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Патент USA US2405904

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Aug-~13, 1946.
2,405,904 .
[Original Filed May 28, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
if A
-. ‘Aug. 13, 1946.
Original Filed May 28, 1941
' 4 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2
Aug. ‘13, 1946.
_ Aug. 13, 1946.
Original Filed May 28, 1941 .
'4 SheetS-Sheet 4
Patented Aug. 13, 1946
2,405,904 ‘
Francis I. Rataiczak, Dayton", Ohio, assignor to.
General Motors Corporation,,Day.ton, Ohio, a
corporation of Delaware
Original application May ‘28, 1941, Serial No.
395,645. Divided and this application'Deccm-ber
11,1942, Serial No. 468,615
7 ‘Claims. (01. 29-1564)
This invention relates to refrigerating appara
tus and more particularly to animproved motor
compressor unit for use in a refrigerating system.
This application is a division of my co-pending
application’ Serial No'. 395,645, ?led May 28, 1941.
One of the objects of this invention is to pro
it is custom‘aryrsand; in fact, necessarytoi-tolerate
vide a mass production method of making a mo
tor-compressor unit.
Another object of this invention is to provide
small errors‘ in thedimensionsand'concentricity‘
of various. elements; In‘the ordinary" motor
compressordesigtn the accumula'tionof tolerances;
materially a?ects the'e?iciency of the. unita'and.
frequently renders the. unit? ‘completely inopera
tive, in which case, it: becomes‘ necessary to ‘re
operate: some of; the: parts. or to match certain’
parts, with other ipartsin which the‘dimensional
a method of manufacturing and assembling a. 10 errors balance out upon. assembly; Thistis espe
cially true in ‘case the .compressorrand its; asso
motor-compressor unit in which errors in align
ciated. motor-rotor is assembled ‘with. ravst'ator
ment may be detected during assembly of the
which is not perfectly concentric. with ‘the'main.
motor-compressor parts without the use of com
plicated checking equipment.
Still another object of this invention is to pro
vide a method of manufacture which makes it
bearing due . to. tolerances ‘ necessary vin the-man
15 ufacture of the stator or due‘tor'a; slight error’
in themanufacture of thest'ator mountingmeans...
possible to reduce the amount of material‘ used
or dueto an accumulation” oferrors‘inthezmotor
in a. motor-compressor unit.
stator and its .mounting'fmeans.
Referring now to. Fig; luof the: drawingsrin
A further object of this invention is to simplify
the assembly of the motor-stator/within the mo 20 which I haveshown a preferred embodiment: of
my invention, reference numeral. 10' designates
tor-compressor housing.
generally a hermetically sealed motor-compressor
‘Further objects and advantages of the present’
unit: Referencevnumera'l‘ i2i designates arsu'b
invention will be apparent fromthe' fo11owing.de_
stantially cup-shaped stampedsheetmetal’ casing
scription,‘reference being had to the. accompany
ing drawings, wherein a preferred form of the 25 which forms‘ the main’ 'supportifor the. compres
sor assembly l4 and also the motor-stator" l'6..
present invention isrclearly shown.
Reference, numeral. l8 .designatesra:v conventional
motor-rotor; Astamped. sheet metal end cap' I’!
closes. the upper end. of the cupesh'apedi casing
frigerating system showing the motor-compres
sor unitin section;
30 elementv I12’: and‘ ‘forms therewith a high'pressure
refrigerant'vapor chamber. The end :cap 11" is
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the compressor
welded orv otherwise secured to the main casing
unit taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1;
I2. Heat. conducting ?nsv 2 I. may besecuredto
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the motor-compressor
the outside’ of the casing element I2‘ to help-disunit with the cover of. the casing. removed and
sipate the heat. The high pressure-gas ?ows to with the motor-rotor broken away;
the condenser: 20: inwhich it is-condensed and
Fig. 4 shows the construction of the-.main shaft
collects in liquid‘. phase in the receiver‘ 22. They
and the motor-rotor;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional view showingthe.
liquid refrigerant ?ows from‘ the receiver 22 intothe evaporator 524 through a conventional re»
suction valve assembly;
Fig. 6 is an elevational view of the maincasing 40 frigerant ?ow control device 26,‘. The refrigerant
flow‘ control device‘may‘ be of any: conventional
without the heat radiating ?ns and witha-por
eonstruction and is preferably of ‘the ?xed re
tion of the casing broken awayso asto .more
stri'ctor type in which the high pressure liquid»
clearly show the motorestator mounting means;
refrigerant is required to ?ow through along
Fig. '7 is a planview of the main casing and.
the motor-stator and illustrates the .manner‘ in 45 narrow capillary‘ passage.
The refrigerant vaporized» in the-evaporator“
which the main compressor‘ casing is. inserted
returns to the compressor through vthedine 28'
through the motor-stator;
Fig. 8 is an elevational view partly inv section‘
which communicates with a passage 30‘ formed
in the adapter block 32. A screen element 34
showing the apparatus used for aligning themain
compressor cylinder with the motor-stator‘; and 50' is arranged directly within the‘pa-ssage- 30*and
serves to stop the ?ow of solid particles into
Fig. 9 is? a. fragmentary elevational view, with
parts broken away,.illustrating the apparatus for
the main compressor. As best shown in- Fig. 5,
the upper side of the‘ adapter block 32 is pro
aligning the main compressor bearing with the
vided with a- recess 36 in which a check valve,
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a partly diagrammatic view of; a re
In the-manufacture of motor-compressor. units,
generally designated by the reference] numeral 38'
is mounted. The check valve 38 comprises an
element 40 provided with a valve seat 42 at its
upper edge and also comprises a substantially
cup-shaped stamping 44 provided with Valve stops
46 whichjrestrictthe‘ upwardv movement of vthe
main valveplate 148. 1A3 shownlin Fig. 5, the
is cut away as at ‘92 so as to provide a passage
from the high pressure refrigerant chamber to
the passage ‘90 and the passage ‘88. The outer
ends of the passages 86 and 88 are sealed by
meansiof a plug’ 94 and __a lead-plated copper
gasket 96. The gasket 96 is provided with aper
tures 98 in alignment with the passages 86 and
stamping 44 is held in place by the compressor
end plate element 50 which rests upon the ‘ ‘ 88. The plug 94 is provided with a single pas
adapter block 32 and one or more .mounting
sage I00 through which refrigerant and/or lubri
blocks 39 which are welded‘or‘otherwise secured , _'c‘ant' may be added to or removed from the re
to the bottom Wall of the casing I2. The upper‘ “ frigerant system upon partially unscrewing the
surfaces of the blocks 32 and 39 are machined
plug' 94. By virtue of this arrangement, both
so as to be perpendicular to the motor-stator - > the high side’and the low side of the refriger
support surfaces described hereinafter. The
stamping 44, in turn, holds the valve element
40 in place. By virtue oflthis arrangement no.
’ ating system may be very quickly evacuated prior
tolcharging the system with refrigerant and
special fastening means is required and in them‘
Themotor-stator I6 is held in place by means
event of valve failure, the damaged valvepart
of specialclamps such as I02. The clamps I02
or parts may be replaced with a mmimum
amount of difficulty.
.Asbest shown‘ in Fig. 1, the compressor as
sembly. I4 comprises a lower end plate 50, a. cyl
inder element 52 and an upper end plate 54
which has formed integrally therewith the main
bearing 55;. The upper end plate 54, as shown
in Fig. 3, carries‘a conventional‘discharge valve
assembly .58 which controls the flow of refriger
antzthrough the compressor outlet 60. provided
in‘ the end plate 54. .An impeller 62 is provided
within. the cylinder 52. vvThe impeller 62 is _
mounted on the eccentric 64 which causes the
impellerto‘compressxthe refrigerant in accord
ance with well-known practice.
Apdivider-block 6B cooperates with the cylinder
52-?9J1‘d "the impeller 62 in accordance with well
known practice. A spring 68 biases the divider
block into‘ engagement with the impeller 62.. The
outer end of the spring rests against the spring
retainer .10.‘;The retainer ‘I0, as shown in Figs.
are initially formed as shown in Fig. 6, and are
spot welded or otherwise secured to the shell I2.
In the prior art devices, it is customary to pro
vide a press?t between the outer shell of the
compressor and thegmotor-stator. In such an
arrangement, it is very di?icult to properly hold
' the motor-stator in place unless a very heavy cast
iron‘frame or the equivalent is used; and once
the motor-stator is in place, it is very dii‘?cult
to remove it forinspection or repair purposes.
By virtue of the clamping arrangement shown, a
light weight sheet metal casing may be used and
the» final sizing operation may be performed
merely by forcing a die of proper size into the
opened end of the'casing so as to deform the
projecting portion I04 of each clamp I02 the
necessary amount. This arrangement of parts
and method of sizing eliminates the necessity for
turning the inner surface of the outer shell I2 to
size on a lathe. Furthermore, the clamping ele
ments I02 ‘serve to compensate for any taper or
2iand3iis provided with a pair of arms ‘I2 having 40 irregularity‘ in the walls of the shell l2. It is
bentiend portions which interlock with the holes.
difficult to form the outer sheet metalcasings
l?idrilled-in the cylinder element 52. ' The spring
to any exact dimension since the strains and
retainer .zl0zis slipped‘ into place-before the cyl-.
stresses in the sheet metal casing produced by
inderiZ-is clamped- between the end plates 50
theldrawing operation tend to distort the walls
andidandiis held in place by the end plates 50
of the casing.’ The clamps I02, however, su?i
ciently compensate for such distortions.
i-The end plate 50 is‘ provided‘with a tapered
After the motor-stator has been inserted in
passage 18: which. conveys the low pressure re
place,- the projecting ends I06 of the clamp ele
frig'erant:vap0r from the inlet valve 38 to the
compression chamber 80. By virtueof the taper 50 ments I02‘ are bent over onto the, upper side ‘of
the motor-stator so as to hold the motor-stator
in; the walls of the passage ‘I8, any slight ‘mis
in a ?xed position. This not only reduces the
alignment between the end plate 50 and the inlet
cost of construction and facilitates the assembly
valve ;.38_ will. not interferewith the free flow
of the apparatus, but also facilitates the removal
of~refrigerant from the inlet valve to the com
of the motor-stator in the event that it becomes
pression chamber.
necessary to replace the motor-stator. The lower
jReferring to Fig. 2,;it will be observed that
ends of the clamps I02 are provided with ears I01
the inlet port, ‘I8 enters the compression cham
which limit the downward movement of the mo
ber¢80 at a point close to but. spaced from the
divider blockf? and spaced from the inner wall
The cover member I’! is provided with ?tting
o'fqthe cylinder ‘element 52. It will also be ob 60 IIO, through which the ‘compressed refrigerant
served that pressure relief notches 82 have been
leaves the unit I0. The ?tting IIO serves as a
provided in the cylinder wall 52 adjacent the
stop for limiting the axial movement of the mo
divider :block 66. By virtue of the inlet port
tor-rotor I8 and the shaft I9 during shipment,
arrangement, the inlet port is completely closed
etc. Duringnormal operation, the shaft I 9 is
during the ?nal portion of the compression stroke 65 spaced from the adapter H0 as shown in Fig. 1.
with the resultv that it is impossible for any‘ of
In order to avoid the harmful accumulationlof
the compressed gas remaining in the pressure; tolerances in dimensions in assembling the vari
relief-cavity. to re-‘expand into the intake port
~.,The adapter block 32 is [provided with a re
ousiparts, the various parts’ of the unit are as
sembled in the following manner. In assembling
70 the various elements that'g‘oto make up the com
pressor unit, the ?rst step is to position the cyl
sa-ge's? communicating with the compressor inlet
inder 52 with respect to. the lower end wall 50.
passage '30 and a ‘second passage 88 communie
This is .doneby means of a conventional posi
eating with awpassage 90in the adapter block; tioning mandrel (not shown) which holds the
3:2:";;'_‘I.'h'_e‘lower_end ‘plate 150 ‘of the compressor 75 member 52 in proper alignment with the member
frigerantcharging plug 84 which has a ?rst pas
156 while one or more bolts-such Ias bolt I50 _(see
Fig. 3) is or are tightened'so as to clamp the-ele
ments ‘56 and 352 together in their proper rela
tionship. After the elements 56 and 52 have
been-fastened‘together in proper alignment, the
tightened the cap~screws556, the positioninglmane
drel'is removed. ‘IBy removing the sleeve I164,
impeller 62, the divider block>66, the divider block
spring-68 and the spring retainer '16 are insert
In the event that the upper "surfaces of the
‘block 39 and the adapter element 7 32 arenot per
pendicular to the inside walls of'thetmotor-stator,
the positioning mandrel will bind when the vcap
screws '56 are tightened. This ‘serves -' to ‘give
notice that the proper perpendicularity is lack;
ing'so that the compressor assemblymay be im
ed in place and the upper end plate 56 is bolted
to "the cylinder 52 and the lowerrend ‘plate-'56 by
means of bolts 51.
A positioning mandrel (not
shown) is used for holding the end plate '54 in
alignment while the bolts‘5'I are being tightened.
‘The compressor assembly may-then be insert
ed ‘downwardly through the opening inthe mo
tor-‘stator as shown in Fig.1 The compressor
assembly i's-of such shape and size that it may
readily ‘pass through the opening in the motor
stator. After the compressor assembly has been
slipped into place in the bottom of the casing
I2, a specially constructed positioning ?xture I52
is used for aligning the main compressor bearing
with the inner surface of the motor-stator.
'The positioning ?xture I62 comprises a cen
tral shaft I56 provided with a knurled handle I66.
The main portion of the central shaft I54 has
a ‘diameter corresponding to the internal diam
eter of the‘ main compressor bearing55. Another
portion I68 of the central shaft I64 has a diam~
eter slightly less than the internal ‘diameter of
the impeller 62. The lowermost portion I60 of
the'central ‘shaft I56 has a diameter correspond
ing to the internal diameter of the bearing ‘26
provided in‘the lower end plate ‘56 for the lower~
most portion 23 of the main compressor shaft IS.
The positioning ?xture I52 has an intermediate
the~shoes I16 release their ‘hold'on the v-»vvall's=of
the motor-stator whereby ‘the mandrel 'may' ‘be
removed without di'?iculty.
mediately removed and the parts reoperatedso
as to obtain ‘the proper perpendicularity. After
15 removal of the positioning mandrel I52, the'lmo
tor-rotor I8 _and its associated shaft I9 ‘maybe
dropped into place.
‘Inasmuch as theabove described construction
allows the motor-rotor to'besecured'to the‘shaft
20 vIél'prior to the assembly of the shaft‘in' thermain
bearing; it is possible to true-up the outerdiam
eter of the motor-rotor afterith‘as been mounted
on the shaft, thus eliminating'the accumulation
of vtolerance in the concentricity (of the/main
25 shaft, the internal .bore ‘of the 'motorero-tor and
the external diameter of the motor-rotor.
While the foriniof embodiment of thelinvention
as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form‘,
it is to be understood that ‘other forms might be
30 adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims
which follow.
,'What is claimed is as‘follows:
l. ‘The method of manufacturing a ‘motor
compressor unit which comprises forming a sub
35 stantially cup-shaped casing, securing vmotor
sleeve member I62 which is slidably mounted on
stator mounting means to the inner-wall of the
the central shaft I54. The intermediate sleeve
I62 is provided with a knurled handle portion
I64. The lower end of the sleeve I62 is tapered
said motor-stator mounting means so as to de
form said mounting means so as to establish a
for a purpose explained hereinafter. The main
body I66 of the positioning ?xture I52 has a cen
tral aperture through which the sleeve I62 and
the shaft I54 may be inserted. The outer diam
eter of the main portion of the element I66 is
slightly less than the internal diameter of the
motor-stator I6.
As best shown in Fig. 9, the main body I66 of
the positioning ?xture is provided with four lon
gitudinally extending slots I68 in each of which
is mounted a shoe element I16. Each shoe ele
ment I10 is provided with a shank I12 which
passes through a radially extending hole I113
formed in the body I66. The inner end of each
cup-shaped casing, forcing a sizing die within
motor-stator receiving opening of proper size,
forming compressor mounting} surfaces adjacent
the bottom of said casing perpendicular to the
motor-stator mounting surfaces, positioning a
motor-stator on said motor-stator mounting sur
faces, passing a compressor assembly through the
central opening of said motor-stator, positioning
the compressor assembly on said compressor
mounting surfaces by means of a positioning
?xture, clamping said compressor assembly in
?xed relationship to said compressor mounting
surfaces while being held by said positioning
?xture, removing the positioning ?xture, and
thereafter inserting a compressor operating
shaft and motor-rotor.
2. The method of manufacture which com
is adapted to engage the tapered portion of the 55
prises forming a housing element having a. sub
sleeve I62. The element I66 is provided with a
stantially cylindrical inner-surface, securing
shoulder I18 which limits the movement of the
motor-stator mounting means to the inner-wall
element I66 within the motor-stator I6. The
of said cylindrical housing member, forcing a
arrangement is such that when the positioning
?xture is inserted into the motor-stator and 60 sizing die into said cylindrical housing member so
as to partially compress and deform said motor
the sleeve element I62 is moved into the posi
stator mounting means, removing said sizing die,
tion in which it is shown in Fig. 8, the sleeve
and thereafter assemblying the motor-stator
I62 cams the shoes I16 into engagement with
shank is provided with a cam surface I16 which
the motor-stator, whereby the central shaft I511
within said housing element in engagement with
of the positioning mandrel may be used for lin 65 said mounting means.
3. The method of positioning a compressor
ing up the compressor assembly with respect to
bearing assembly in concentric relationship to a
the motor-stator.
motor-stator having an inner cylindrical surface
The main body I66 of the positioning ?xture
which comprises, positioning the compressor
is provided with a plurality of apertures I 86
bearing assembly with the bearing surfaces in
through which access may be had to the cap
concentric relationship to the inner cylindrical
screws 56 which secure the compressor assembly
surface of said motor-stator by means of a re
to the mounting blocks 32 and 39. While the po
movable positioning ?xture having a ?rst portion
sitioning fixture is in place, the cap ‘screws 56
for engagement with said compressor hearing as
are securely tightened so as to rigidly hold the
compressor assembly in position. After having 75 sembly and having a second concentric portion
in engagement with said motor-stator, securing
said compressor bearing assembly in ?xed rela
tionship with said motor-stator while thus posi
tioned and thereafter removing said positioning
?xture and assembling the compressor operating
shaft and motor-rotor.
in said bearing with the motor-rotor disposed
within said motor-stator.
6. The method of manufacturing a motor-com
pressor unit which comprises stamping a sub
stantially cup shaped casing, welding sheet metal
prises forming a substantially cup-shaped casing,
motor-stator mounting means to the inner wall
of said casing, sizing the motor-stator engaging
surface of said mounting means by swaging any
forming motor-stator mounting surfaces on the
irregular internal marginal surfaces, welding
. 4. The method of manufacture which com
inner wall of the cup-shaped casing, forming com 10 motor-stator mounting block means to the bottom
pressor mounting surfaces adjacent the bottom
wall of said casing, machining the upper surfaces
of said casing arranged perpendicular tosaid
of said block means perpendicular to said motor
motor-stator mounting surfaces, positioning a
stator mounting surfaces, forcing a motor-stator
motor-stator on said motor-stator mounting sur
in place within said motor-stator mounting
faces, passing said compressor assembly through 15 means, securing a compressor assembly on said
the central opening of said motor-stator, posi
machined surfaces in axial alignment with said
tioning the compressor assembly on said com
motor-stator, and thereafter inserting a compres
sor operating shaft and motor rotor.
7. The method of manufacturing a motor
pressor mounting surfaces, thereafter assembling 20. compressor unit which comprises forming a sub
a compressor operating shaft and motor-rotor by
stantially cup-shaped casing with motor-stator
passing the compressor operating shaft through
mounting surfaces on the inner wall of said casing
pressor mounting surfaces, clamping said com
pressor assembly in ?xed relationship to said com
the central opening of said motor-stator, and
and compressor mounting surfaces adjacent the
thereafter securing a closure member to the open
bottom of said casing, sizing the motor-stator
end of said cup-shaped casing.
25 mounting surfaces by swaging any irregular in
5. The method of manufacture which comprises
ternal marginal surfaces, machining the compres
forming a substantially cylindrical housing mem
sor mounting surfaces perpendicular to said
ber, forming motor-stator mounting surfaces on
motor-stator mounting surfaces, forcing a motor
the inner-wall of said housing member, and
stator in place relative to said motor-stator
thereafter positioning a motor-stator on said 30 mounting surfaces, securing a compressor assem
motor-stator mounting surfaces, securing a bear
bly on said machined surfaces in axial alignment
ing element in ?xed relationship with said hous
with said motor-stator, and thereafter inserting
ing member while held in concentric relationship
a compressor operating shaft and motor rotor
with respect to the inner surface of said motor
down through said motor-stator.
stator by means of a removable positioning ?xture 35
and thereafter supporting a motor-rotor assembly
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