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Aug. 13, 1946. " » "MWATTER 2,405,918 AIRPLANE CONSTRUCTION Filed May 15, 1944 ` 3 Sheets-Sheet'l ' “wir - full... um INVENTOR _ Michael Waiter A TTORNE Y ' Aww, 1946. ‘ ’ ` y M. WATTER - .2,4%,918 AImàLANE CONSTRUCTION Filed May 15, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 _ INVENTQR . By . Michael Wa?tát l v _ l?. l ~ " )¿ ATTORNEY Àug. 13, i946. M. WATTER ZAOSßÍS AIRPLANE CONSTRUCTION I Filed May 13, 1944 3 Shee‘bS-Sheet 3 fw W ÍNVENTOR Michael Waiter. BY ` ' ‘ ATTORNEY ` Patented Ang. 13, 1946 2,405,918 V2um"fri-:11a - .STA-res PATENT ofende AIRPLANE ,ÉÍÍÄ’É‘RUCTION Edward Budd Manufacturing company, Philadelphia, `-‘Pa., a corporation of `Pcnir'rszyl Vania Application May 1'3, 1944, Serial N0."5135,46"1 l14 tClaims. 1 (Cl. v244;-119? ~ This invention relates to airplane 'construc tion, particularly to airplanes having ‘tricycle 2 landing gear 'with one wheel located in the nose of the '-fuselage, and has -f‘or fan object the ï'provi sion of improvements in this art. The jpresent Ul invention is an improvement upon that ‘disclosed in the application of Michael Watter, Serial No. 451,390, îfìl'ed lJuly I8, 11942. ` The flight de'c'k `2t ’is located‘ab'ove the *level of One of ‘the particular fob'jects of the invention the major portion Ó’f the I(fargoeîial‘ïlv‘ïyì'hg spiace, is 'to provide in the ‘nose o'f a `|sen-ii-m'onoc’oque its rear »end ‘being ‘secured vït'o the bulkhead and fuselage a construction which efficiently takes its sides and liront ìend beinglf‘s'ecui‘fed Eto the -e?‘ and distributes lthe loads imposed through the closing walls ‘of the friese. The `~flight deck fis nose landing Wheel. formed of fra-ine members Tl and 'connecting Another object is to »distribute these loads sheet metal webs 28 adjacent the front end. through a .fuselage bulkhead ¿and fa pilot’s plat' Among the members there 4are uovo longi tudìin'a‘ls 2'9 whi'oh'exte?d Í‘Í‘ÖI'n the -`Ve‘rtïltäaíl ïfïfa'?'l‘e members 24 'of the ‘bulkhead to ¿the 'Í'l‘O?t è0f the nose. At the nose vthey zcnr'ir'i‘e‘ct t'o -two frame members L3l'l which yextend downwardly and reaïr form or .iiiglht deck into tl'ie `walls of the fuselage nose. The enumerated and yother fob-’jects 'and ad vantages of the invention will Abe apparent 'from the following description of an vexemplary em 20 'wa'ïrdly 'to the bulkhead. bodiment thereof, reference bei-ng "made to the accompanying drawings wherein: Figure ïl'is a side elevation, `'partly in section, of an airplane embodying the invention ;` The nose wheel rendons into -a weil »3l which is connected at 'the _rear lto the bulkhead, and at the bottom to the bottoni wal-1 of th‘enose eh closure. 'The side walls #3-2 -o‘f the weil are ?"of heavy frame 'and sheet web construction 'aligned With and secured to the >spaced bulkhead veriti Figure 2 is a skeletonized top isometric view; Figure 3 is a side -front View vof the landing >gear and related structure; o'ais J2e and the spaced hose iongitudina'is ‘3o. , Figure 4 is a localized perspective view `in the zone 4 of Figure '3; 'and Y The upperdiagonal edges ci the we11 side walls are braced by heavy diagonal `fit'iririe members l Figure 5 is a section taken on the =line >l'r-ìi of 30 3_3 and connected by lsteps -`3'4. v"lî‘heside 'walls iii Figure 4. Referring to the drawings, the airplane l'n‘ cludes a fuselage Ill, wings ll, nacelle I4, pro pellers l5, r'main landing wheels I 6, and `a nose landing wheel Il. The main landing Wheels are located on the nacelles near'the `center of gravity clude horizontal 'framevniember's A3l which 'are secured to _the bulkhead horizontale 22 and to the diagonais aja. g I _ The bottoni sneu of the bodyat the bottom of 35 the whe-ei wei-1 comprises deep side ‘piates‘ 35 and 'an end plate ÉÍS. The >side plates 35 vcc'l'mprise part o'f vthe spaced lo’hgi‘tudinals from the nose and while the .airplane is at rest the major por tion of the weight is carried thereon and only a and the end plate V36 forms a ’connection across small proportion on the nose wheel and strut; andH between side plates and *longitudinals but 'if 'a low nose landing is made a very heavy 40 The wheel and strut are raised and Iowered load may be placed on the nose wheel and this by va hinged drag strut Ml 'and suitable motive concentrated load is eiliciently diStributedA int'o means _(not shownr‘suppor't'ed -o'n ’the bulkhead the adjacent body structure whereby to `avoic'l un due localized stresses and buckling. at a distan-ce above the ar‘m’s' 2|. plurality of pairs of spaced arms 2| hinged to heavy horizontal reinforcing frame members 22 n* inclined from; 'ends of the weil 'side walls. of a strong bulkhead '23. inasmuch as the bulk~ head isf'designe'd to stop the forward movement of vcargo in case of an "accident, it is referred to 50 as the Acrash bulkhead. The horizontal members 22 are secured to two heavy 'spaced ‘vertical frame members Aor struts 24 of the bulkhead, a ' n r`Ifhe transverse 'iframe ‘iiietiibers4 of the lflight dec-k connect at their ‘ends with vertical ribs or bulkheads -45 of the nose shell. At 'the f_ront of theänose shell where the >shear` panel plate 28 is provided there is secured a horizontal frame member «it to which the plate 'is attached. Y continuous sheet web» 25 ñlling the space between and beyond the hea'vy frame members. ` The step treads ma'yfbewliiade 'of ‘plywood b'u't the risers are preferably form-ed of substantiai metal framing to form' al strongwtie across, 4the The v‘nose wheel strut 20 is -supr’aorted upon a 55 It is thus seen that 'the loads which are iin posed upon the bulkhead are part transmitted 2,405,918 through it directly to the sides of the body. This largely takes care of direct vertical thrust loads. Insofar as buckling loads on the bulkheads are concerned, these are partly absorbed by the rigid framework associated with the bulkhead, includ ing the strong vertical struts 24 and the well framing; The well framing transmits its load to the very 'deep sideplates 35 of the bottom shell to which it is secured. The other part of the buckling load is carried forward by the flight deck framing and spread throughout the girth of the nose shell. Largely the load passes up the strong spaced deck longitudinals 2‘9 and passes down and back through the noseV longi tudinals 30 to the bottom shell plates 35. The flight deck rigidly ties the sides of the nose shell together to prevent deformation under the loads . imposed, the shear panel 28 and horizontal 4 fuselage including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk head, a deck secured at its rear end to the bulk head and at its front end to the nose enclosure, frame elements forming an enclosure up the bulkhead, forward alongthe deck, and down ward and rearward along the nose enclosure tu the base of `the bulkhead, andîlanding gear mounted on the fuselage inthe regiorrwhere the frame elements join the bulkhead, said deck in cluding lateral frame members on each side con necting the longitudinal frame elements to the sides of the nose enclosure, and at its front end the deck including sheet web shear panels con necting the frame members and elements. 5. An airplane comprising in combination, a fuselage including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk head, spaced vertical struts carried by the bulk head near the horizontal center, a nose landing gear secured by struts to the bulkhead adjacent frame element 46 being effective for distributing . the load and rigidifying the nose shell at the 20 the vertical struts, and load-carrying elements connecting the bulkhead intermediate its height to the nose enclosure. -In addition to the buckling load imposed by the 6. An airplane comprising in combination, a landing gear, there is a winch 48 mounted on the front.. _ Y . _ bulkhead in _the cargo compartment for pulling cargo up a rear ramp 49. The winch is mount ed near the mid-height of the bulkhead approxi mately behind the end of the night deck where fuselage including an enclosed nose, a transverse nose bulkhead, a nose landing gear secured by struts to the bulkhead, load-carrying elements connecting the bulkhead intermediate its height to the nose enclosure, and a Vertical longitudinal it will least tend to buckle the bulkhead. wall connected between the load-carrying ele `mWhile one> embodiment of the invention has beendescribed for purposes of illustration it is 30 ments and the lower part of the nose enclosure to be understood that there may be various em forward of the bulkhead. , bpdiments within the limits of the prior art and the scope of the subjoined claims. fuselage including a nose portion, a bulkhead in '7. An airplane comprising in combination, a _the nose at a distance behind the front end, nose YWhat is claimed is: f1.' AAn airplane comprising in combination, a 35 landing gear on the fuselage adjacent the bulk head, a framed bottom well in the fuselage for fuselage including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk the landing gear, the frame of the well at its head,'a~ nose landing wheel and strut means se rear being secured to the bulkhead and at its bot curedY to said bulkhead, a’flight deck secured at torn'to the fuselage nose enclosure, and a lat its-rear end to the upper part of said bulkhead, said deck being secured at its sides and front 40 eral tie frame structure in said fuselage secured at its rear end to the bulkhead at the top of the endto the enclosing walls of the fuselage nose, well frame and secured at its front end to the and longitudinal frame members extending up fuselage nose enclosure, said platform having an said bulkhead, forward along the deck, and down opening at the top of the well, and the frame of ward and rearward along the nose walls toa point of connection with the bulkhead _in the ~ the well including steps on the front end, which wheel attachment region. , _ extend to the platform opening. >2. An airplane comprising in combination, a fuselage >including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk head, a deck secured at its rear end to the bulk 8. An airplane comprising in combination, a fuselage, a bulkhead in said fuselage at a distance behind the front end, means including landing hèadat a distance above the lower edge and at gearimposing a buckling load on said bulkhead, and frame means extending in a loop from the bottom up the bulkhead to a point intermediate itslfront end to the fuselage nose enclosure, said bulkhead including a pair of spaced vertical struts extending from the lower edge to the deck, said deck including a pair of beam members se cured to the bulkhead struts and extending for ward to the front -wall of the nose, said nose en closure including a pair of frame members se the height of the bulkhead, thence forwardly to the front end, thence down the front end and back along the bottom of the fuselage to the starting point at the bottom of the bulkhead. '9..An‘ airplane comprising `in combination, a fuselage including a nose shell portion, a full cured to the deck beams and extending down bulkhead in the fuselage behind the front end ward and rearward to the lower ends of the of the nose, the bulkhead at its lower end being bulkhead struts, and a nose landing gear-«mount connected to the bottom of the fuselage, nose ed onlthe rear portion of the enclosed frame landing gear on the fuselage located adjacent the structure thus formed. bulkhead and having anchorage to the bulkhead 3. An airplane'comprising in combination, a intermediate its height and width whereby to im fuselage including anenclosed nose, a nose bulk h'ead,.aY deck secured> at its rear end to the bulk 6.5 pose a dishpanning buckling load on the bulk head, and a lateral tie frame structure in said head- and at itsfront end to the nose enclosure, fuselage secured at its rear end to said bulk frame elements forming a closed loop up the head intermediate its height and secured at its bulkhead'forward along the’deck, and downward front end to the front of the fuselage nose shell and rearward along. the nose` enclosure to the whereby to relieve the bulkhead of buckling dis baseof the bulkhead, landing gear mounted on tortion loads imposed by the landing gear and the fuselage in the region wherethe frame ele transmit them into the' fuselage nose shell. ments join at the bulkhead, and lateral frame 1C'.A An airplanecomprising in combination,l a members in said deck for transferring loadsl into fuselage including a Anose shell portion, a full the sides of the nose enclosure. ‘ » _4. .An airplane _comprisingin combination, a; '1.3 bulkhead in the fuselage behind the> frontend 5 2,405,918 of the nose, the bulkhead at its lower end being connected to the bottom of the fuselage, a framed well in the bottom of the fuselage secured to the bulkhead and the nose shell portion, nose landing gear on the fuselage located at the Well and having anchorage to the bulkhead interme diate its height and width whereby to impose a dishpanning buckling load on the bulkhead, and 6 whereby to impose a dishpanning buckling load on the bulkhead, a framed bottom well in the fuselage for the landing gear, the frame of the Well at its rear being secured to the bulkhead and at its bottom to the fuselage nose enclosure, and a lateral tie frame structure in said fuselage se cured at its rear end to the bulkhead at the top of the well frame and secured at its front end to the fuselage nose enclosure whereby to relieve a lateral tie frame structure in said fuselage se cured at its rear end to said bulk head inter 10 the bulkhead of buckling distortion loads imposed mediate its height and secured at its front end by the landing gear and transmit them into the to the fuselage nose shell whereby to relieve the fuselage nose shell. bulkhead of buckling distortion loads imposed by the landing gear and transmit them into the -fuselage nose shell. 11. An airplane comprising in combination, a fuselage including a nose portion, a full bulkhead ' in the nose at a distance behind the front end, the bulkhead at its lower end being connected to the bottom of the fuselage, nose landing gear on the fuselage adjacent the bulkhead and having an chorage to the bulkhead intermediate its height 13. An airplane comprising in combination, a fuselage enclosure, a full transverse bulkhead in said fuselage enclosure, means including struc tural connections imposing a load on said bulk head directed longitudinally of the fuselage tend ing to cause it to buckle or dishpan in its portion intermediate its side and upper and lower edges, and longitudinal frame means secured between the intermediate portion of the bulkhead and the fuselage enclosure to prevent buckling of the bulkhead. and width whereby to impose a dishpanning buckling load on the bulkhead, a framed bottom 14. In an airplane, in combination, a housed well in the fuselage for the landing gear, the 25I in structure longitudinally of streamlined form, frame of the well at its rear being secured to the an internal frame element of the structure ad bulkhead and at its bottom to the fuselage nose jacent one longitudinal terminus of said struc enclosure, and a lateral tie frame structure in ture, a landing gear connected structurally to said said fuselage secured at its rear end to the bulk element and when the structure is borne upon the head at the top of the well frame and secured at 30 gear subjecting the element to a bending moment its front end to the fuselage nose enclosure. which tends to distort it and divert it from its l2. An airplane comprising in combination, a true plane, together with a longitudinally extend fuselage including a nose portion, a full height ing moment-counteracting tie member tying the bulkhead in the nose at a distance behind the portion of said element subjected to the bending front end, nose landing gear on the fuselage ad 35 moment to the adjacent terminus of said struc jacent the bulkhead and having anchorage to the ture. bulkhead intermediate its height and width MICHAEL WATTER.