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Патент USA US2405938

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Filed Juvly 18, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet l
¿QU/5' 55E#
Àugo 25329 E94@
- i
2,495,938 A
~ Filed July 18, 1944
HG' 6'
2 sheets-sheet 2
BY ,ma ¿im
Patented Àug. 20, 1946
-lLonis Beeh, Long Meadow, Mass.
Application July 18, 1944, Serial No. 545,426
7 Claims. (Cl. 10S-173)
The invention relates to an injection pump for
charging the cylinders of an internalA combustion
engine, and aims to provide a relatively simple
and low cost pump useful for engines of the
spark ignition type as well as for those with
compression ignition. In multiple cylinder en
gines for which the pump according to the in
tion it is possible first to sort the pump cylinders
vention is destined, it frequently happens that the
and plungers as they are produced, according to
their sizes, in order to fit together sets of a
cylinder and plunger oi exact size, other sets of
a cylinder and plunger, »both oversized within
admissible lim-its, and still other sets of under
sized cylinder `and plunger. `Then pumps may be
assembled having only correct sized pump units,
or- only oversized or only undersized ones, eX
lcept in the event that one or the other unit of
different size is desired in a pump for the reasons
mentioned hereinbeiore. The difference in the
mainder of the cylinders in order to attain high
output of pumps assembled of correct sized units
est or most economical output of the engine.
in comparison to those of undersize or oversize
The conventional injection pumps cannot or not
readily be adapted to such differences. Further 15 may then be equalized by an initial setting of
the control organ. In ordery to facilitate the
more, if in such a pump, parts such as'pump,
correct ñtting together of a pump cylinder and
Ibarrel or plunger are worn or become defective
a plunger, the latter may be provided with in
for other reasons, the entire pump is frequently
terior means, also according to the invention
beyond repair; also, any failures of the conven
tional pump will put the whole engine to be 20 whereby it may be adjustably expanded to a
slight extent.
charged by the pump out of operation. The in
Further objects and details of the invention
vention contemplates to overcome the indicated
will be apparent from the description given
drawbacks by providin-g a pump comprising in
hereinafter and the accompanying drawings il
one housing a plurality of pump units,`i.l e. as
many as there are engine cylinders to be charged 25 lustrating an embodiment thereof by way of
by the multiple pump which further comprises a
In the drawings,
timing and/or metering organ common to all the
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal cross-section of a pump y
pump units and controlling their output as to
cylinders are not uniform as to their fuel con
sumption so that the one or the other cylinder
should be charged more or less than the re--
time and quantity. The invention also provides
a structure whereby the pump cylinders and
plungers may be separately removed and ex
changed. In this manner it is possible not only
to replace defective parts individually but also
to have pump cylinder and plunger units,` of
slightly different diameter combined in one pump»
as the diiîerences in the engine cylinders may
requiref The common control organ, on the
according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is a cross-section along line 2_2 of
Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal cross-section of one
of the plungers with a foot flange attached
Fig. 4 is a bottom plan view of the plunger
and flange;
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of the control organ
of the pump; and
other hand, insures uniformity in timing and
Fig. 6 is a diagram illustrating the operation
metering. Moreover, if during the operation of
an engine charged by the pump, one of the units 4.0 of the control organ.
Referring now to the drawings, the illustrated
should become defective so that one of the cylin
pump comprises a housing Ii) formed of a main
ders of the engine cannot properly function, it
body I I, a cover I2 and a top I3. The three parts
will be necessary only, if at all, to disconnect the
are held together by means such' as bolts I4
particular unit from the cylinder. The other
engaging with their threaded lower ends I5 in
units may then still operate as required to charge
teriorbrackets I6 of the body Il. Gaskets such
their coordinate cylinders in the same manner
as before.
The fac-t that the pump cylinders are
as indicated at I'I may be applied to insure fluid
tightness where required. The body I I has a foot
not integral with the housing presents another
i8 and a lower extension I9 shaped as a bearing
advantage which will be particularly noticeable
in the production of large series of such pumps. 50 with its axis coinciding with the central axis
a-a of the substantially cylindrical housing. In
Correct metering of the fuel to be injected per
teriorly of the body II and coaxially therewith,
each charging stroke of an engine cylinder re
a barrel 20 bears with a flange 2| on an interior
quires utmost acuracy with practically no toler
shoulder 22 of the body wall, and the bolts III
ences in the Vmanufacturing of the parts of the
pump. With the pump vaccording tothe inven 55 passed ñttlngly through recesses 2_3'prevent the
barrel from turning. The barrel having a central
bore 2li throughout its length extends from th'e
top of body H downward, and its ñange 2l is
spaced in the periperal direction. Other ports'
62 are provided in the barrel. ,In the illustrated
embodiment, they are arranged intermediate the
ports Si, but their location may be selected dif
ferently as it will be clear from description here
provided with a number of holes 25 according to
the number of individual pump units. These
holes are equidistant from the axis a-a and
inafter. The ports B2 are connected by conduits
equally spaced as to each two neighbored holes.
S3 to the space 84 constituting a fuel chamber
Each pump unit comprises a cylinder 26 ñtted
between the wall of body H, the cover I2, flange
into one of the holes 25 with' its axis parallel to
2l, and the upper portions of the cylinders 2B
the central axis a-a and bearing with a shoul 10 and the barrel 20. Chamber Ell has an opening
der 27 on flange 2l. A gasket 28 is interposi
55 in the side wall of body H to which a pipe
tioned between the shoulder and the flange. The
line (not shown) from a fuel source may be con
arrangement may be such that a portion of the
nected to charge the chamber.
upper part of the cylinder 2li` is in close Contact
The ports El are controlled by the common
with an outer wall portion of the barrel-21) which
control valve GB rotatably and axially movable
for this purpose is of a larger diameter above than
in the barrel space 24. The valve 66, as clearly
below the flange 2l and is provided with-> arcuate
recesses 29. Each pump unit further comprises
a plunger 353 reciprocatable in cylinder 2B andV
projecting therefrom with its lower or foot end
3! so shaped as to engage a cooperating driving
element to be described herein after.~ In view 'of
the abovementioned requirements-of -an injec
tion pump plunger as to the accuracyV of -its di
mensions, the plunger may be of a structure
shown in Fig. 3, and which is also'part of the
present invention. This plunger has abody con
sisting of a tube 32 closed at its lower end by a
shown in Fig. 5, has two peripheral grooves 5l
and `E58 `near the top and bottom thereof to serve
as lubricating grooves. Intermediate its grooved
portions the valve body is circumferentially re
cessed at 6e and within that recess a land 'IQ
is provided which increases in width from` its
top towards the bottom end. The outer surface
of the land 'I0 constitutes a part of a cylinder
with the same diameter as the inner diameter
of the barrel. In consequence, if the land covers
one of the ports 6I or 62 such port will be
closed, whereas the other ports are free to com»
municate with the space ‘H formed by the inner
barrel wall and the walls of the recess Si). How
threading 37. The tube is filled with a preferably 30 ever, it should be noticed that closing of a partic
elastic material 34 such as rubber and a tapered
ular port 62 does not interrupt,- between cham
pin 35 is driven from the top into the filler. A
ber B4 and space il, the communication which
nut 36 is screwed into the mentioned threading
Yis maintained through the other ports S2 and
3l of the top of the tube so as to bear on the pin 35 their connecting conduits 63. Hence, for proper
35. Thus, by turning the nut the depth can be
operation of the pump it is immaterial how many
adjusted to which the pin is forced into the ñller
ports G2 there are in the barrel and where they
34, and more or less pressure can be exerted by
located in relation to the ports 6l, provided
the ñller on the tube from the interior to expand
the recess space 'H is in permanent communi
the tube diameter to the very slight extent which 40 cation with the low pressure fuel chamber 64.
may be required in order to ñt the plunger to its
For this reason, it Will be necessary to consider
cylinder. The foot member 33 has a peripheral
hereinafter the effect of the movement of land
groove 38 and its lower endfface 39 is prefer
l'û on the ports El only as far as the operation of
ably curved or ball-shaped. ' A washer 4€) with a
the pumpis concerned.
radial recess 4l engages the groove 38, and a
Furthermore, it will be clear that during the
second washer 42 provided in its bottom face
member 33 ñttedinto and secured to the tube
which, at its top end, is providedwith an interior
with a circular recess d3 according to the size of
the wash'er 6G is slipped on the plunger 'in axial
direction, so that both washers -hold each other in
position. The plunger Sii with the washers 4d `Ä
and 42 thereon is inserted into its cylinder 2B
from below and a compression spring 44 is inter
positioned between the flange 2| and washer A132
so as to bias the plunger in a downward direction.
The pump units are secured in the housing by
the cover l2 the lower face of which bears not
only on the top rim of the body Il but also on
the top faces of the -cylinders 2li and of the bar
rel 28. In the same radial planes as the cylin
ders 25 are arranged, the cover l2 is provided
with chambers 5B opening towards the outside 60
and having an interior threading 5l into which
a connecting member 52 is screwed for the at
tachment of a pipe line'53 to an engine >cylinder
not shown. The chamber bottom 54 forms a seat
for a valve such as ball 55 urged against its seat
by a spring 5S bearing on the connecting mem
ber 52. Each valve 55 controls communication of
a radial conduit 5l with its coordinate `chamber
5d. Conduit El has two branches 5S and 59 of 70
which the former communicates with‘ the interior
of cylinder 26 whereas branch 59 is continued by
a conduit Si! in the wall of barrel 2li. Each con
duit GQ ends in a port S-l of the barrel, all the>
ports 6l being on the same level and equally 75
rotation of the valve 66 a port 6i will be closed
‘the longer, the wider the portion of the land 'lil
is, which covers such port. Thus, the lower the
position of the valve Sii (shown in Fig. 1 in its
lowermo'st position) in barrel 2S is, the longer
the ports will be closed, one after the other. In
the illustrated embodiment, the ñank 72 is paral
lel to the axis, and flank 'I3 is so helically curved
that the developments of Aboth ilanks are straight
lined in which event the increase or decrease of
the closing time of a port will be at the same »ra
tio as a corresponding axial movement of the
valve. If, however, some other ratio is desired,
this can be attained by curving the flanks ac
cording to the law to be followed in controlling
the ports. Presuming now that a certain port
6| is open, communication exists between cham
ber 64 with the interior of the coordinate cylin
der 26 through at least a number of the conduits
S3, valve recess space "il, port Si and conduits
60, 59, 51, 58. If, however, land 'lll covers such
port 6l the just described connection will be in
terrupted. In order to operate the movable parts
of the Dump units and the common valve, a drive
is provided which comprises a shaft l5 Which is
rotatable in bearing I9 and has a collar 'i6 bear
ing on a surface 'il of the vbottom wall of hous
ing ybody Il. The top end 78 of shaft "I5 is cylin
drical, however with an axis at Yan angle to the
central axis of the housing and the shaft '15. The
top surface 19 of collar 16 is in a plane at right
which is reached when bushing |0| bears on the
said surface |01. Chamber 05 opens at |08 into
the atmosphere while the chamber 91 may be con
nected to the mentioned engine manifold by
Iangles to the inclined shaft head 18. A wobble
or swash plate 80 is splined at 8| to shaft head
18 and the arrangement is 'such that the feet 3|
means of a pipe (not shown) , which may be
of the plunger 30 bear on the plane top surface
screwed into the threading |09 of a bore ||0 pro
82 of the plate 80, and the point of intersection c
vided in the wall of the housing top I3. Thus, if
of the axis of the top end 18 with the axis a-a
a vacuum prevails in chamber 81 the diaphragm
is preferably located in the plane of said top
95 will bend upward against the restraint of
surface 32. Now it will be clear that during a
rotation of the shaft 15 each plunger 30 will be lO spring |06 and thus lift the Valve 66 in axial direc
tion. The rotary movement of the valve will not
lifted against the restraint of its spring M to its
be transmitted to the diaphragm because valve '65
topmost position shown in the left hand side of
with nut 92 is free to rotate about the rod 93 as
Fig. l and will be lowered by spring 44 to the po
stated hereinbefore. Upward movement of the
sition of the plunger 30 on the righthand side
valve may be limited by an adjustable stop which
according to the inclination of the face 82. Thus,
may have resilient qualities. For this purpose, a
each plunger will complete one reciprocation dur
buifer’spring II | is mounted interiorly of a cap
ing each revolution of the shaft 15; however, the
nut ||2 screwed into an axial threading H3 in
phases of such plunger movement will be dis
top portion of the housing part | 3. Thus,
placed according to the number of pump units in
the housing. In other words, if there are for in 20 when valve E5 is lifted sufñciently high, nut |03
will engage the end face of the downwardly pro
stance eightV units, as shown in the present emu
vjecting spring | | I, whereby the axial valve move
bodiment, that means if the pump is destined for
ment will be stopped by the force of that spring.
an eight-cylinder engine, then the phase dis~
A headed nut IIB may be provided to close the
placement between two subsequent plungers will
opening into which nut ||2 is screwed. In order
be 45°. A connection between shaft 15 and valve
to lubricate the movable parts of the pump, the
50 is provided so that both will rotate in syn«
`'free space in body I | underneath the barrel flange
chronism, howeven. in such a manner that the
2| may be used as an oil chamber |20 which may
valve may be axially shifted in relation to the
be charged through an opening |2I in the side
shaft during rotation. For this purpose, shaft
head 13 is provided with a bore 83 in line with 30 wall of the body. From this chamber oil conduits
may lead to the movable parts as for instance con
the central axis a-a and also with spline grooves
duit |22, leading to longitudinal grooves or re
84 parallel to that axis. Similarly, valve 66 has
cesses |23 in the wall of the cylinder 20. Also the
a bore 85 with spline grooves 86. A connecting
plungers 28 may be provided with peripheral
rod 81 engages in both said bores B3 and 85 and
cross pins S8 and 89 are passed through rod 8'? 35 grooves |25 (not shown in Fig. 3) for this pur
pose, if the wall of the plunger tube 32 is suffi
so as to engage the grooves 84 and 68 respectively,
ciently thick. Similarly, a conduit |25 may carry
If now, the lower end of shaft 15 projecting from
oil to the bearings 19 of the wobble plate and |9
the bearing I9 is connected to a driving means
of the shaft 15. Furthermore, a conduit |26 may
(not shown), rotation of shaft 15 will cause re
be provided through the length of valve 56 so that
ciprocation of the plungers 38 and'simultaneous
oil may pass from chamber 24 to chamber |23
rotation of the valve 86. Connected to a four»
cycle engine, the pump shaft 15 should rotatie
when the valve moves in axial direction.
with half the R. P. M. of the engine crank shaft.
The control valve 66 may be moved in axial di
rection by any suitable and conventional means
in the following manner. When shaft 15 is ro
tated the wobble or swash plate 80 will also turn
and according to any law desirable according to
the engine to which the pump is applied. In the
present embodiment, the valve may be actuated
and will thereby enforce axial reciprocation of
the plungers in cooperation with their springs 44.
The plunger on the lefthand side of Fig. 1 is in its
in axial direction by and according to the vacuum
prevailing in the manifold of the engine for which
the pump is destined.V For this purpose the valve
is provided with an upper threaded bore 90 1nto
topmost position, that means the compression
stroke of this plunger has just been completed
and withshaft 15 rotating in the direction of the
arrow b, the plunger will have been shifted into
the lowermost position after 180°, i. e., into the
position of the plunger in the righthand side of
Fig. 1, in which its suction stroke is completed.
As stated hereinbefore, the valve recess space 1|
is in permanent communication with the low
which a nut 82 is screwed. The nut has an axial
bore through which a headed rod S3 is passed so
as to bear against the lower surface of the nut 92
and the bottom of bore 9|) without being clamped
so that the valve 88 with nut 92 can freely rotate
about the rod. Rod 93 extends upward through
cover I2 and has a threaded upper end 80. A dia
The pump according to the invention operates
pressure chamber vE54, and as furthermore, the
relative position of the valve is such that, dur
phragm 95 is clamped between the cover I2 and 60 ing the .suction stroke of the plunger, the coordi
the dome-shaped housing top I3 so that it forms a
nate port El is uncovered, fuel will enter and fill
partition between a lower chamber 88 and an up
the free cylinder space of the contemplated pump
per chamber 91. The diaphragm is reinforced 1n
unit. When now, during further rotation of the
its central part by a lower disc 8S and two upper
plate 80, that means during the compression
concentric discs 89 and |00, and a bushing ||ll is
stroke or part of the compression stroke of the
secured to the center of the diaphragm aI _d the
plunger, the land 10 of valve 86 covers the coordi~
discs 08 and |00. Rod 93 is screwed through Íush
nate port 6|, communication between the recess
ing 10|, and two nuts |02 and |03 are provided
and the cylinder space will be interrupted and the
to hold the rod adjusted relatively to the dia
phragm. The central portion of the housing 70 fuel pressure in the cylinder will act on the con
nected check valve 55 to open it so that fuel will
cover is recessed at |05 so that the bushing |0|
ejected through the valve chamber 50 into the
may rest on the recess bottom |01. Between the
pipe line 53. If then, during a later portion of the
reinforcing disc |00 and the housing top Part I3,
compression stroke land 10 has passed the port 6|
a spring |08 is interpositioned, tending to urge
valve 65 downward into its lowermost position 75 the remainder ofthe fuel in the cylinder will be
returned to the space ’ll and ‘the low pressure
chamber 64.
If now during the operation of the pump »the
vacuum of the engine manifold increases, :the
higher difference of pressure between chambers Ul
9S and 91 will cause the diaphragm 95 ’to bend
upward and thereby to raise the valve. In conse
quence, a narrower portion of the land will pass
for metering the quantity of the ejected fuel.
It will be apparent to those skilled in lthe- art
that many alterations and modifications of the
mechanism illustrated and described are possible
without departing from the spirit and essence of
my `invention which for this reason shall be lim
ited only by the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a fuel injection pump comprising a plu
rality of pump units, each including a cylinder
be closed for a shorter portion of a revolution of
swash plateV 80 and that fuel will be ejected
through a smaller portion ofthe compression
strokes of the plungers. It is of course necessary
to position valve 66 so from the start that the
leading edge 12 of land 'l0 `just has completed or
nearly completed covering a certain portion 6|
when the coordinate plunger is in that position in
which it is intended to start ejection of fuel. This
is diagrammatically shown in Fig. 6, where curve
with -reciprocatable plunger therein, the combi
nation of a common fuel supply chamber, as
many discharge valves as there are pump units
I indicates the plunger movement during one ~
complete revolution of the swash plate `8l) or what
amounts to the same during one revolution of the
valve 66. For sake of illustration, the plunger to
which curve I relates may be denoted as the ñfth
of the number of eight unit plungers in the pump. Thus the point A is identified as the upper dead
center of the fifth plunger, B is the lower dead
center, and C the upper dead center reached after
one plunger reciprocation, Underneath this curve
the ports SI and 62 are shown on the line Il, and
the ports 6I are further distinguished by the
reference numerals I to 8 according to the num
ber of the pump units or plungers to which they
and coordinated to the latter respectively, first
conduits from said supply chamber to said dis
charge valves respectively, a rotatable valve in
controlling relationship to said conduits so as to
cyclically close said conduits each during va por
tion of the pressure stroke of the coordinate
pump unit plunger, and second conduits connect
ing the cylinders respectively with the coordinate
first conduits at points between the rotatable
valve and the discharge valves.
l2. A fuel injection pump comprising a plural
ity of parallel pump units arranged on a circle,
each unit including a cylinder barrel with a, re
ciprocatable plunger therein, a cover for the cyl
are coordinated. At III the land lû is shown as
a development of the surface of valve 65, and it .
is assumed that rotation occurs or that the land
advances in relation to the ports 6| and 62 in
If it is further as
sumed that ejection of fuel from the fifth pump
unit is intended to start at the point D of the
plunger compression stroke BC, then, the relative
position of the parts should be as shown, that
means the leading edge 'I2 of the land 'Hl is in
inder barrels, said cover being provided with
ports opening into said cylinders respectively, as
many discharge valves as there are pump units
and coordinated to the latter respectively, a com
mon fuel supply chamber, first conduits from said
supply chamber to said discharge valves respec
tively, a rotatable valve in controlling relation
ship to said conduits, a common drive for
cyclically reciprocating the plungers and for ro
a position in which the land just covers the port
6 I -5 shown on top of it. This port will stay cov- .f
ered until the trailing edge 'i3 of the advancing
land begins to clear it. If during the time of the
land passing port {il-5 the level :r-r of the
land was in registry with the level of the. ports,
the plunger will have risen in the meantime to
point E so that the quantity of ejected fuel will
correspond to a piston >movement according to
the length of the line et. Similarly if valve 5€
the valve is lowered from m to jy. Similarly, »a dc
’layed or advanced opening of the ports 6| can
be attained if `the leading edge is inclined with
its lower end backward or forward respectively.
Thus, the valve may serve for timing as well as
the ports 6 I, with the result that each port 51 will
the direction of the arrow d.
the `piston requires to move from D to F when
tating said rotatable valve so as to cause the lat
ter to close said first conduits each during a por
tion of the pressure stroke of the coordinate
pump >unit plunger, and second conduits con-l
necting said ports respectively with the coordi
nate iirst conduits at points between said rotat
has been so lowered that its level y-y ,is in reg
istry with the ports, the land will cover the port _
Sl--E to cause fuel ejection during the plunger
stroke portion from D to F or according to the
length of line n. It will be clear that the operation
of the other pump units is similai- to _that just de
scribed, with tlle diïerence. however, that the 60
stroke of each subsequent plunger is delayed in
able valve and said discharge valves.
3. A fuel injection pump comprising a sub
stantially cylindrical housing, a plurality of par
allel pump units including‘each a cylinder with
_a reciprocatable plunger therein, and arranged
on a circle within the housing so as t0 form a
peripheral fuel supply chamber substantially be
tween said cylinders and said housing, a central
ly located barrel constituting an inner chamber,
said inner chamber having ports, one for each
pump unit, on the same level in the wall of said
barrel, a permanently open connection between
said two chambers, as many discharge valves as
phase according to 360° divided by the number of
there are pump units and coordinated to the lat
units in the pump. Thus, the quantity of ejected
ter respectively, ñrst conduits each connecting
fuel can be metered by the shape of the land and
one of the discharge valves with one of said ports,
by the law according to which the valve 65 will
65 a rotatable valve in said barrel, a com-mon drive
be shifted, in axial direction. However, it is also
for cìîclically reciprocating said plungers and for
possible to attain an adjustment of the timing
rota?ing said valve so as to cause the latter to
of .the start of each ejection period. It will be
close said ports each during a portion of the pres
noticed that in the illustrated embodiment the
leading edge 'I2 is shown at right angles to the
sure stroke of the coordinate pump unit plunger,
direction d .of the advancing valve. In conse
quence, closing of port >SI-ä will occur _always
when the plunger _is at point D. On the other
hand, owing to ¿the inclination of the trailing
edge k73, closing of the v.port will last as long _as
and second conduits connecting said first con
duits with the coordinate cylinders respectively.
4. A fuel pump as claimed in claim 3 further
comprising a common cover for said housing and
,said cylinders, said discharge valves, lportions'fltf.
said first conduits, and said second conduits be
ing arranged in said cover.
5. A pump as claimed in claim 3- wherein said
housing includes an inner shoulder and said bar
rel includes a flange bearing on said shoulder and
provided with holes in which said cylinders are
inserted, said flange> constituting a partition of
ber, said barrel being provided with two sets of
ports each set comprising as many ports as there
are pump units, first conduits connecting .the
ports of the first set with said peripheral cham
ber, second conduits, each connecting one of the
ports of the second set with one of said discharge
valves, third conduits each connecting one of said
second conduits -to one of said cylinders, a rotat
said housing so as to form said peripheral fuel
able valve within said barrel in controlling rela
supply chamber on the one side and an oil cham
ber on the other side thereof.
10 tionship to the por-ts of said second set, and a
drive for said valve so as to cause' the latter to
6. A fuel injection pump comprising a sub
stantially cylindrical housing, a plurality of par
cyclically close the ports of said second set, each
during a portion of the pressure stroke of the co
allel pump units including each a cylinder with a
ordinate plunger.
reciprocatable plunger therein and arranged on
7. A pump as claimed in claim 6 wherein 'said
a circle within said housing, a plurality of dis 15
charge valves, one for each unit, a centrally 1o
cated barrel constituting an inner chamber and
forming on its outside together with said housing
and said cylinders a peripheral fuel supply chain
iirst conduits are arranged each between two ad
jacent cylinders, and each port of the one set is
located intermediate two ports of the other set.
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