adapted to create a pressure drop propor
the valve 82 opens, the pressure in chamber ‘I8
tional to the square of the speed of the engine, a
falls to the low pressure in the return pipe 83, and
second and third chamber connected to said
the throttle SI closes under the in?uence of the 45 main outlet passage, one chamber connected up
pressure drop across the restriction I03.
stream from said obstruction, the other cham
Operation of Figure 6
ber connected downstream from said obstruc
tion, a second movable wall common to said sec
When the valve 82 opens, the pressure in cham
ond and third chambers so as to be responsive
ber ‘I8 increases and the valve I35 moves to the
pressure drop at said obstruction, means con
left to increase the governed speed. When the
necting both moving walls to said power control
valve 82 closes, the pressure in chamber ‘I8 falls
means whereby the power is controlled manu
to the pressure in the return pipe 83, and the
ally by the manually variable leakage ori‘?ce and
valve I35 moves to the right under the in?uence
the maximum speed is limited automatically.
of the pressure drop across the restriction I03.
2. A device as set forth in claim 1 in which
The servomotor valve I35 is moved by the con
there is a fourth chamber connected with the
nection 89 and causes the piston I36 to move
downstream side of said pump and located on
and thus move the rack I31, which controls the
the side of the ?rst diaphragm opposite to said
discharge from the pump I39, which is driven at
?rst chamber.
either engine speed or one-half engine speed.
By controlling the amount of fuel by the rack 60 3. A device as set forth in claim 1 in which there
is a fourth chamber connected with the outlet
I3'I, the speed of the engine is also controlled.
from the two ori?ces in series and located on the
In Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6, the travel of the valve
of the ?rst diaphragm opposite to said ?rst
82 is limited so that at the critical speed, when
there is danger from excessive speed, then the
4. In a ?uid-operated governor for variable
drop in the venturi 13 (Figure 3) or the drop 65
speed engines having a power control means
across the restriction I03 (Figures 4, 5 and ‘6)
comprising a source of operating ?uid, a displace
prevents excessive speeds occurring.
ment pump connected thereto, means for driv
Operation of Figure 7
ing said pump at a, speed proportional to the speed
In Figure 7, when the solenoid 50 causes the 70 of said engine, a venturi in the outlet from said
pump, means responsive to the drop in pressure
valve I04 to move to the right, the ?ow from the
in said venturi to move said power control means
passage 58 through the ori?ce I28 by way of
to limit the speed of said engine, a ?xed ori?ce,
pipes I05 and I 01 ceases. Hence, the Venturi
a passage connecting said ori?ce with the pres
drop, which has been partially dissipated by this
flow through the restriction I28, is restored to its 75 sure side of said pump, a second passage connect
2,405,883 '
1118 said ori?ce with a manually variable leak
venturi thereby decreasing the tendency of said
age orifice in series with said ?rst ori?ce and
prime mover to move so as to limit the'speed of
located in the said outlet, means responsive to the
variable drop across-said ?xed ori?ce to oppose
the means responsive to drop in pressure in said
venturi so as to vary the speed of said engine.
5. A combined manual and automatic control
means for the burner of a gas turbine having a
combustion chamber and a source of fuel, a tur
bine-driven fuel pump of the positive displace
said prime mover to the speed at which the de
pression in the venturi balances the drop in pres
sure in said restricted passage.
8. A device as set forth in claim 7 in which
there is a temperature responsive means associ
ated with said prime mover, a valve movable
thereby, a passage connecting the chamber on
10 one side of said ?rst diaphragm with the chamber
on the other side, a restriction in said passage,
ment type, a fuel discharge passage, a fuel ven
turi therein located downstream from said pump,
a ?rst chamber having a ?rst moving wall re
sponsive to the pressure drop in said venturi, a
leakage bypass in said fuel passage leading from 15
the relatively'unrestricted portion of said fuel
discharge passage downstream from said fuel
pump to the entrance to said pump, a second
chamber having a second moving wall connected
to said bypass, a manually controlled valve in said
leakage bypass adapted to cause a variable pres
sure drop on one side of said second moving wall,
a servomotor valve operatively connected to both
of said moving walls, a fuel relief outlet, a relief
valve therein adapted to open whenever said
servomotor valve is moved from its neutral posi
tion so as to permit the escape of a considerable
portion of the fuel to the source of fuel entering
the pump when the drop in pressure through said
venturi is su?lcient to open said servomotor valve, 30
the determination of the speci?c drop being de
termined by thev manually-controlled valve.
6. A device as set forth in‘claim 5 in which‘
there is a passage around said servomotor valve,
said valve being adapted to close when the tem
perature of the prime mover exceeds a prede
termined maximum temperature whereby the
drop in pressure due to the flow through said
venturi becomes more effective and the prime
- mover is governed at a lower, speed.
9. A speed governor for a prime mover, com
prising a source of liquid, a pump of the positive
displacement type and driven by said prime mover
so as to create a flow of said'liquid proportional
to speed of said prime mover, a restriction in
said ?ow, speed decreasing means for said prime
mover responsive to the pressure drop at said re
striction, balancing means adapted to oppose said
speed decreasing means comprising a leakage
passage leading from the pressure side of said
pump back to said source, a variable restriction
in said leakage passage means responsive to the
drop in pressure at said variable restriction due
to the ?ow through said leakage passage to op
pose and balance the said first pressure drop,
manual means to vary said leakage ?ow to con
trol the said second drop in pressure 50 as to con
a valve in said passage adapted to open in re-, 35 ‘trol the governed speed of said prime mover.
sponse to a rise in temperature of the combus
10. A device as set forth in claim 9 in which
tion chamber of said gas turbine so as to open
there is a bypass adapted to reduce the effective
said relief valve independently of the opening
ness of said pressure drop in said restriction and
of said servomotor valve in response to said man
valve means responsive to the temperature of said
ual and automatic control means.
40 prime mover located in said bypass and adapted
7. A hydraulic’ governor for a prime mover
to close said bypass when the said temperature
comprising a liquid pump of the positive dis
exceeds a predetermined value.
placement type driven by the prime mover, an
11. A speed governor for a prime mover com
outlet from the pump, a venturi in the outlet, a
prising a pump of the positive displacement type,
?rst chamber, a moving wall dividing‘ said ?rst
a main passage connected to said pump, means
chamber into two, a passage connecting the
for driving said pump so as to produce a flow of
chamber on ‘one side of said diaphragm to the
?uid under pressure in said main passage propor
throat of said venturi, a passage connecting the
tional tag the speed of said prime mover, a cham
chamber on the other side of said moving wall
ber, a moving wall dividing'said chamber into two
with the pressure side of said liquid pump, a sec
parts, a connection from one part of said cham
ond chamber, a second moving wall therein, the
ber to a point in said passage, a connection from
chamber to one side of said second moving wall
the other part of said chamber to a point in said
being in free communication with the pressure
passage where the pressure is in?uenced by the
side of said liquid pump, a restricted passage con-_
velocity of ?ow, a, second chamber, a second mov
necting the chamber on the other side of said
ing wall dividing said second chamber into two
second moving wall with the pressure side of said
parts, two connections, one from each ‘part of liquid pump, a second passage connecting said
said second chamber to said main passage, a leak
chamber with the entrance to said liquid pump,
age passage from one part of said second cham
a manually-controlled regulating valve in said
ber leading to a low pressure outlet, manually
passage adapted to control the flow through said
controlled means for regulating said leakage flow
restricted passage, a control means for said prime
mover, a connection from said control means to
both of said moving walls, said moving walls be
.ing adapted to move in opposition to each other,
whereby on opening said regulating valve, the
prime mover control means is automatically
moved to give a higher speed to the prime mover
and the increase of speed of the prime mover
creates a lower pressure in the throat of said
so as to lower the pressure in one part of said
second'chamber, means for controlling the speed
c-f said prime mover connected to both of said
moving walls, the low pressure responsive to said
leakage flow being'adapted to oppose the differ
ence of pressure due to the flow through said main
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