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Патент USA US2405919

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Aug; 13, 1946.
F_ WHITTLE
.
Z?UE?lg
FLUID FLOW ENERGY TRANSFORMER
Filed OCt. 23, 1942
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2 Sheets-Sheet l
Aug. 13,1946.
F. WHITTLE
2,405,919
FLUID FLOW ENERGY TRANSFORMER
Filed Oct. 25, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Patented Aug. 13, 1946 v
‘ 2,405,919
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,919
FLUID FLOW ENERGY TRANSFORMER
Frank Whittle, Rugby, England, assignor to Power
Jets (Research and- Development) Limited,
London, England
Application October 23, 1942, Serial No. 463,140
1
In Great Britain March 2, 1940
8 Claims. (01. 60-355)
This invention relates to ?uid ?ow energy trans
formers and the application thereof to propulsive
systems, more especially (but not necessarily
exclusively) of aircraft. By the term ?uid ?ow
energy transformer is meant, means or a system
' by which a ?ow of ?uid at one energy potential
is made to a?ect a second ?ow so as to vary the
2,
axial it is intended to distinguish only from ro
tational, and not to exclude a radial component
of direction).
The exhaust of the engine and
the reenergised air?ow from the second impeller
means, may. be caused to join into one common
stream for the purpose of reaction propulsion,
and the pressures and velocities where they join
energy potential in the second. Thus for ex
may by design be adjusted to be practically equal.
ample, the relative air?ow through a power
The invention embraces an arrangement of a
nacelle of an aircraft may be robbed of energy 10 nacelle and other components which is preferred;
which is transformed into pressure energy in an
this arrangement provides an annular air duct
engine induction system to boost the engine; and
by further transformation the energy-depleted
air?ow through the nacelle may be reenergised,
this energy being derived from that in an ex
haust flow from the engine. In addition this sec
ond transformation may impart energy to the
air?ow beyond that which was originally avail
con?ning the air?ow through the nacelle in
which the ?rst turbine and second impeller means
are operatively exposed; and a pressure compart
15 ment containing the combustion engine, with an
annular intake eye, and an annular exhaust duct.
In the air intake for engine supply operates the
?rst impeller means, and in the exhaust duct the
able, in order effectively to use this air?ow as, or
second turbine means. The annular form of the
as part of, a reaction propulsion jet. Whilst such 20 ducts is thus well adapted not only to the nacelle
example is clearly primarily applicable to air
form in which it is proposed to embody the in
craft, it is conceivable that it might be employed
vention, but also to the particular form of Wheels
for the propulsion of other vehicles or objects.
proposed. The ?uid ?ows are preferably con
Whilst the present proposals have in mind par
?ned, that is to say, they ?ow within con?nes
ticularly, propulsion systems which are depend 25 formed by Walls or the like.
ent on jet reaction only, it will be appreciated
The invention is intended to be used with a
that they may be included in systems using air
combustion engine for reaction propulsion of
screw propulsion, although it is believed that
the previously. proposed kind in which is com
some degree of propulsion by jet reaction will al
bined a compressor for air, fuel burning means
ways be utilised to take full advantage of_ the in 30 in the compressed air delivered therefrom, and a
vention.
gas turbine driven by the resultant gases and
According to the invention, there is proposed a
using part of the useful energy thereof to drive
propulsion system in which the prime mover is
the compressor, the gaseous output leaving the
a combustion engine, and which includes energy
turbine forming the reaction propulsion jet
transforming means comprising turbine means 35 stream. The invention is not, however, limited
driven by an air stream and impeller means to
in its application, to this particular kind of com
operate in a second air stream and driven by the
bustion engine, which in any case forms no part
said turbine means, the air from the impeller
of the present invention.
means being supplied tothe combustion engine,
The main object of the present invention is to
and the exhaust from the combustion engine op 40. increase the effective thrust of a propulsive sys~
erates second energy transforming means again
comprising turbine and impeller means which
tem which includes a combustion engine of
sense coaxially, the blading and impeller blading
of a convenient and sound arrangement for a
which the performance can- be raised by boost
impart energy into the ?rst airstream to raise
ing the air intake. Another object is to increase
its energy potential.
the e?‘ective total momentum of ?uid discharged
Further according to the invention, the turbine 45 in unit time, in a reaction jet propulsion system
and impeller means comprise paired or twin '
or a system for propulsion in part by reaction of
wheels arranged to spin in opposite rotational
a jet or jets. Other objects, such as the provision .
being carried by each wheel, preferably one row
power nacelle, may be achieved by the invention.
outside the other. By virtue of such arrange 50
The invention and its objects will be better
ment the leaving streams from the turbine and
understood after considering the following de
the impeller means, can be substantially purely
scription of an example of it, with’ the aid of the
axial in direction, which is desirable. Or, other
blade means may be provided to ensure substan
tial axiality of ?ow.
accompanying diagrammatic drawings. In these
drawings, Figure l is a schematic view of an ar
(In referring to a ?ow as“: rangement. Figure 2 is a sectional view of a
2,405,919
3
4
scheme of twin wheel construction, and Figures 3
leaving the gas duct.
and 4 show representative blade‘ sections of blades ‘
though‘ probably less advantageous, merely to
in Figure 2, on the lines III-III and IV-IV of
Fig. 2 respectively.
restore to the‘ air the energy givenvup in the
forward turbine pair (8A, 9A) so as to obviate
what would otherwise be virtually a, drag loss.
The ‘pairs 01' wheels 8, 9, and I0, H, are in
tended to be borne on journal and thrust bearings
In Figure 1, which illustrates a power nacelle
for aircraft propulsion, the prime mover is a com
But it is also possible,
bustion engine illustrated as being in the same
general form as that in Figure 1, namely: one
, in structure which is rigid in itself so that gyro
comprising a compressor A, combustion chambers
scopic forces from the wheels will be resisted
B, and axial flow gas turbine C. This engine is 10 within the structure and will not affect the air
housed in a nacelle I, having an open forward
craft. The blade shapes, pitch, and curvatures
end for air intake, at IA. The engine ABC is
are entirely dependent on the duties required of
situated within an inner shell 2 which is, in effect,
them in design conditions. For example the pres
a pressure compartment, the engine being sup
sure in the air duct 3 between the pairs of wheels
plied with air from» the atmosphere within it. 15 may be arranged to be that ofthe atmosphere, or
The shell 2 has an air entry at 2A. Between the
greater or less, the velocity varying accordingly.
Again by suitably designing the ducts in regard
wall formed by the structure of the nacelle I, and
the shell 2, is an annular air duct 3, which ex-.
to their cross-sectional area the pressures and
tends from an open end 3A, within the opening
velocities may be selected as may be found requi
at IA, to an outlet 33. The rear part 213 of the 20' site. The inner structure within the nacelle is
wall 2 forms in eifect a continuation of an ex
clearly open to wide variation. though it may be
haust pipe 4 which con?nes the output gases from
the turbine C. The passage in the pipe 4 is
said that, in general, radial struts suitably
streamlined will be provided to support inner
annular, being coaxial around an inner body 5
members and components. Such struts may form
which at its rear end is tapered in streamline 25 structural parts of swing into which the nacelle
manner, as shown at 5A. The duct for the gases
is at 6, and at the rear but within the rearwardly
extending end of the nacelle I the gases from the
is wholly or partially built. .
duct 6 join the air from the outlet 33, both
streams emerging to atmosphere as a propulsion
jet, through the nozzle formed at IB by the rear
endof the nacelle I, or through a jet pipe built
on to the rear end of the nacelle, indicated in
broken line at IC.
Within the forward end of the system is a
'
relative air?ow over’ the outside of 'a- nacelle
formed by the compartment 2. In such a case
the boundary layer air and adjacent air ?owing
over the outside of thenacelle will have its ve
locity reduced, (so that drag losses will be re
duced) and this-air will-be re-accelerated after
paired wheel arrangement, ahead of which is a
nose fairing l and behind which is an inner wall
passing over the nacelle; _
.
'
Referring now toFigures 2, 3 and 4, there is
here illustrated schematically an arrangement
proposed for the twin wheels 10, H, of Figure 1.
The forward twin wheels 8, 9, are intended to be
arranged somewhat similarly so are not separate
ly described. In Figure 2,.‘it will be seen that
the wheels I 0, II, are built of two dished disc
like parts, this being favoured to a?ord some
1A which may enclose or protect auxiliary details
of the engine ABC.
’
It is possible that the skin of the'nacelle I may
be omitted. The air?ow in‘ which the blades
8A, 9A, and WA, "A, operate, may thenbethe
This wheel arrangement
comprises a ?rst wheel 8 and second wheel 9.
The wheels have two rows of blades each. They
run in opposite directions. Their outer blades,
8A and 9A,‘act as turbine blades and their in
ner blades ‘83, 93, as impeller blades. The outer
blades operate in and are driven by the air?ow
' measure of damping against vibration.
in the duct 3, de-energising this air?ow, and the
They are
carried on spindles l2, l3, which run in journal
and thrust bearings l4, l5, lubricated by suitable
inner blades, which are rotated by the outer
blades together with the respective wheels, receive
air entering at 2A and raise the pressure in the
engine compartment, thereby boosting the engine
ABC. The air in the intake IA is subject to Pitot
pressure due to the relative velocity of the air
craft.
piping, and supported on brackets» each formed
by three radial streamlined struts l6, which sup
port the front and rear portions of the body 5, 5A
and extend, through the‘ wall of the pipe 4, to the
driven by the gas stream in the duct 6, and the
outer blades IUB, “B, are impeller blades im
parting energy to the air in the duct 3.
The operation of the system will probably have
Here the brack
ets are anchored, by any suitable means prefer
ably including a joint at H, and such stiffening
as may be required, indicated by the doubling of
the skin at I8.
The wheel ill has its turbine blades IDA and
impeller blades IOB running exposed in the ducts
6 and 3, and the wheel ll, its blades HA, I I3
immediately downstream thereof. The continu
ity of the body 5, 5A, is maintained between the
been appreciated from the foregoing description, but‘ can be summed up as follows. The ?ow of
which almost touch; and that of the pipe 4 by
' outer structure of the nacelle i.
At the rear of the system a second pair of twin
wheels is provided. These are ill, ll, carrying .
inner blades 10A, II A, and outer 'blades MB, NB.
The inner blades IOA, “A, are turbine blades
roots of the blades IIIA, HA, by bands WC, “0,
air entering the duct 3 through 3A imparts energy
through the blades 8A, 9A, to the blades 83, 9B,
and so to the air entering the engine compart
65 NB, “B, may (as shown) run in channels in
ment through 2A. This raises the pressure at the
air intakes‘of the compressor A, boosting the en
glue. The gas in duct 6 imparts energy through
- HID, MD, the air and gases are con?ned, as by
banding IOD, HD, whilst the tips of the blades
the structure I, and may carry a shroud ring if
desired.v By the bands NC, NC, and banding
the duct walls.
the blades IOA, II A, to the blades NB, H3, and 70
so to the air in the rear of the air duct 3, which
air, accelerated, joins the ‘gas and with it forms
a propulsive jet emerging at 13. The design is
preferably such that the air stream through 33
is at equal velocity and pressure with the gas
.
Figures 3 and 4 show mid-sections of the blades.
These figures are representative, and show the
direction and order of. inclination for a given de
sign case, also the approximate sectional shape.
The arrows 18 indicate‘ sense of rotation and
75 the arrows l9, direction of gas or air?ow.
‘2,405,919
- The ?rst blades to which the air and gas are",
incident, viz. IDA and H73, necessarily impart~
whirl to the ?uids, and it is the ‘intention of the 1
second blades HA, HR, to remove that whirl
leaving substantially purely axial ?ow, as well
as to effect further energy transformation from .
gasto air.
The general arrangement of the forward whee
‘4. Afpropulsionisystem comprising apower
nacelle includingjan annular air duct openjor
Warclly and rearwardly,_ a pressure compartment
' , surrounded thereby which has a second forward
ly facing air intake substantially coaxial with
said air duct, a combustion engine in said com
partment with an’exhaust pipe passing rearward
ly from said compartment, means whereby energy
pair 8, 9, ‘may be similar, although the blade
in the air?ow in the air duct is transformed into
shapes, disposition, and proportions, will of course 10 energy
for boosting the compartment pressure,
be designed for the duties to be performed.
and means whereby energy in the gas flow in the
_What I claim is:
exhaust pipe is transformed into energy in the
l. Apropulsion system including a combustion
air?ow in the airduct, the outlet of said exhaust '
engine as prime mover, ?rst energy transforming
pipe cooperating ‘with the outlet of saidair duct?
Y means comprising ?rst turbine means and?rst 15
to merge their respective gas and air streams and
impeller means driven by said ?rst turbine means,
means for leading a ?rst air stream to drives'aid
?rst turbine means, and meansfor leading a sec
to deliver‘ said streams rearwardly from the sys
tem as a propulsive jet stream;
5. A system according to claimv 4, said two
ond air stream to said? first impeller means for
energy transforming means comprising free-run
deriving energy therefrom, means for supplying 20 ning
wheels carrying both turbine and ‘compressor
the said second stream to said combustion engine,
'second energy transforming means' comprising
6. A system according to claim 4, each of said
further turbine means and further impeller means
energy transforming means comprising a pair of
driven by the said further turbine means, means
free-running wheels adapted to rotate coaxially
for leading the exhaust gases from the combus
tion engine to drive said further turbine means, 25 in opposite sense, and blading on each wheel to
form a compressor and a turbine, said blading
means for leading the ?rst air stream through
being arranged so that the leaving ?uid from
the said further impeller means for deriving
each
energy transforming means is substantially
energy therefrom, and means for delivering said
free from whirl velocity.
exhaust gases and said ?rst air stream rearward
7. A propulsion system including a combustion
30
ly from the system for reaction propulsion.
engine, duct means for creating a ducted air?ow,
2. A propulsion system according to claim 1
blading.
having means to which said exhaust from the
further turbine means and airstream from the
further impeller means are delivered and form
_
1
I
-
,
a ?rst combined turbine and compressor to super
charge said engine in deriving energy from said
ducted air?ow, a second combined turbine and
ing a propulsive jet, said system being adapted 35 compressor mechanically independent of the ?rst,
means for leading the exhaust of said engine and
to produce useful thrust solely by reaction of said
the said ducted air?ow through the said second
jet.
turbine and compressor elements respectively to
3. A propulsion system comprising a pressure
energise said air?ow in deriving energy from said
compartment with a forwardly facing air intake,
a combustion engine including compressor, com 40 exhaust, and means for delivering the air and
gases leaving the said second turbine and com
bustion and gas-turbine means installed within
pressor
rearwardly from the system as a propul
said compartment, additional compressor means
sive stream.
adapted to raise the pressure within said com
8. A system according to claim 7 comprising
partment for air supply at elevated pressure to
said engine, air turbine means for driving said 45 a circular-sectioned nacelle, a pressure compart
ment coaxially within the nacelle, a combustion
compressor means mechanically, ducting means
engine in said compartment having an annular
for directing an air stream operatively through
coaxial exhaust pipe, and two pairs of coaxial
, said air turbine means, further gas-turbine means
energy
transforming wheels, the nacelle wall and
adapted to be driven by the exhaust gas from
said combustion engine, ducting means for con 50 the compartment Wall forming an annular air
duct in which outer blading of each wheel is op
ducting the exhaust from said combustion‘en
eratively situated, the air intake of said compart
gine to said further gas turbine means, means
ment being annular with the inner blading of one
whereby said further gas-turbine means energi'ses
pair of wheels operatively situated therein, the
said air stream, and means for leading said air
stream and the combustion products of said com 55 ‘inner blading of the other pair of wheels being
bustion engine to atmosphere to generate propul
sive thrust.
operatively situated in said exhaust pipe.
'
_
_
Patent No. 2,405,919.
_
Certi?cate of Correction
'
FRANK WHITTLE
'
August 13, 1946.
’
It is hereby certi?ed that error appears inthe printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 1, line 48, strike out "the”
and insert instead turbine; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this
ccigrection therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent
0 0e.
Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946.
[am]
vHESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
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