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Aug; 13, 1946. F_ WHITTLE . Z?UE?lg FLUID FLOW ENERGY TRANSFORMER Filed OCt. 23, 1942 R \ MW J’) 2 Sheets-Sheet l Aug. 13,1946. F. WHITTLE 2,405,919 FLUID FLOW ENERGY TRANSFORMER Filed Oct. 25, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 // t/E J” veg/772V”, ' 14.321, 12/) [17¢ Patented Aug. 13, 1946 v ‘ 2,405,919 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,919 FLUID FLOW ENERGY TRANSFORMER Frank Whittle, Rugby, England, assignor to Power Jets (Research and- Development) Limited, London, England Application October 23, 1942, Serial No. 463,140 1 In Great Britain March 2, 1940 8 Claims. (01. 60-355) This invention relates to ?uid ?ow energy trans formers and the application thereof to propulsive systems, more especially (but not necessarily exclusively) of aircraft. By the term ?uid ?ow energy transformer is meant, means or a system ' by which a ?ow of ?uid at one energy potential is made to a?ect a second ?ow so as to vary the 2, axial it is intended to distinguish only from ro tational, and not to exclude a radial component of direction). The exhaust of the engine and the reenergised air?ow from the second impeller means, may. be caused to join into one common stream for the purpose of reaction propulsion, and the pressures and velocities where they join energy potential in the second. Thus for ex may by design be adjusted to be practically equal. ample, the relative air?ow through a power The invention embraces an arrangement of a nacelle of an aircraft may be robbed of energy 10 nacelle and other components which is preferred; which is transformed into pressure energy in an this arrangement provides an annular air duct engine induction system to boost the engine; and by further transformation the energy-depleted air?ow through the nacelle may be reenergised, this energy being derived from that in an ex haust flow from the engine. In addition this sec ond transformation may impart energy to the air?ow beyond that which was originally avail con?ning the air?ow through the nacelle in which the ?rst turbine and second impeller means are operatively exposed; and a pressure compart 15 ment containing the combustion engine, with an annular intake eye, and an annular exhaust duct. In the air intake for engine supply operates the ?rst impeller means, and in the exhaust duct the able, in order effectively to use this air?ow as, or second turbine means. The annular form of the as part of, a reaction propulsion jet. Whilst such 20 ducts is thus well adapted not only to the nacelle example is clearly primarily applicable to air form in which it is proposed to embody the in craft, it is conceivable that it might be employed vention, but also to the particular form of Wheels for the propulsion of other vehicles or objects. proposed. The ?uid ?ows are preferably con Whilst the present proposals have in mind par ?ned, that is to say, they ?ow within con?nes ticularly, propulsion systems which are depend 25 formed by Walls or the like. ent on jet reaction only, it will be appreciated The invention is intended to be used with a that they may be included in systems using air combustion engine for reaction propulsion of screw propulsion, although it is believed that the previously. proposed kind in which is com some degree of propulsion by jet reaction will al bined a compressor for air, fuel burning means ways be utilised to take full advantage of_ the in 30 in the compressed air delivered therefrom, and a vention. gas turbine driven by the resultant gases and According to the invention, there is proposed a using part of the useful energy thereof to drive propulsion system in which the prime mover is the compressor, the gaseous output leaving the a combustion engine, and which includes energy turbine forming the reaction propulsion jet transforming means comprising turbine means 35 stream. The invention is not, however, limited driven by an air stream and impeller means to in its application, to this particular kind of com operate in a second air stream and driven by the bustion engine, which in any case forms no part said turbine means, the air from the impeller of the present invention. means being supplied tothe combustion engine, The main object of the present invention is to and the exhaust from the combustion engine op 40. increase the effective thrust of a propulsive sys~ erates second energy transforming means again comprising turbine and impeller means which tem which includes a combustion engine of sense coaxially, the blading and impeller blading of a convenient and sound arrangement for a which the performance can- be raised by boost impart energy into the ?rst airstream to raise ing the air intake. Another object is to increase its energy potential. the e?‘ective total momentum of ?uid discharged Further according to the invention, the turbine 45 in unit time, in a reaction jet propulsion system and impeller means comprise paired or twin ' or a system for propulsion in part by reaction of wheels arranged to spin in opposite rotational a jet or jets. Other objects, such as the provision . being carried by each wheel, preferably one row power nacelle, may be achieved by the invention. outside the other. By virtue of such arrange 50 The invention and its objects will be better ment the leaving streams from the turbine and understood after considering the following de the impeller means, can be substantially purely scription of an example of it, with’ the aid of the axial in direction, which is desirable. Or, other blade means may be provided to ensure substan tial axiality of ?ow. accompanying diagrammatic drawings. In these drawings, Figure l is a schematic view of an ar (In referring to a ?ow as“: rangement. Figure 2 is a sectional view of a 2,405,919 3 4 scheme of twin wheel construction, and Figures 3 leaving the gas duct. and 4 show representative blade‘ sections of blades ‘ though‘ probably less advantageous, merely to in Figure 2, on the lines III-III and IV-IV of Fig. 2 respectively. restore to the‘ air the energy givenvup in the forward turbine pair (8A, 9A) so as to obviate what would otherwise be virtually a, drag loss. The ‘pairs 01' wheels 8, 9, and I0, H, are in tended to be borne on journal and thrust bearings In Figure 1, which illustrates a power nacelle for aircraft propulsion, the prime mover is a com But it is also possible, bustion engine illustrated as being in the same general form as that in Figure 1, namely: one , in structure which is rigid in itself so that gyro comprising a compressor A, combustion chambers scopic forces from the wheels will be resisted B, and axial flow gas turbine C. This engine is 10 within the structure and will not affect the air housed in a nacelle I, having an open forward craft. The blade shapes, pitch, and curvatures end for air intake, at IA. The engine ABC is are entirely dependent on the duties required of situated within an inner shell 2 which is, in effect, them in design conditions. For example the pres a pressure compartment, the engine being sup sure in the air duct 3 between the pairs of wheels plied with air from» the atmosphere within it. 15 may be arranged to be that ofthe atmosphere, or The shell 2 has an air entry at 2A. Between the greater or less, the velocity varying accordingly. Again by suitably designing the ducts in regard wall formed by the structure of the nacelle I, and the shell 2, is an annular air duct 3, which ex-. to their cross-sectional area the pressures and tends from an open end 3A, within the opening velocities may be selected as may be found requi at IA, to an outlet 33. The rear part 213 of the 20' site. The inner structure within the nacelle is wall 2 forms in eifect a continuation of an ex clearly open to wide variation. though it may be haust pipe 4 which con?nes the output gases from the turbine C. The passage in the pipe 4 is said that, in general, radial struts suitably streamlined will be provided to support inner annular, being coaxial around an inner body 5 members and components. Such struts may form which at its rear end is tapered in streamline 25 structural parts of swing into which the nacelle manner, as shown at 5A. The duct for the gases is at 6, and at the rear but within the rearwardly extending end of the nacelle I the gases from the is wholly or partially built. . duct 6 join the air from the outlet 33, both streams emerging to atmosphere as a propulsion jet, through the nozzle formed at IB by the rear endof the nacelle I, or through a jet pipe built on to the rear end of the nacelle, indicated in broken line at IC. Within the forward end of the system is a ' relative air?ow over’ the outside of 'a- nacelle formed by the compartment 2. In such a case the boundary layer air and adjacent air ?owing over the outside of thenacelle will have its ve locity reduced, (so that drag losses will be re duced) and this-air will-be re-accelerated after paired wheel arrangement, ahead of which is a nose fairing l and behind which is an inner wall passing over the nacelle; _ . ' Referring now toFigures 2, 3 and 4, there is here illustrated schematically an arrangement proposed for the twin wheels 10, H, of Figure 1. The forward twin wheels 8, 9, are intended to be arranged somewhat similarly so are not separate ly described. In Figure 2,.‘it will be seen that the wheels I 0, II, are built of two dished disc like parts, this being favoured to a?ord some 1A which may enclose or protect auxiliary details of the engine ABC. ’ It is possible that the skin of the'nacelle I may be omitted. The air?ow in‘ which the blades 8A, 9A, and WA, "A, operate, may thenbethe This wheel arrangement comprises a ?rst wheel 8 and second wheel 9. The wheels have two rows of blades each. They run in opposite directions. Their outer blades, 8A and 9A,‘act as turbine blades and their in ner blades ‘83, 93, as impeller blades. The outer blades operate in and are driven by the air?ow ' measure of damping against vibration. in the duct 3, de-energising this air?ow, and the They are carried on spindles l2, l3, which run in journal and thrust bearings l4, l5, lubricated by suitable inner blades, which are rotated by the outer blades together with the respective wheels, receive air entering at 2A and raise the pressure in the engine compartment, thereby boosting the engine ABC. The air in the intake IA is subject to Pitot pressure due to the relative velocity of the air craft. piping, and supported on brackets» each formed by three radial streamlined struts l6, which sup port the front and rear portions of the body 5, 5A and extend, through the‘ wall of the pipe 4, to the driven by the gas stream in the duct 6, and the outer blades IUB, “B, are impeller blades im parting energy to the air in the duct 3. The operation of the system will probably have Here the brack ets are anchored, by any suitable means prefer ably including a joint at H, and such stiffening as may be required, indicated by the doubling of the skin at I8. The wheel ill has its turbine blades IDA and impeller blades IOB running exposed in the ducts 6 and 3, and the wheel ll, its blades HA, I I3 immediately downstream thereof. The continu ity of the body 5, 5A, is maintained between the been appreciated from the foregoing description, but‘ can be summed up as follows. The ?ow of which almost touch; and that of the pipe 4 by ' outer structure of the nacelle i. At the rear of the system a second pair of twin wheels is provided. These are ill, ll, carrying . inner blades 10A, II A, and outer 'blades MB, NB. The inner blades IOA, “A, are turbine blades roots of the blades IIIA, HA, by bands WC, “0, air entering the duct 3 through 3A imparts energy through the blades 8A, 9A, to the blades 83, 9B, and so to the air entering the engine compart 65 NB, “B, may (as shown) run in channels in ment through 2A. This raises the pressure at the air intakes‘of the compressor A, boosting the en glue. The gas in duct 6 imparts energy through - HID, MD, the air and gases are con?ned, as by banding IOD, HD, whilst the tips of the blades the structure I, and may carry a shroud ring if desired.v By the bands NC, NC, and banding the duct walls. the blades IOA, II A, to the blades NB, H3, and 70 so to the air in the rear of the air duct 3, which air, accelerated, joins the ‘gas and with it forms a propulsive jet emerging at 13. The design is preferably such that the air stream through 33 is at equal velocity and pressure with the gas . Figures 3 and 4 show mid-sections of the blades. These figures are representative, and show the direction and order of. inclination for a given de sign case, also the approximate sectional shape. The arrows 18 indicate‘ sense of rotation and 75 the arrows l9, direction of gas or air?ow. ‘2,405,919 - The ?rst blades to which the air and gas are", incident, viz. IDA and H73, necessarily impart~ whirl to the ?uids, and it is the ‘intention of the 1 second blades HA, HR, to remove that whirl leaving substantially purely axial ?ow, as well as to effect further energy transformation from . gasto air. The general arrangement of the forward whee ‘4. Afpropulsionisystem comprising apower nacelle includingjan annular air duct openjor Warclly and rearwardly,_ a pressure compartment ' , surrounded thereby which has a second forward ly facing air intake substantially coaxial with said air duct, a combustion engine in said com partment with an’exhaust pipe passing rearward ly from said compartment, means whereby energy pair 8, 9, ‘may be similar, although the blade in the air?ow in the air duct is transformed into shapes, disposition, and proportions, will of course 10 energy for boosting the compartment pressure, be designed for the duties to be performed. and means whereby energy in the gas flow in the _What I claim is: exhaust pipe is transformed into energy in the l. Apropulsion system including a combustion air?ow in the airduct, the outlet of said exhaust ' engine as prime mover, ?rst energy transforming pipe cooperating ‘with the outlet of saidair duct? Y means comprising ?rst turbine means and?rst 15 to merge their respective gas and air streams and impeller means driven by said ?rst turbine means, means for leading a ?rst air stream to drives'aid ?rst turbine means, and meansfor leading a sec to deliver‘ said streams rearwardly from the sys tem as a propulsive jet stream; 5. A system according to claimv 4, said two ond air stream to said? first impeller means for energy transforming means comprising free-run deriving energy therefrom, means for supplying 20 ning wheels carrying both turbine and ‘compressor the said second stream to said combustion engine, 'second energy transforming means' comprising 6. A system according to claim 4, each of said further turbine means and further impeller means energy transforming means comprising a pair of driven by the said further turbine means, means free-running wheels adapted to rotate coaxially for leading the exhaust gases from the combus tion engine to drive said further turbine means, 25 in opposite sense, and blading on each wheel to form a compressor and a turbine, said blading means for leading the ?rst air stream through being arranged so that the leaving ?uid from the said further impeller means for deriving each energy transforming means is substantially energy therefrom, and means for delivering said free from whirl velocity. exhaust gases and said ?rst air stream rearward 7. A propulsion system including a combustion 30 ly from the system for reaction propulsion. engine, duct means for creating a ducted air?ow, 2. A propulsion system according to claim 1 blading. having means to which said exhaust from the further turbine means and airstream from the further impeller means are delivered and form _ 1 I - , a ?rst combined turbine and compressor to super charge said engine in deriving energy from said ducted air?ow, a second combined turbine and ing a propulsive jet, said system being adapted 35 compressor mechanically independent of the ?rst, means for leading the exhaust of said engine and to produce useful thrust solely by reaction of said the said ducted air?ow through the said second jet. turbine and compressor elements respectively to 3. A propulsion system comprising a pressure energise said air?ow in deriving energy from said compartment with a forwardly facing air intake, a combustion engine including compressor, com 40 exhaust, and means for delivering the air and gases leaving the said second turbine and com bustion and gas-turbine means installed within pressor rearwardly from the system as a propul said compartment, additional compressor means sive stream. adapted to raise the pressure within said com 8. A system according to claim 7 comprising partment for air supply at elevated pressure to said engine, air turbine means for driving said 45 a circular-sectioned nacelle, a pressure compart ment coaxially within the nacelle, a combustion compressor means mechanically, ducting means engine in said compartment having an annular for directing an air stream operatively through coaxial exhaust pipe, and two pairs of coaxial , said air turbine means, further gas-turbine means energy transforming wheels, the nacelle wall and adapted to be driven by the exhaust gas from said combustion engine, ducting means for con 50 the compartment Wall forming an annular air duct in which outer blading of each wheel is op ducting the exhaust from said combustion‘en eratively situated, the air intake of said compart gine to said further gas turbine means, means ment being annular with the inner blading of one whereby said further gas-turbine means energi'ses pair of wheels operatively situated therein, the said air stream, and means for leading said air stream and the combustion products of said com 55 ‘inner blading of the other pair of wheels being bustion engine to atmosphere to generate propul sive thrust. operatively situated in said exhaust pipe. ' _ _ Patent No. 2,405,919. _ Certi?cate of Correction ' FRANK WHITTLE ' August 13, 1946. ’ It is hereby certi?ed that error appears inthe printed speci?cation of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 1, line 48, strike out "the” and insert instead turbine; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this ccigrection therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent 0 0e. Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946. [am] vHESLIE FRAZER, First Assistant Commissioner of Patents.