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Aug-~13, 1946. F. |. RATAICZAK > 2,405,904 . METHOD OF MAKING MOTOR COMPRESSOR UNITS [Original Filed May 28, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ‘.57 / if A 2 3 -. ‘Aug. 13, 1946. 2,405,904 F. l. RATAICZAK METHOD OF MAKING MOTOR COMPRESSOR UNITS Original Filed May 28, 1941 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2 ‘ INVENTOR. . Aug. ‘13, 1946. ‘I F. 1. RATAICZAK _ “METHOD [OF MAKING MOTOR COMPRESSOR UNITS 2,405,904’ _ Aug. 13, 1946. 2,405,904 F. I. RATAICZAK 'ME'YI‘HOD OF MAKING MOTORT‘QOMPJRESSOR 'UNI'rs Original Filed May 28, 1941 . A I T // I? '4 SheetS-Sheet 4 2,405,904 Patented Aug. 13, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,904 ‘ METHOD OF MAKING MOTOR COMPRESSOR . UNITS Francis I. Rataiczak, Dayton", Ohio, assignor to. General Motors Corporation,,Day.ton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Original application May ‘28, 1941, Serial No. 395,645. Divided and this application'Deccm-ber 11,1942, Serial No. 468,615 7 ‘Claims. (01. 29-1564) 1 2 This invention relates to refrigerating appara tus and more particularly to animproved motor compressor unit for use in a refrigerating system. This application is a division of my co-pending application’ Serial No'. 395,645, ?led May 28, 1941. One of the objects of this invention is to pro it is custom‘aryrsand; in fact, necessarytoi-tolerate vide a mass production method of making a mo tor-compressor unit. Another object of this invention is to provide small errors‘ in thedimensionsand'concentricity‘ of various. elements; In‘the ordinary" motor compressordesigtn the accumula'tionof tolerances; materially a?ects the'e?iciency of the. unita'and. frequently renders the. unit? ‘completely inopera tive, in which case, it: becomes‘ necessary to ‘re operate: some of; the: parts. or to match certain’ parts, with other ipartsin which the‘dimensional a method of manufacturing and assembling a. 10 errors balance out upon. assembly; Thistis espe cially true in ‘case the .compressorrand its; asso motor-compressor unit in which errors in align ciated. motor-rotor is assembled ‘with. ravst'ator ment may be detected during assembly of the which is not perfectly concentric. with ‘the'main. motor-compressor parts without the use of com plicated checking equipment. Still another object of this invention is to pro vide a method of manufacture which makes it bearing due . to. tolerances ‘ necessary vin the-man 15 ufacture of the stator or due‘tor'a; slight error’ in themanufacture of thest'ator mountingmeans... possible to reduce the amount of material‘ used or dueto an accumulation” oferrors‘inthezmotor in a. motor-compressor unit. stator and its .mounting'fmeans. ‘ Referring now to. Fig; luof the: drawingsrin A further object of this invention is to simplify the assembly of the motor-stator/within the mo 20 which I haveshown a preferred embodiment: of my invention, reference numeral. 10' designates tor-compressor housing. generally a hermetically sealed motor-compressor ‘Further objects and advantages of the present’ unit: Referencevnumera'l‘ i2i designates arsu'b invention will be apparent fromthe' fo11owing.de_ stantially cup-shaped stampedsheetmetal’ casing scription,‘reference being had to the. accompany ing drawings, wherein a preferred form of the 25 which forms‘ the main’ 'supportifor the. compres sor assembly l4 and also the motor-stator" l'6.. present invention isrclearly shown. Reference, numeral. l8 .designatesra:v conventional motor-rotor; Astamped. sheet metal end cap' I’! closes. the upper end. of the cupesh'apedi casing frigerating system showing the motor-compres sor unitin section; 30 elementv I12’: and‘ ‘forms therewith a high'pressure refrigerant'vapor chamber. The end :cap 11" is Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the compressor welded orv otherwise secured to the main casing unit taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1; I2. Heat. conducting ?nsv 2 I. may besecuredto Fig. 3 is a plan view of the motor-compressor the outside’ of the casing element I2‘ to help-disunit with the cover of. the casing. removed and sipate the heat. The high pressure-gas ?ows to with the motor-rotor broken away; the condenser: 20: inwhich it is-condensed and Fig. 4 shows the construction of the-.main shaft collects in liquid‘. phase in the receiver‘ 22. They and the motor-rotor; Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional view showingthe. liquid refrigerant ?ows from‘ the receiver 22 intothe evaporator 524 through a conventional re» suction valve assembly; Fig. 6 is an elevational view of the maincasing 40 frigerant ?ow control device 26,‘. The refrigerant flow‘ control device‘may‘ be of any: conventional without the heat radiating ?ns and witha-por eonstruction and is preferably of ‘the ?xed re tion of the casing broken awayso asto .more stri'ctor type in which the high pressure liquid» clearly show the motorestator mounting means; refrigerant is required to ?ow through along Fig. '7 is a planview of the main casing and. the motor-stator and illustrates the .manner‘ in 45 narrow capillary‘ passage. The refrigerant vaporized» in the-evaporator“ which the main compressor‘ casing is. inserted returns to the compressor through vthedine 28' through the motor-stator; Fig. 8 is an elevational view partly inv section‘ which communicates with a passage 30‘ formed in the adapter block 32. A screen element 34 showing the apparatus used for aligning themain compressor cylinder with the motor-stator‘; and 50' is arranged directly within the‘pa-ssage- 30*and serves to stop the ?ow of solid particles into Fig. 9 is? a. fragmentary elevational view, with parts broken away,.illustrating the apparatus for the main compressor. As best shown in- Fig. 5, the upper side of the‘ adapter block 32 is pro aligning the main compressor bearing with the vided with a- recess 36 in which a check valve, motor-stator. _ In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a partly diagrammatic view of; a re In the-manufacture of motor-compressor. units, generally designated by the reference] numeral 38' 2,405,904 3 is mounted. The check valve 38 comprises an element 40 provided with a valve seat 42 at its upper edge and also comprises a substantially cup-shaped stamping 44 provided with Valve stops 46 whichjrestrictthe‘ upwardv movement of vthe main valveplate 148. 1A3 shownlin Fig. 5, the 4 is cut away as at ‘92 so as to provide a passage from the high pressure refrigerant chamber to the passage ‘90 and the passage ‘88. The outer ends of the passages 86 and 88 are sealed by meansiof a plug’ 94 and __a lead-plated copper gasket 96. The gasket 96 is provided with aper tures 98 in alignment with the passages 86 and stamping 44 is held in place by the compressor end plate element 50 which rests upon the ‘ ‘ 88. The plug 94 is provided with a single pas adapter block 32 and one or more .mounting sage I00 through which refrigerant and/or lubri blocks 39 which are welded‘or‘otherwise secured , _'c‘ant' may be added to or removed from the re to the bottom Wall of the casing I2. The upper‘ “ frigerant system upon partially unscrewing the surfaces of the blocks 32 and 39 are machined plug' 94. By virtue of this arrangement, both so as to be perpendicular to the motor-stator - > the high side’and the low side of the refriger support surfaces described hereinafter. The stamping 44, in turn, holds the valve element 40 in place. By virtue oflthis arrangement no. ’ ating system may be very quickly evacuated prior tolcharging the system with refrigerant and lubricant; .. . ' ‘ special fastening means is required and in them‘ Themotor-stator I6 is held in place by means event of valve failure, the damaged valvepart _ of specialclamps such as I02. The clamps I02 or parts may be replaced with a mmimum amount of difficulty. .Asbest shown‘ in Fig. 1, the compressor as sembly. I4 comprises a lower end plate 50, a. cyl inder element 52 and an upper end plate 54 which has formed integrally therewith the main bearing 55;. The upper end plate 54, as shown in Fig. 3, carries‘a conventional‘discharge valve assembly .58 which controls the flow of refriger antzthrough the compressor outlet 60. provided in‘ the end plate 54. .An impeller 62 is provided within. the cylinder 52. vvThe impeller 62 is _ mounted on the eccentric 64 which causes the impellerto‘compressxthe refrigerant in accord ance with well-known practice. Apdivider-block 6B cooperates with the cylinder 52-?9J1‘d "the impeller 62 in accordance with well known practice. A spring 68 biases the divider block into‘ engagement with the impeller 62.. The outer end of the spring rests against the spring retainer .10.‘;The retainer ‘I0, as shown in Figs. are initially formed as shown in Fig. 6, and are spot welded or otherwise secured to the shell I2. In the prior art devices, it is customary to pro vide a press?t between the outer shell of the compressor and thegmotor-stator. In such an arrangement, it is very di?icult to properly hold ' the motor-stator in place unless a very heavy cast iron‘frame or the equivalent is used; and once the motor-stator is in place, it is very dii‘?cult to remove it forinspection or repair purposes. By virtue of the clamping arrangement shown, a light weight sheet metal casing may be used and the» final sizing operation may be performed merely by forcing a die of proper size into the opened end of the'casing so as to deform the projecting portion I04 of each clamp I02 the necessary amount. This arrangement of parts and method of sizing eliminates the necessity for turning the inner surface of the outer shell I2 to size on a lathe. Furthermore, the clamping ele ments I02 ‘serve to compensate for any taper or 2iand3iis provided with a pair of arms ‘I2 having 40 irregularity‘ in the walls of the shell l2. It is bentiend portions which interlock with the holes. difficult to form the outer sheet metalcasings l?idrilled-in the cylinder element 52. ' The spring to any exact dimension since the strains and retainer .zl0zis slipped‘ into place-before the cyl-. stresses in the sheet metal casing produced by inderiZ-is clamped- between the end plates 50 theldrawing operation tend to distort the walls andidandiis held in place by the end plates 50 of the casing.’ The clamps I02, however, su?i ciently compensate for such distortions. i-The end plate 50 is‘ provided‘with a tapered After the motor-stator has been inserted in passage 18: which. conveys the low pressure re place,- the projecting ends I06 of the clamp ele frig'erant:vap0r from the inlet valve 38 to the compression chamber 80. By virtueof the taper 50 ments I02‘ are bent over onto the, upper side ‘of the motor-stator so as to hold the motor-stator in; the walls of the passage ‘I8, any slight ‘mis in a ?xed position. This not only reduces the alignment between the end plate 50 and the inlet cost of construction and facilitates the assembly valve ;.38_ will. not interferewith the free flow of the apparatus, but also facilitates the removal of~refrigerant from the inlet valve to the com of the motor-stator in the event that it becomes pression chamber. __ _. .. necessary to replace the motor-stator. The lower jReferring to Fig. 2,;it will be observed that ends of the clamps I02 are provided with ears I01 the inlet port, ‘I8 enters the compression cham which limit the downward movement of the mo ber¢80 at a point close to but. spaced from the divider blockf? and spaced from the inner wall The cover member I’! is provided with ?tting o'fqthe cylinder ‘element 52. It will also be ob 60 IIO, through which the ‘compressed refrigerant served that pressure relief notches 82 have been leaves the unit I0. The ?tting IIO serves as a provided in the cylinder wall 52 adjacent the stop for limiting the axial movement of the mo divider :block 66. By virtue of the inlet port tor-rotor I8 and the shaft I9 during shipment, arrangement, the inlet port is completely closed etc. Duringnormal operation, the shaft I 9 is during the ?nal portion of the compression stroke 65 spaced from the adapter H0 as shown in Fig. 1. with the resultv that it is impossible for any‘ of In order to avoid the harmful accumulationlof the compressed gas remaining in the pressure; tolerances in dimensions in assembling the vari an'd>5¢I._v . . . . ,, v ' ‘ , tor-stator. relief-cavity. to re-‘expand into the intake port 78; - _ . ~.,The adapter block 32 is [provided with a re ' v > ousiparts, the various parts’ of the unit are as sembled in the following manner. In assembling 70 the various elements that'g‘oto make up the com pressor unit, the ?rst step is to position the cyl sa-ge's? communicating with the compressor inlet inder 52 with respect to. the lower end wall 50. passage '30 and a ‘second passage 88 communie This is .doneby means of a conventional posi eating with awpassage 90in the adapter block; tioning mandrel (not shown) which holds the 3:2:";;'_‘I.'h'_e‘lower_end ‘plate 150 ‘of the compressor 75 member 52 in proper alignment with the member frigerantcharging plug 84 which has a ?rst pas 2,405,904 5 ,6 156 while one or more bolts-such Ias bolt I50 _(see Fig. 3) is or are tightened'so as to clamp the-ele ments ‘56 and 352 together in their proper rela tionship. After the elements 56 and 52 have been-fastened‘together in proper alignment, the tightened the cap~screws556, the positioninglmane drel'is removed. ‘IBy removing the sleeve I164, impeller 62, the divider block>66, the divider block spring-68 and the spring retainer '16 are insert In the event that the upper "surfaces of the ‘block 39 and the adapter element 7 32 arenot per pendicular to the inside walls of'thetmotor-stator, the positioning mandrel will bind when the vcap screws '56 are tightened. This ‘serves -' to ‘give notice that the proper perpendicularity is lack; ing'so that the compressor assemblymay be im ed in place and the upper end plate 56 is bolted to "the cylinder 52 and the lowerrend ‘plate-'56 by means of bolts 51. A positioning mandrel (not shown) is used for holding the end plate '54 in alignment while the bolts‘5'I are being tightened. ‘The compressor assembly may-then be insert ed ‘downwardly through the opening inthe mo tor-‘stator as shown in Fig.1 The compressor assembly i's-of such shape and size that it may readily ‘pass through the opening in the motor stator. After the compressor assembly has been slipped into place in the bottom of the casing I2, a specially constructed positioning ?xture I52 is used for aligning the main compressor bearing with the inner surface of the motor-stator. 'The positioning ?xture I62 comprises a cen tral shaft I56 provided with a knurled handle I66. The main portion of the central shaft I54 has a ‘diameter corresponding to the internal diam eter of the‘ main compressor bearing55. Another portion I68 of the central shaft I64 has a diam~ eter slightly less than the internal ‘diameter of the impeller 62. The lowermost portion I60 of the'central ‘shaft I56 has a diameter correspond ing to the internal diameter of the bearing ‘26 provided in‘the lower end plate ‘56 for the lower~ most portion 23 of the main compressor shaft IS. The positioning ?xture I52 has an intermediate the~shoes I16 release their ‘hold'on the v-»vvall's=of the motor-stator whereby ‘the mandrel 'may' ‘be removed without di'?iculty. ' ' mediately removed and the parts reoperatedso as to obtain ‘the proper perpendicularity. After 15 removal of the positioning mandrel I52, the'lmo tor-rotor I8 _and its associated shaft I9 ‘maybe dropped into place. ‘Inasmuch as theabove described construction allows the motor-rotor to'besecured'to the‘shaft 20 vIél'prior to the assembly of the shaft‘in' thermain bearing; it is possible to true-up the outerdiam eter of the motor-rotor afterith‘as been mounted on the shaft, thus eliminating'the accumulation of vtolerance in the concentricity (of the/main 25 shaft, the internal .bore ‘of the 'motorero-tor and the external diameter of the motor-rotor. While the foriniof embodiment of thelinvention as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form‘, it is to be understood that ‘other forms might be 30 adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow. - ,'What is claimed is as‘follows: > - l. ‘The method of manufacturing a ‘motor compressor unit which comprises forming a sub 35 stantially cup-shaped casing, securing vmotor sleeve member I62 which is slidably mounted on stator mounting means to the inner-wall of the the central shaft I54. The intermediate sleeve I62 is provided with a knurled handle portion I64. The lower end of the sleeve I62 is tapered said motor-stator mounting means so as to de form said mounting means so as to establish a for a purpose explained hereinafter. The main body I66 of the positioning ?xture I52 has a cen tral aperture through which the sleeve I62 and the shaft I54 may be inserted. The outer diam eter of the main portion of the element I66 is slightly less than the internal diameter of the motor-stator I6. As best shown in Fig. 9, the main body I66 of the positioning ?xture is provided with four lon gitudinally extending slots I68 in each of which is mounted a shoe element I16. Each shoe ele ment I10 is provided with a shank I12 which passes through a radially extending hole I113 formed in the body I66. The inner end of each cup-shaped casing, forcing a sizing die within motor-stator receiving opening of proper size, forming compressor mounting} surfaces adjacent the bottom of said casing perpendicular to the motor-stator mounting surfaces, positioning a motor-stator on said motor-stator mounting sur faces, passing a compressor assembly through the central opening of said motor-stator, positioning the compressor assembly on said compressor mounting surfaces by means of a positioning ?xture, clamping said compressor assembly in ?xed relationship to said compressor mounting surfaces while being held by said positioning ?xture, removing the positioning ?xture, and thereafter inserting a compressor operating shaft and motor-rotor. 2. The method of manufacture which com is adapted to engage the tapered portion of the 55 prises forming a housing element having a. sub sleeve I62. The element I66 is provided with a stantially cylindrical inner-surface, securing shoulder I18 which limits the movement of the motor-stator mounting means to the inner-wall element I66 within the motor-stator I6. The of said cylindrical housing member, forcing a arrangement is such that when the positioning ?xture is inserted into the motor-stator and 60 sizing die into said cylindrical housing member so as to partially compress and deform said motor the sleeve element I62 is moved into the posi stator mounting means, removing said sizing die, tion in which it is shown in Fig. 8, the sleeve and thereafter assemblying the motor-stator I62 cams the shoes I16 into engagement with shank is provided with a cam surface I16 which the motor-stator, whereby the central shaft I511 within said housing element in engagement with of the positioning mandrel may be used for lin 65 said mounting means. 3. The method of positioning a compressor ing up the compressor assembly with respect to bearing assembly in concentric relationship to a the motor-stator. motor-stator having an inner cylindrical surface The main body I66 of the positioning ?xture which comprises, positioning the compressor is provided with a plurality of apertures I 86 bearing assembly with the bearing surfaces in through which access may be had to the cap concentric relationship to the inner cylindrical screws 56 which secure the compressor assembly surface of said motor-stator by means of a re to the mounting blocks 32 and 39. While the po movable positioning ?xture having a ?rst portion sitioning fixture is in place, the cap ‘screws 56 for engagement with said compressor hearing as are securely tightened so as to rigidly hold the compressor assembly in position. After having 75 sembly and having a second concentric portion 2,405,904 7 in engagement with said motor-stator, securing said compressor bearing assembly in ?xed rela tionship with said motor-stator while thus posi tioned and thereafter removing said positioning ?xture and assembling the compressor operating shaft and motor-rotor. - 8 in said bearing with the motor-rotor disposed within said motor-stator. 6. The method of manufacturing a motor-com pressor unit which comprises stamping a sub stantially cup shaped casing, welding sheet metal prises forming a substantially cup-shaped casing, motor-stator mounting means to the inner wall of said casing, sizing the motor-stator engaging surface of said mounting means by swaging any forming motor-stator mounting surfaces on the irregular internal marginal surfaces, welding . 4. The method of manufacture which com inner wall of the cup-shaped casing, forming com 10 motor-stator mounting block means to the bottom pressor mounting surfaces adjacent the bottom wall of said casing, machining the upper surfaces of said casing arranged perpendicular tosaid of said block means perpendicular to said motor motor-stator mounting surfaces, positioning a stator mounting surfaces, forcing a motor-stator motor-stator on said motor-stator mounting sur in place within said motor-stator mounting faces, passing said compressor assembly through 15 means, securing a compressor assembly on said the central opening of said motor-stator, posi machined surfaces in axial alignment with said tioning the compressor assembly on said com motor-stator, and thereafter inserting a compres sor operating shaft and motor rotor. 7. The method of manufacturing a motor pressor mounting surfaces, thereafter assembling 20. compressor unit which comprises forming a sub a compressor operating shaft and motor-rotor by stantially cup-shaped casing with motor-stator passing the compressor operating shaft through mounting surfaces on the inner wall of said casing pressor mounting surfaces, clamping said com pressor assembly in ?xed relationship to said com the central opening of said motor-stator, and and compressor mounting surfaces adjacent the thereafter securing a closure member to the open bottom of said casing, sizing the motor-stator end of said cup-shaped casing. 25 mounting surfaces by swaging any irregular in 5. The method of manufacture which comprises ternal marginal surfaces, machining the compres forming a substantially cylindrical housing mem sor mounting surfaces perpendicular to said ber, forming motor-stator mounting surfaces on motor-stator mounting surfaces, forcing a motor the inner-wall of said housing member, and stator in place relative to said motor-stator thereafter positioning a motor-stator on said 30 mounting surfaces, securing a compressor assem motor-stator mounting surfaces, securing a bear bly on said machined surfaces in axial alignment ing element in ?xed relationship with said hous with said motor-stator, and thereafter inserting ing member while held in concentric relationship a compressor operating shaft and motor rotor with respect to the inner surface of said motor down through said motor-stator. stator by means of a removable positioning ?xture 35 and thereafter supporting a motor-rotor assembly FRANCIS I. RATAICZAK.