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Патент USA US2405965

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Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,405,965
- UNlTED STATES’ PATENT OFFICE
2,405,965
POLYAMIDE EMULSIONS
Robert M. Leekley, Wilmington, Del., assignor to i
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilming
ton, DeL, a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Application June 3, 1942,
Serial No. 445,652
17 Claims. (Cl. 260-29)
2
This invention relates to synthetic linear poly
amides of the nylon type and more particularly ‘
to aqueous emulsions obtained from these poly
mers.
The polymers used in the practice of this in
vention are polyamides of the general type de
scribed in U. S. Patents 2,071,250, 2,071,253 and
?lm-forming properties is-obtained by continuing
2,130,948. These polyamides,‘ generally speaking,
comprise
the
reaction - product
of
a
the polymerization reaction until the intrinsic
linear
polymer-forming composition containing amide
As indicated in the above mentioned patents,
the polyamides are high molecular weight prod
ucts whichgenerally can be obtained crystalline
in structure as evidenced by X-ray powder dif
fraction patterns in the massive state. The high
molecular weight required for the best ?ber- and
viscosity is at least 0.4.
These high molecular .
10 weight products in the form of ?laments and
forming groups, for example, reacting material
?lms can be cold drawn (that is, drawn in the
consisting essentially of bifunctional molecules
solid state under tension) with high linear ex
each containing two reactive groups which are
tension which results in molecular orientation in
complementary to reactive groups in other mole
the direction of the stress as shown by X-ray
cules and which include complementary amide 15 examination and which confers improved
forming groups. These polyamides can be ob
strength and other physical properties to the
tained by the methods given in the above men
product. The preferred polyamides for use in the
tioned patents and by other methods, for ex
present invention are those having viscosities in
ample, by self-polymerization of a monoamino
the molten condition (250°-275° C.) between 1000
monocarboxylic acid, by reacting a diamine with
and 5000 poises.
a dibasic carboxylic acid in substantially equi
The usual methods of applying thin coats of,
molecular amounts, or by reacting a monoamino
monohydric alcohol with a dibasic carboxylic acid
in substantially equimolecular amounts, it being
the above described polymers use melt or solution
casting techniques, or use a dispersion of the poly
amide in either a non-solvent .or a latent solvent.
understood that reference herein to the amino 25 A number of disadvantages are inherent in these
acids, diamines, dibasic carboxylic acids, and
methods. Melt casting requires high tempera»
amino alcohols is intended to include the equiva
tures which are di?lcult to obtain and which fre
lent amide-i'orming derivatives of these reactants.
quently adversely aifect the material being coated.
The polyamides are best obtained from these re- ‘
The use of dispersions likewise necessitates high
actants which have a unit length, as de?ned in 30 temperatures if a continuous coating is desired.
the last two patents mentioned above, of at least
When solutions are used dimculties arise from
their instability which may result in degradation
7.‘ The average number of carbon atoms sep
arating the amide groups in these polyamides
of the polymer or gelation oi‘ the solution. Also,
is at least two.
great care in coating is necessary to avoid uneven
The above described linear polyamides (nylons) - evaporation of the solvent and careful drying is
include also polymers obtained by admixture of
required in order to obtain an attractive ?lm
other linear polymer-forming reactants, as for
without surface defects. In addition, for many
instance, glycol-dibasic acid mixtures or by
applications the solvent has an undesirable eiiect
droxy acids in the case of polyester-amides, with
on the substrate being coated. For example, in
the mentioned polyamide-forming reactants. 40 solution coating of leather the solvents may ad
Both the simple and modified linear polyamides
versely a?ect the grain of the leather.
Aqueous dispersions of polyamides also have
contain the recurring amide groups
RX
Ill
been proposed previously but these compositions,
which are obtained by' precipitating polyamide
_.N_..C._..
particles by mixing a polyamide solution with a
in which X is Oxygen or sulfur and R is hydrogen
miscible liquid non-solvent and re-dispersing the
precipitated particles, are not suitable for coat
ing certain substrate because the coating laid
down consists of discrete particles which must be
fused by heating in order to obtain a. continuous
or a monovalent hydrocarbon radical, as an in
tegral part of the main chain of atoms in the
polymer. On hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid
the amino acid polymers yield the amino acid T
film.
_
hydrochloride, and the diamine-dibasic acid
An object of this invention is to provide emul
polymers yield the diamine hydrochloride and
sions of synthetic linear polyamides capable of
the dibasic carboxylic acid, and the amino alco
yielding continuous ?lms and particularly adapt
hol-dibasic acid polymers yield the amino alcohol
55 ed for use where a thin nylon ?lm is desired. A
hydrochloride and the dibasic carboxylic acid.
2,405,900 '
further object is an eiiicicnt and economical
method i'or preparing these emulsions. Other
objects will appear hereinafter.
The above objects are accomplished through
procedures more particularly described below
whereby a solution of the polyamide in an or
4
can be prepared easily, but with somewhat less
attractive ?lm-forming properties, by the addi
tion 0! the polyamide solution to the vigorously
agitated water solution of the surface active
agent. Either “oil-in-water” or “water-in-oil"
type emulsions may be readily prepared.
The invention is most advantageously practiced
with the interpolyamides, that is, with polyamides
ganic solvent of low water solubility is mixed ‘
with water and an emulsion formed by agitation
obtained by polymerizing a, mixture of different
and addition of a surface active agent.
polyamide-forming
compositions. In addition to
I have discovered that when a solution of the 10
polyamide in a substantially water-insoluble
organic solvent at least 50% by volume of which
the interpolyamides, polyester-amides are readily
emulsi?ed by the practice of this invention. The
present emulsions can also be made with simple
is an alcohol boiling above 100° C., is agitated
polyamides which are soluble in'water-insoluble
with water and a surface active agent, an emul
systems of the kind described herein. Examples
15
sion is obtained which yields continuous ?lms of
:of such polyamides are polymerized 12-amino
particular value in the coating art where thin
stearic acid, polyhexamethylene .B'methyl adip
?lms are desirable. In these emulsions fine drop
amide, polydiglycol adipamide, and the polymer
lets of the polyamide in solution are permanently
dispersed throughout the water or fine droplets
of water are dispersed throughout the polyamide
solution, depending in part upon the relative
amounts of solution and water used. In forming
?lms, the water evaporates ?rst .leaving behind
the polyamide solution which deposits a thin ?lm
derived from 3,3'-diaminodipropyl ether and
adipic acid. Modi?ed polyamides obtained by re
acting a polyamide, dissolved in formic acid, with
formaldehyde and an alcohol are also useful in
making the emulsions of this invention.
The invention is further illustrated by the fol
lowing examples in which the parts are by weight
25
on evaporation of the solvent.
unless otherwise indicated.
While the polyamide solution and water are
Example I
preferably mixed in about equal volumes, the pro
portions may vary from 1 part solution and 4
Three hundred parts of an interpolyamide pre
parts water to 4 parts solution and 1 part water.
pared from 400 parts of hexarnethylenediammo
The substantially water-insoluble organic solvent 30 nium adipate, 300 parts of hexamethylenediam
used in making the polyamide solution is one
monium sebacate and 300 parts of caprolactam
that is not soluble in water in amount more than
and having a vacuum direct melt viscosity (meas
about 10 parts of the solvent for 90 parts of water
ured on a sample dried for 3 hours at 100° C.
at 20° C. In the preferred embodiment of 'the
under 20-30 mm. vacuum) of 2000 poises at 250°
invention at least 70% of the organic solvent is 35 C. are dissolved with stirring and heating in 2700
alcohol boiling above 100° C., the preferred alco
parts of a solvent composed of 35 parts by vol
hols being those containing 4-8 carbon atoms.
ume of cyclohexanol, 45 parts by volume of iso
In the best method of practicing the invention
butanol, 15- parts by volume of benzene and 5
the polyamide solvent contains in addition to
parts by volume of water. To the above described
40
70% by volume of the above de?ned alcohol an
solution cooled to room temperature is then added
aromatic hydrocarbon or a chlorinated hydro
15 parts of triethanolammonium oleate and 15
' carbon and can contain also-some low boiling
parts otammonium caseinate. The solution is
alcohol and a-small amount of water not sub
then vigorously agitated and to it is added drop
stantially ‘greater than about 5%. These sol- _
wise 3000 parts of water. The ‘resulting emulsion
vent mixtures are more desirable than alcohol 45 is then passed through a disperse mill to still
valone from the standpoint of the viscosity of the
further reduce droplet size. On ?owing out some
solution and the coherence, clearness, brilliance,
of the emulsion on a glass plate and allowing it
and drying time of ?lms made therefrom. An
to dry, a thin continuous attractive ?lm is ob
example of a preferred solvent system is one con
tained.
50
sisting on a volume basis of 35% cyclohexanol,
Example II
15% benzene, and 45% isobutanol and 5% water.
Three hundred parts of an interpolyamide pre- _
As surface active agents it is desirable to use
pared from 400 parts of hexamethylenediammo
a mixture of emulsifying agent and a protective
colloid. Some surface active agents, for example,
polyvinyl alcohol, can function as both emulsify 55
ing agents and as protective colloids.
In preparing the emulsions of this invention a
small amount of a surface'active agent is incor
porated in a solution of the polyamide in the
above mentioned solvent. The incorporation of 60
a surface active agent refers either to ‘the addi
tion of both an emulsifying agent and a ,protec-_
nium adipate, 300 parts of hexamethylenediam
monium sebacate and 300 parts of caprolactam
is dissolved in 2700 parts of a mixture consisting,
on a volume basis, of 35% cyclohexanol, 45% iso
butanol, 15% benzene, and 5% water. This solu
tion is then added to a vigorously stirred equal
volume of water containing 15 parts of sodium
oleate and 15 parts of ammonium caseinate. The
resulting emulsion is stable and when ?owed on
a level surface and air-dried gives a thin strong
tive colloid or to the addition only'of a material
continuous him which can be cold drawn or cold
which is listed below as a protective colloid
(sodium and ammonium caseinate) or as an anion 65 rolled.
active emulsifying agent. These surface active
Example III
agents also include those which are listed as an
Three hundred parts of an interpolyamide pre
pared irom 600 parts of hexamethylenedlammo
nium adipate and 400 parts of caprolactarn and
as a protective colloid. The polyamlde solution 70 having a vacuum direct melt viscosity of 1010
containing the surface active agent is then agi
poises at 250° 0., and 200 parts of amylbenzene
emulsifying agent- (polyvinyl alcohol) but which
can function both as an emulsifying agent and
4 tated with water and is desirably further emulsi
iied by passing it through a colloid mill or other
device which affords a shearing action and will
sulfonamide are dissolved with stirring and heat
ing in 500 parts of benzyl alcohol. This solution
is then added dropwise to a vigorously agitated
further reduce droplet size. The emulsion 8.150 75
2,405,965
Although the amount of surface active agent
solution of 200 parts of water containing 10 parts
of polyvinyl alcohol. The resulting water-in-oil
type emulsion (that is, the polyamide solution
constitutes the continuous phase) is further
treated by passing it through a colloid mill to
further reduce droplet size. The emulsion so ob
tained is stable and continuous ?lms can be de
posited from it on leather, textiles, etc.
Example IV
used can be varied considerably, it is desirable
to use at least 0.1% based on the weight of poly
amide solution and not to exceed 5% on the same
basis. The addition of 1% by weight (based on
weight of polyamide solution) of a 50:50 mixture
' of an emulsifying agent and protective colloid is
particularly effective in giving a stable emulsion. .
In the case of a 10% solution of polyamide the
?nal ?lm, then, will be about 91% polyamide and
9% emulsifying agent and colloid. In some cases
it may be undesirable to decrease further the
Two hundred ?fty parts of an interpolyamide
prepared from 400 parts of hexamethylenediam
polyamide content of the ?nal ?lm and this fact
monium adipate and 600 parts of 12 aminostearic
should be considered when determining the
acid is dissolved with stirring and heating‘ in
amount of emulsifying agent to be added.
15
‘750 parts of benzyl alcohol. This solution is then
Smaller amounts of agent are not so effective in
added dropwise with stirring to 1000 parts of
giving stable, ‘attractive emulsions.
water containing 10 parts of casein and 0.75 part
The present emulsions for some purposes de
of sodium hydroxide. The resulting emulsion is
sirably contain other agents such as plasticizers,
stable and is suitable for applying thin coats of
resins, for example, phenol-formaldehyde resins
the interpolyamide to rawhide, leather, fabrics, 20 and sulfonamide-formaldehyde resins, cellulose
etc.
dirivatives, pigments, dyes, antioxidants, and the
Example V '
li e.
'
The emulsions described herein are particu
larly valuable where a thin polyamide ?lm is de
sired, for example, a a ?nishing coat for leather
Six hundred parts of the reaction product
formed by treating 6000 parts of polyhexamethyl
ene adipamide dissolved in 10,000 parts by vol
ume of 90% formic acid with 6000 parts of para
formaldehyde and 4 parts of potassium hydroxide
dissolved in 10,000 parts by volume of methyl
alcohol, is dissolved in 2400 parts of the solvent
mixture given in Example II. This solution of
modi?ed polyamide is then added to a vigorously
stirred solution of 3000 parts of water containing
15 parts of triethanolammonium oleate and 15
parts of ammonium caseinate. The resulting 35
emulsion is stable and when ?owed on a level
surface and air-dried gives an elastic, continuous
?lm.
The polyamide solution used in preparing the
emulsions generally contains from 5 to 30 per
and fabrics, as a textile size, and as a coating for
metal, for example, cans. The emulsions are also
useful for. coating and impregnating paper. The
present emulsions when used in coating and im
pregnating rawhide give results similar to that
obtained with water or alcohol solutions‘ of water
soluble polyamides, such as polytriglycol adipam
ide, in that the rawhide is given the feel and
appearance of leather obtained by the usual tan
ning treatment of rawhide.
The new polyamide emulsions described herein
offer valuable advantages in industrial applica
tion, as for instance where it is desirable to avoid
the high temperatures necessitated in melt cast
ing of polyamide ?lms or in the use of disper
sions where fusion is essential to achieve a con
tinuous coating. These emulsions afford fur
ther advantages over the use of nylon solutions
cent by weight of polyamide, the best results in
most cases being obtained with solutions con=
taining from 10 to 20 per cent ofpolymer. The
major portion of the solvent consists of alcohol
boiling above 100° C. Suitable alcohols in addi 45 by reason of their much greater stability and the
tion to those already mentioned are amyl alcohol, ;. smaller amount of solvent employed, thereby re
ducing the cost and danger from toxic effects.
isoamyl alcohol, hexyl alcohol, octyl alcohol,
Particularly
in leather ?nishing the present emul
methyl cyclohexanol, crotyl alcohol, and isopro
sion is desirable because it permits the handling
pylethynylcarbinol. The preferred diluents or
solvents to use in conjunction with the alcohols v of the nylon in an aqueous system, a procedure
are aromatic hydrocarbons, for example, benzene,
toluene and xylene, and chlorinated hydrocar
bons, for'example, chloroform, methylene chlo
ride, dichloroethylene, and chlorobenzene. Some
low boiling alcohols, for example, methanol,_ 55
ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, or even water may
also be used.
which is usually employed in the leather indus- '
try’and which permits increased ease in opera
tion and avoids the‘ adverse effects on the grain
of the leather produced by solutions in organic
solvents.
As many apparently widely different embodi-’
ments of this invention may be made without dc
parting from the spirit and scope thereof, it is
The anion-active class of surface active agents
to be understood that I do not limit myself to the
has been found most effective as emulsifying
agents in the preparation of these emulsions. 60 speci?c embodiments thereof except as de?ned
in the appended claims.
Among the best agents found have been sulfo
I claim:
nated castor oil, oleyl sodium sulfate, triethanol
1. A process for making anaqueous emulsion
ammonium oleate and sodium oleate. These
of synthetic linear polycarbonamide which, when
agents are fairly effective in themselves but their
activity is greatly enhanced by the addition of 65 applied as a coating and dried, yields thin contin
uous ?lms, said process‘comprising dissolving the
an equal amount of a protective colloid, such as
polycarbonamide in a substantially water-insol
ammonium caseinate or ammonical gelatin.
uble organic solvent at least 50% by volume of
Alkaline emulsifying agents are used with alka
said solvent consisting of an alcohol boiling above
line protective colloids, and acidic emulsifying
‘agents are used with acidic protective colloids. 70 100° 0., and mixing with agitation the solution
thus obtained with water and a‘surface activev
Thus ammonical gelatin is used as protective col
agent, selected from the group consisting of (a)
loid with an alkaline emulsifying agent, such as
protective colloids consisting of sodium caseinate
sodium oleate, while gum arabic is used as pro
tective colloid with acid emulsifying agent, such
as tannic acid.
'
'
and ammonium caseinate, (b) anion-active
75 emulsifying agents consisting of triethanolam
2,406,965
7
monium oleate, sodium cleats, sulfonated castor
oil and oleyl sodium sulfate, (c) polyvinyl alco
hol, and (d) mixtures of-a ‘protective colloid de
fined as an (a) with anion-active emulsifying
agent de?ned as in (b), said polycarbonamide
being the reaction product of a polymer-forming
composition comprising reacting material‘ se
lected from the group consisting ofia) mono
aminomonocarboxylic acids, (b) mixtures of di
amine with dibasic carboxylic acid, and (0) mixtures of monoaminomonohydric alcohol with
dibasic carboxylic acid.
2. A process for making an aqueous emulsion
" of synthetic linear polycarbonamide which, when
8 i
prising triethanolammonium oleate. and a pro
tective colloid comprising ammonium caseinate.
said polycarbonamide being the reaction prod
not of a polymer-forming composition compris
ing reacting material selected from the group
consisting of (a) monoaminomonocarboxylic
acids. (b) mixtures of diamine with dibasic car
boxylic acid. and (0) mixtures of monoamin'o
monohydric alcohol with dibasic carboxylic acid.
'5, The process set forth in claim 1 in which
said organic solvent solution of the polycarbon
amide is mixed with water in the proportion of
from 1 part solution and 4 parts water to 4 parts
solution and 1 part water.
'
6. The process set forth in claim 1 in which
applied as a coating and dried, yields thin contin 15
said organic solvent solution of the polycarbon
uous ?lms, said process comprising dissolving the
amide is mixed with a substantially equal volume
polycarbonamlde in a substantially water-insol
of water.
uble organic solvent which consists essentially of
7. The process set forth in claim 1 in which
a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon with an alco
said
polycarbonamide is an interpolyamide.
hol boiling above 100° C. and which contains said ‘
8. An aqueous emulsion of synthetic linear
alcohol in amount of at least 70% by‘volume of
polycarbonamide. which, when applied as a coat
said mixture; and mixing with agitationthe solu
ing and dried yields thin continuous ?lms, said
tion thus obtained with water and a surface ac
emulsion comprising a surface active agent and
titre-agent, selected from the group consisting of
(a) protective colloids consisting of sodium 25 in substantial amounts water and a solution of
the polycarbonamide in a substantially water
caseinate and ammonium caseinate, (b) anion
insoluble organic solvent at least 50% by volume
active emulsifying agents consisting of tri
of which isan alcohol boiling above 100° (3., said
ethanolammonium oleate, sodium oleate, sul
surface active agent being selected from the
fonated castor oil and oleyl sodium sulfate, (c)
polyvinyl alcohol, and ((1) mixtures of a pro= so group consisting of (a) protective colloids con
sisting of sodium caseinate and ammonium
tective colloid de?ned as in (a) with anion-ac
caseinate, (b) annion=active emulsifying agents
tiveemulsifying agent de?ned as in (bi) , said poly
consisting of triethanolammonium oleate, so
carbonamide being the reaction product of a
dium oleate, sulfonated castor oil and oleyl so
polymer-forming composition comprising react
ing material selected from the group consisting 35 dium sulfate, (0) polyvinyl alcohol, and (11) mix
tures of a protective colloid de?ned as in (a)
of (a) monoaminomonocarboxylic acids, (b)
with anion-active emulsifying agent de?ned as
mixtures of diaminewith dibasic carboxylic acid,
in (b), said polycarbonamide being the reaction
and (0) mixtures of monoaminomonohydrie alco
product of a polymer-forming composition com
hol with dibasic carboxylic acid.
3. A process for making an aqueous emulsion 40 prising reacting material selected from the group
consisting of '(a) monoaminomonocarboxylic
of synthetic linear polycarbonamide which, when
applied as a coating and dried, yields thin con
tinuous ?lms, said process comprising dissolv
ing the polycarbonamide in a substantially water
insoluble organic solvent which consists essen
tialiy of a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbon
with an alcohol boiling above 100° C. and which
contains said alcohol in amount of at least ‘70%
acid-s, (b) mixtures of diamine with dibasic car
boxylic acid, and (0) mixtures of monoamino
monohydric alcohol with dibasic carboxylic acid.
9. An aqueous emulsion of synthetic linear
polycarbonamide which, when applied as a coat
ing and dried yields thin continuous ?lms, said
emulsion comprising a surface active agent and
in substantial amounts water and a solution of
by volume of said mixture, and mixing with agi
tation the solution thus obtained with water and 50 the polycarbonamide in a substantially water
insoluble organic solvent which consists essen
a surface active agent, selected from the group
consisting of (a) protective colloids consisting of
sodium caselnate'and ammonium caselnate, (b)
anion-active emulsifying agents consisting of
triethanolammonium oleate, sodium oleate, sul
fonated castor oil and oleyl sodium sulfate, (0)
polyvinyl alcohol, and (d) mixtures of a pro
tective colloid de?ned as in (a) with anion-active
emulsifying agent de?ned as in (b), said poly
carbonamide being the reaction product of a poly
mer-forming composition comprising reacting
tially of a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon ,
with an alcohol boiling above 100° C. and which
contains said alcohol in amount at least 70% by
- volume of said mixture, said surface active agent
being selected from the group consisting of (a)
protective colloids consisting of sodium caseinate
and ammonium caseinate, (b) anion-active
emulsifying agents consisting of triethanolam
material selected from the group consisting of
monium oleate, sodium oleate, sulfonated castor
oil and oleyl sodium sulfate, (0) polyvinyl alco
hol, and (d) mixtures of a protective colloid de
ume of which is an alcohol boiling above 100° C.
polycarbonamide which, when applied as a coat
?ned as in (a) with anion-active emulsifying
(a) monoamincmonocarboxylic acids, (1)) mix
agent de?ned as in (b), said polycarbonamide
tures of diamine with dibasic carboxylic acid,
the reaction product of a polymer~form
and (0) mixtures of monoaminomonohydrie 65 being
ing composition comprising reacting material
alcohol with dibasic carboxylic acid.
selected from the group consisting of (a) mono
4. A process for making an aqueous emulsion
aminomonocarboxylic acids, (b) mixtures of di
of synthetic linear polycarbonamide which, when
amine with dibasic carboxylic acid, and (0) mix
applied as a coating and dried, yields thin con
tinuous ?lms, said process comprising dissolving 70 tures of monoaminomonohydric alcohol with di
basic carboxylic acid.
the polycarbonamide in a substantially water
10. An aqueous emulsion of synthetic linear
insoluble organic solvent at least 70% by vol
ing and dried yields thin continuous ?lms, Said
and mixing with agitation the solution thus ob
tained with water, an emulsifying agent com 75 emulsion comprising a surface active agent and
2,405,965
10
01' synthetic linear polycarbonamide which, when
in substantial amounts water and a solution of
the polycarbonamide in a substantially .water
insoluble organic solvent which consists essen
tially of a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbon
with an alcohol boiling above 100° C». and which
contains said alcohol in amount at least 70% by
volume of said ‘mixture, said surface active agent
being selected from the group consisting of (a)
protective colloids consisting of sodium ca'seinate
applied as a coating and dried, yields thin con
tinuous ?lms, said process comprising dissolving
the polycarbonamide in a substantially water
insoluble organic solvent at least 70% by volume
of which is an alcohol boiling above 100° C., and
mixing with agitation the solution thus obtained
with water, and a surface active agent compris
ing polyvinyl alcohol, said polycarbonamide b‘e- _
and ammonium caseinate, (b) anion-active emul 10 ing the reaction product of a polymer-forming
composition comprising reacting material select
sifying agents consisting of triethanolammonium
ed from the group consisting of (a) monoamino
oleate, sodium oleate, sufonated castor oil and
monocarboxylic acids, (b) mixtures of diamine
oleyl sodium sulfate, (c) polyvinyl alcohol, and
with dibasic carboxylic acid, and (0) mixtures of
(d) mixtures of a protective colloid de?ned as in
monoaminomonohydric alcohol with dibasic car
(a) with anion-active emulsifying agent de?ned
boxylic acid.
as in (b), said polycarbonamide being the reac
'16. A process for making an aqueous emulsion
tion product of a polymer-forming composition
of synthetic linear polycarbonamide which, when
comprising reacting material selected from the
group consisting of (a) monoaminomonocar
boxylic acids, (b) mixtures of diamine with di
basic carboxylic acid, and (0) mixtures of mono
applied as a coating and dried, yields thin con
20 tinuous ?lms, said process comprising‘ dissolving
aminomonohydric alcohol vwith dibasic carboxylic
acid.
11. An aqueous emulsion of synthetic linear
polycarbonamide which, when applied as a coat
ing and dried yields thin continuous ?lms, said
the polycarbonamide in a substantially water
insoluble organic solvent at least 70% by volume
of which is an alcohol boiling above 100° C_. and
mixing with agitation thev solution thus obtained
with water, an emulsifying agent comprising so
dium oleate, and a protective colloid comprising
ammonium caseinate, said polycarbonamide be
emulsion comprising an emulsifying agent com
ing the reaction product. of a polymer-forming
prising triethanolammonium oleate, a protective
composition comprising reacting material se
colloid comprising ammonium caseinate and in
substantial amounts water and a solution of the 30 lected from the group consisting, of (a) mono
aminomonocarboxylic acids, (b) mixtures of di
polycarbonamide in a substantially water-insol
amine with dib'asic carboxylic acid, and (c) mix
uble organic solvent at least 70% by volume of
tures of monoaminomonohydric alcohol with di
which is an alcohol boiling above 100° 0., said
basic carboxylic acid. 7
*
polycarbonamide being the reaction product of
a polymer forming composition comprising re 35
17. An aqueous emulsion of syntheticlinear
acting material selected from the group consist- _
polycarbonamide which, when applied as a coat
ing of (a) monoaminomonocarboxylic acids, (b)
mixtures of diamine with dibasic carboxylic acid,
and (0) mixtures of monoaminomonohydric alco
,
40
hol with dibasic carboxylic acid.
ing and dried yields thin continuous ?lms. said
emulsion comprising an emulsifying agent com
12. The emulsion set forth in claim 8 in which
amounts water and a‘ solution of the polycar
bonamide in a substantially water-insoluble or
said organic solvent solution of the polycarbon
amide is mixed with water in the proportion of
from 1 part solution and 4 parts water to 4 parts
solution and 1 part water.
13. The emulsion set forth in claim 8 in which
said organic solvent solution of the polycarbon
amide is mixed with a substantially equal volume
~
prising sodium oleate, a protective colloid com
prising ammonium caseinate and in substantial
ganic solvent at least ‘70% by volume of which
is an alcohol boiling above 100° C., said poly
oarbonamide being the reaction product of a poly
mer forming composition comprising reacting
material selected from the group consisting of
(a) monoaminomonocarboxylic acids, (b) mix; 5
tures of diamine with dibasic carboxylic acid,
of water.
‘
14. The emulsion set forth in claim 8 in which 50 and (0) mixtures of monoaminomonohydric all
cohol with dibasic carboxyiic acid.
said polycarbonamide is an interpolyamide.
ROBERT M.
*‘i'.
15. A process for making an aqueous emulsion
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