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Патент USA US2405918

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Aug. 13, 1946. "
»
"MWATTER
2,405,918
AIRPLANE CONSTRUCTION
Filed May 15, 1944
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3 Sheets-Sheet'l '
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full...
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INVENTOR
_
Michael Waiter
A TTORNE Y
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Aww, 1946. ‘ ’
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M. WATTER
-
.2,4%,918
AImàLANE CONSTRUCTION
Filed May 15, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
_ INVENTQR
.
By
.
Michael Wa?tát
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ATTORNEY
Àug. 13, i946.
M. WATTER
ZAOSßÍS
AIRPLANE CONSTRUCTION
I
Filed May 13, 1944
3 Shee‘bS-Sheet 3
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ÍNVENTOR
Michael Waiter.
BY
`
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‘
ATTORNEY `
Patented Ang. 13, 1946
2,405,918
V2um"fri-:11a - .STA-res PATENT ofende
AIRPLANE ,ÉÍÍÄ’É‘RUCTION
Edward
Budd Manufacturing company,
Philadelphia, `-‘Pa., a corporation of `Pcnir'rszyl
Vania
Application May 1'3, 1944, Serial N0."5135,46"1
l14 tClaims.
1
(Cl. v244;-119?
~
This invention relates to airplane 'construc
tion, particularly to airplanes having ‘tricycle
2
landing gear 'with one wheel located in the nose
of the '-fuselage, and has -f‘or fan object the ï'provi
sion of improvements in this art. The jpresent Ul
invention is an improvement upon that ‘disclosed
in the application of Michael Watter, Serial No.
451,390, îfìl'ed lJuly I8, 11942.
`
The flight de'c'k `2t ’is located‘ab'ove the *level of
One of ‘the particular fob'jects of the invention
the major portion Ó’f the I(fargoeîial‘ïlv‘ïyì'hg spiace,
is 'to provide in the ‘nose o'f a `|sen-ii-m'onoc’oque
its rear »end ‘being ‘secured vït'o the bulkhead and
fuselage a construction which efficiently takes
its sides and liront ìend beinglf‘s'ecui‘fed Eto the -e?‘
and distributes lthe loads imposed through the
closing walls ‘of the friese. The `~flight deck fis
nose landing Wheel.
formed of fra-ine members Tl and 'connecting
Another object is to »distribute these loads
sheet metal webs 28 adjacent the front end.
through a .fuselage bulkhead ¿and fa pilot’s plat'
Among the
members there 4are uovo longi
tudìin'a‘ls 2'9 whi'oh'exte?d Í‘Í‘ÖI'n the -`Ve‘rtïltäaíl ïfïfa'?'l‘e
members 24 'of the ‘bulkhead to ¿the 'Í'l‘O?t è0f the
nose. At the nose vthey zcnr'ir'i‘e‘ct t'o -two frame
members L3l'l which yextend downwardly and reaïr
form or .iiiglht deck into tl'ie `walls of the fuselage
nose.
The enumerated and yother fob-’jects 'and ad
vantages of the invention will Abe apparent 'from
the following description of an vexemplary em 20 'wa'ïrdly 'to the bulkhead.
bodiment thereof, reference bei-ng "made to the
accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure ïl'is a side elevation, `'partly in section,
of an airplane embodying the invention ;`
The nose wheel rendons into -a weil »3l which
is connected at 'the _rear lto the bulkhead, and
at the bottom to the bottoni wal-1 of th‘enose eh
closure. 'The side walls #3-2 -o‘f the weil are ?"of
heavy frame 'and sheet web construction 'aligned
With and secured to the >spaced bulkhead veriti
Figure 2 is a skeletonized top isometric view;
Figure 3 is a side -front View vof the landing >gear
and related structure;
o'ais J2e and the spaced hose iongitudina'is ‘3o. ,
Figure 4 is a localized perspective view `in the
zone 4 of Figure '3; 'and
Y
The upperdiagonal edges ci the we11 side walls
are braced by heavy diagonal `fit'iririe members
l
Figure 5 is a section taken on the =line >l'r-ìi of 30 3_3 and connected by lsteps -`3'4. v"lî‘heside 'walls iii
Figure 4.
Referring to the drawings, the airplane l'n‘
cludes a fuselage Ill, wings ll, nacelle I4, pro
pellers l5, r'main landing wheels I 6, and `a nose
landing wheel Il. The main landing Wheels are
located on the nacelles near'the `center of gravity
clude horizontal 'framevniember's A3l which 'are
secured to _the bulkhead horizontale 22 and to
the diagonais aja.
g
I
_
The bottoni sneu of the bodyat the bottom of
35
the whe-ei wei-1 comprises deep side ‘piates‘ 35 and
'an end plate ÉÍS. The >side plates 35 vcc'l'mprise
part o'f vthe spaced lo’hgi‘tudinals from the nose
and while the .airplane is at rest the major por
tion of the weight is carried thereon and only a
and the end plate V36 forms a ’connection across
small proportion on the nose wheel and strut;
andH between side plates and *longitudinals
but 'if 'a low nose landing is made a very heavy 40
The wheel and strut are raised and Iowered
load may be placed on the nose wheel and this
by va hinged drag strut Ml 'and suitable motive
concentrated load is eiliciently diStributedA int'o
means _(not shownr‘suppor't'ed -o'n ’the bulkhead
the adjacent body structure whereby to `avoic'l un
due localized stresses and buckling.
at a distan-ce above the ar‘m’s' 2|.
plurality of pairs of spaced arms 2| hinged to
heavy horizontal reinforcing frame members 22
n*
inclined from; 'ends of the weil 'side walls.
of a strong bulkhead '23. inasmuch as the bulk~
head isf'designe'd to stop the forward movement
of vcargo in case of an "accident, it is referred to 50
as the Acrash bulkhead. The horizontal members
22 are secured to two heavy 'spaced ‘vertical
frame members Aor struts 24 of the bulkhead, a
'
n
r`Ifhe transverse 'iframe ‘iiietiibers4 of the lflight
dec-k connect at their ‘ends with vertical ribs or
bulkheads -45 of the nose shell. At 'the f_ront
of theänose shell where the >shear` panel plate 28 is
provided there is secured a horizontal frame
member «it to which the plate 'is attached. Y
continuous sheet web» 25 ñlling the space between
and beyond the hea'vy frame members.
`
The step treads ma'yfbewliiade 'of ‘plywood b'u't
the risers are preferably form-ed of substantiai
metal framing to form' al strongwtie across, 4the
The v‘nose wheel strut 20 is -supr’aorted upon a
55
It is thus seen that 'the loads which are iin
posed upon the bulkhead are part transmitted
2,405,918
through it directly to the sides of the body. This
largely takes care of direct vertical thrust loads.
Insofar as buckling loads on the bulkheads are
concerned, these are partly absorbed by the rigid
framework associated with the bulkhead, includ
ing the strong vertical struts 24 and the well
framing; The well framing transmits its load
to the very 'deep sideplates 35 of the bottom
shell to which it is secured. The other part of
the buckling load is carried forward by the flight
deck framing and spread throughout the girth
of the nose shell. Largely the load passes up
the strong spaced deck longitudinals 2‘9 and
passes down and back through the noseV longi
tudinals 30 to the bottom shell plates 35. The
flight deck rigidly ties the sides of the nose shell
together to prevent deformation under the loads .
imposed, the shear panel 28 and horizontal
4
fuselage including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk
head, a deck secured at its rear end to the bulk
head and at its front end to the nose enclosure,
frame elements forming an enclosure up the
bulkhead, forward alongthe deck, and down
ward and rearward along the nose enclosure tu
the base of `the bulkhead, andîlanding gear
mounted on the fuselage inthe regiorrwhere the
frame elements join the bulkhead, said deck in
cluding lateral frame members on each side con
necting the longitudinal frame elements to the
sides of the nose enclosure, and at its front end
the deck including sheet web shear panels con
necting the frame members and elements.
5. An airplane comprising in combination, a
fuselage including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk
head, spaced vertical struts carried by the bulk
head near the horizontal center, a nose landing
gear secured by struts to the bulkhead adjacent
frame element 46 being effective for distributing .
the load and rigidifying the nose shell at the 20 the vertical struts, and load-carrying elements
connecting the bulkhead intermediate its height
to the nose enclosure.
-In addition to the buckling load imposed by the
6. An airplane comprising in combination, a
landing gear, there is a winch 48 mounted on the
front..
_
Y
.
_
bulkhead in _the cargo compartment for pulling
cargo up a rear ramp 49.
The winch is mount
ed near the mid-height of the bulkhead approxi
mately behind the end of the night deck where
fuselage including an enclosed nose, a transverse
nose bulkhead, a nose landing gear secured by
struts to the bulkhead, load-carrying elements
connecting the bulkhead intermediate its height
to the nose enclosure, and a Vertical longitudinal
it will least tend to buckle the bulkhead.
wall connected between the load-carrying ele
`mWhile one> embodiment of the invention has
beendescribed for purposes of illustration it is 30 ments and the lower part of the nose enclosure
to be understood that there may be various em
forward of the bulkhead. ,
bpdiments within the limits of the prior art and
the scope of the subjoined claims.
fuselage including a nose portion, a bulkhead in
'7. An airplane comprising in combination, a
_the nose at a distance behind the front end, nose
YWhat is claimed is:
f1.' AAn airplane comprising in combination, a 35 landing gear on the fuselage adjacent the bulk
head, a framed bottom well in the fuselage for
fuselage including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk
the landing gear, the frame of the well at its
head,'a~ nose landing wheel and strut means se
rear being secured to the bulkhead and at its bot
curedY to said bulkhead, a’flight deck secured at
torn'to the fuselage nose enclosure, and a lat
its-rear end to the upper part of said bulkhead,
said deck being secured at its sides and front 40 eral tie frame structure in said fuselage secured
at its rear end to the bulkhead at the top of the
endto the enclosing walls of the fuselage nose,
well frame and secured at its front end to the
and longitudinal frame members extending up
fuselage nose enclosure, said platform having an
said bulkhead, forward along the deck, and down
opening at the top of the well, and the frame of
ward and rearward along the nose walls toa
point of connection with the bulkhead _in the ~ the well including steps on the front end, which
wheel attachment region.
,
_
extend to the platform opening.
>2. An airplane comprising in combination, a
fuselage >including an enclosed nose, a nose bulk
head, a deck secured at its rear end to the bulk
8. An airplane comprising in combination, a
fuselage, a bulkhead in said fuselage at a distance
behind the front end, means including landing
hèadat a distance above the lower edge and at
gearimposing a buckling load on said bulkhead,
and frame means extending in a loop from the
bottom up the bulkhead to a point intermediate
itslfront end to the fuselage nose enclosure, said
bulkhead including a pair of spaced vertical
struts extending from the lower edge to the deck,
said deck including a pair of beam members se
cured to the bulkhead struts and extending for
ward to the front -wall of the nose, said nose en
closure including a pair of frame members se
the height of the bulkhead, thence forwardly to
the front end, thence down the front end and
back along the bottom of the fuselage to the
starting point at the bottom of the bulkhead.
'9..An‘ airplane comprising `in combination, a
fuselage including a nose shell portion, a full
cured to the deck beams and extending down
bulkhead in the fuselage behind the front end
ward and rearward to the lower ends of the
of the nose, the bulkhead at its lower end being
bulkhead struts, and a nose landing gear-«mount
connected to the bottom of the fuselage, nose
ed onlthe rear portion of the enclosed frame
landing gear on the fuselage located adjacent the
structure thus formed.
bulkhead and having anchorage to the bulkhead
3. An airplane'comprising in combination, a
intermediate its height and width whereby to im
fuselage including anenclosed nose, a nose bulk
h'ead,.aY deck secured> at its rear end to the bulk 6.5 pose a dishpanning buckling load on the bulk
head, and a lateral tie frame structure in said
head- and at itsfront end to the nose enclosure,
fuselage secured at its rear end to said bulk
frame elements forming a closed loop up the
head intermediate its height and secured at its
bulkhead'forward along the’deck, and downward
front end to the front of the fuselage nose shell
and rearward along. the nose` enclosure to the
whereby to relieve the bulkhead of buckling dis
baseof the bulkhead, landing gear mounted on
tortion loads imposed by the landing gear and
the fuselage in the region wherethe frame ele
transmit them into the' fuselage nose shell.
ments join at the bulkhead, and lateral frame
1C'.A An airplanecomprising in combination,l a
members in said deck for transferring loadsl into
fuselage including a Anose shell portion, a full
the sides of the nose enclosure.
‘
» _4. .An airplane _comprisingin combination, a; '1.3 bulkhead in the fuselage behind the> frontend
5
2,405,918
of the nose, the bulkhead at its lower end being
connected to the bottom of the fuselage, a
framed well in the bottom of the fuselage secured
to the bulkhead and the nose shell portion, nose
landing gear on the fuselage located at the Well
and having anchorage to the bulkhead interme
diate its height and width whereby to impose a
dishpanning buckling load on the bulkhead, and
6
whereby to impose a dishpanning buckling load
on the bulkhead, a framed bottom well in the
fuselage for the landing gear, the frame of the
Well at its rear being secured to the bulkhead and
at its bottom to the fuselage nose enclosure, and
a lateral tie frame structure in said fuselage se
cured at its rear end to the bulkhead at the top
of the well frame and secured at its front end
to the fuselage nose enclosure whereby to relieve
a lateral tie frame structure in said fuselage se
cured at its rear end to said bulk head inter 10 the bulkhead of buckling distortion loads imposed
mediate its height and secured at its front end
by the landing gear and transmit them into the
to the fuselage nose shell whereby to relieve the
fuselage nose shell.
bulkhead of buckling distortion loads imposed by
the landing gear and transmit them into the
-fuselage nose shell.
11. An airplane comprising in combination, a
fuselage including a nose portion, a full bulkhead '
in the nose at a distance behind the front end, the
bulkhead at its lower end being connected to the
bottom of the fuselage, nose landing gear on the
fuselage adjacent the bulkhead and having an
chorage to the bulkhead intermediate its height
13. An airplane comprising in combination, a
fuselage enclosure, a full transverse bulkhead in
said fuselage enclosure, means including struc
tural connections imposing a load on said bulk
head directed longitudinally of the fuselage tend
ing to cause it to buckle or dishpan in its portion
intermediate its side and upper and lower edges,
and longitudinal frame means secured between
the intermediate portion of the bulkhead and the
fuselage enclosure to prevent buckling of the
bulkhead.
and width whereby to impose a dishpanning
buckling load on the bulkhead, a framed bottom
14. In an airplane, in combination, a housed
well in the fuselage for the landing gear, the 25I in structure longitudinally of streamlined form,
frame of the well at its rear being secured to the
an internal frame element of the structure ad
bulkhead and at its bottom to the fuselage nose jacent one longitudinal terminus of said struc
enclosure, and a lateral tie frame structure in
ture, a landing gear connected structurally to said
said fuselage secured at its rear end to the bulk
element and when the structure is borne upon the
head at the top of the well frame and secured at 30 gear subjecting the element to a bending moment
its front end to the fuselage nose enclosure.
which tends to distort it and divert it from its
l2. An airplane comprising in combination, a
true plane, together with a longitudinally extend
fuselage including a nose portion, a full height
ing moment-counteracting tie member tying the
bulkhead in the nose at a distance behind the
portion of said element subjected to the bending
front end, nose landing gear on the fuselage ad 35 moment to the adjacent terminus of said struc
jacent the bulkhead and having anchorage to the
ture.
bulkhead intermediate its height and width
MICHAEL WATTER.
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