Патент USA US2405990код для вставки
~ ' m; 20, 1946. J. T. BEECHLYN 2,405,990 SPOTTING SUBMARINES Filed May_22, 1943 27 '27 IN VENTOR. JOHN -T. BE ECHLYN 2,405,990 Patented Aug. 20, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,990 SPOTTING SUBMARINES John T. Beechlyn, Worcester, Mass., assignor to Submarine Signal Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Maine Application May 22, 1943, Serial N0. 488,320 4 Claims. (01. 116-26) 1 The present invention relates to means and method of locating submerged objects and is more particularly applicable for military purposes in locating the position of enemy submarines. While the present sound ranging methods are usefully employed for this purpose and are able to locate a submarine and provide bearings and distance measurements so that they may be 2 suitable device in such a manner that they shower down substantially simultaneously over a given chosen area. These missiles upon reaching the water substantially at the same time sink verti cally at a constant rate until they come in con tactwith a submerged object, or the bottom. When they strike a submerged object, the lower or weighted part of the missiles are released and what is left shoots rapidly vertically upward to tracked down, some uncertainty and confusion the surface, popping out of the water for a con 10 still exists when the searching vessel comes into siderable height. Various means may be used to the near vicinity of the submarine in a radius make the missiles more noticeable when they perhaps of 50 to 250 yards and over the area break through the water surface. They may be where the submarine is at the observing moment. painted with a bright color or provided with some In this range when the surface vessel is closing in special re?ecting means, or they even may 15 on the submarine, skillful maneuvering of the provide a loud explosion. The buoyancy of the submarine may make it difficult or even impossi missiles may be so adjusted that they sink at one ble to obtain bearings from the searching surface rate and rise at the same or a different rate. In. vessel. The surface vessel in this case must con any event, the rates of sinking and rising Will be tend not only with a great maneuvering ability of known and from a measurement of the time in the submarine under these conditions, but also 20 terval between the missiles hitting the water and with the fact that the submarine has a three di until they again reappear will give a measure mensional maneuverability providing theoreti ment of the submerged object. In most cases, cally at least in?nite possibilities of escape. since the water depth will be known, there will be The applicant has devised a method and means no confusion between those which come to the whereby the depth and position of the submarine surface from the bottom, and those which come at this time of the search may be observed and to the surface from a submerged object. In Fig. followed. The means of the present invention avoid the necessity of using sound waves which is at times a distinct advantage especially when the 1. the missile is generally indicated by I. This includes an evacuated air ?lled body 2 having 30 generally a stream-lined shape so that the resist submarines are in groups or when they are at ance of the body to the Water is low, and constant. tacking a convoy or more than one vessel. Under The body 2 may be made of glass, thin metal, these conditions, the water noises 0r noises from plastic, or other suitable material, which is not the various vessels in the vicinity may be very readily shatterable under the conditions under confusing and interfere with e?icient sound rang which the device is used. The body 2 may at its ing as also may be the case after the water me 35 end be lightly loaded with a metallic cap, 4', hav dium has been disturbed by the explosion of depth ing directive ?ns 4, 4, 4, 4 positioned at right charges or other explosive attacking means. The angles to each other at the end of the body. .The invention will be more readily and fully under body may also be provided with a tail projection stood from a consideration of the speci?cation set 5, cylindrical in shape, with an annular recess 6 forth below describing the invention when taken in which the latch member ‘I normally rests. The in connection with the drawing illustrating the latch member ‘I is mounted in the ' weighted same in which Fig. 1 shows an elevation partly in stream-lined body 8, which abuts the exterior side fragmentary section of a part of the invention. walls of the stream-lined body 2. This weighted Fig. 2 shows a modi?cation in fragmentary sec body which has a stream-lined outer contour, is 45 tion of a portion of the device corresponding in provided with a centrally symmetrically bore or the drawing to Fig. 1. Fig. 3 shows a section hole 9 in which the projection 5 from the tail of taken on the line 3—-3 of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 shows in the body 2 is positioned. The bore 9 extends 1on elevation a device by which the structure of Fig. 1 git-udinally through the tail end In of the body 8 is ?red. Fig. 5 shows a view as seen in the direc and in it is ?tted for free motion a rod or shaft tion 5—-5 of Fig. 4 and Fig. 6 illustrates schemati 50 I I. The body 8 in the end portion I0 is also pro cally the method by which the missiles of Fig. 1 vided with a recessed portion l2 exposed or re are directed in a pattern over. a given water surface. . In the present invention a group of missiles of a special construction are projected from a cessed as far as the shaft H. The latch 1 previ ously mentioned is formed‘as a part of a ?at pivoted member [3, pivoted in the body ID by 2,405,990 means of the shaft M. This pivoted element I3 is tensioned by means of a spring l5 which latch es a projection l6 of the element l3 in a recess [1 of the shaft II and similarly latches the latch 1 against the collar I8 at the end of the tail pro jection '5. The member I3 provides an inertia 4 feet. In the arrangement indicated in Fig. 2, the wall 3| of the missile may be made of some transparent material such as glass or some trans parent plastic and may in the inside be pro vided with trihedral re?ecting surfaces 32, 33, 34 which will re?ect backwards any light im pinging upon it. At night when the missiles could not otherwise be seen, a low ?ood light of the missile' Ports 50, 5D, 50 are'provided in the wall 8 to permit the free entry of water as the 10 may be used extending over the vicinity of the . water surface of suflicient intensity 'to illuminate two parts of the missile separate. the re?ecting surfaces 32, 33, 34, so that they The missile described in Fig. 1 may be pro-‘ may be visible from the searching vessel when pelled from a projector 20 mounted on a deck 2| they have broken through the water after coming of a vessel. The missiles ‘are'balanced to fall straight down in the water ‘and/upon the end 15 in contact with the submerged body or sub marine. place of or in addition to the re of the pin II striking the submarine, the body 2 balance counterpoising the inertia of pin II so that a dynamic balance exists during acceleration is released and travels straight up to the surface. ' so that the position at which it reappears is ver-_ fle'cting surfaces 32, 33, 34, which may extend . in a belt around ‘the missile element an explosive device 35 may be used. This explosive device tically above the point at which it struck the sub‘ 35 may be formed ‘as a portion of the nose of marine. A convenient method for this is indi 20 the missile 36 and may comprise a hood 31 pro cated in Fig. ‘4 which shows a compressed air or vided with an internal annular shoulder 38 gas supply 22 which feeds a cylindrical valve 23-. ‘against which a' helical spring 39 bears. > The hood The cylindrical valve 23 has a rotor element 25 m may be cemented with a soluble cement to a into which’ the compressed air from the supply source 22 is fed. The rotor 25 is provided with a 25 collar 40 extending over the joint between the hood 31 and the body 3! of the missile 36. This longitudinal port 24 and when the handle 25 is ‘collar 40 ?ts over the increasing stream-lined turned rotating the rotor 25, the longitudinal port wall‘formed by the nose of the missile and the opens successively to groups of projector tubes 21, body portion of the missile itself and is at the 28, 29, 3!]. As indicated in Fig. 4 a number of ‘tubes are provided in the same plane as shown 30 same time cemented both to the .hood andto the body portion’ of the missile .by a soluble by 21,21, etc. The vindividual tubes in any one cement as mentioned so that after the device plane flare out at slightly different angles and gets into the'water it will gradually be loosened each group is spaced in a fanned-out position with respect to the other groups whereby a given after a time interval. The helical spring 39 chosen area is covered over‘ which the missiles 35 bears against a partition 4| located between the will drop. By shooting or projecting each one nose and the rest of the body portion of the mis of the missiles with the same Vertical velocity sile so that the head is tensioned ‘awayfrom the component, the missiles will reach the same ver rest of the body by the spring at all times. Cen tical height “h,” as indicated in Fig. 6, and will trally, under the spring is located an explosive fall at different points into the water all at sub 40 element 43 which may be ignited by a cap mem stantially the same time. The vertical velocity, ber 44 suspended'between .the end 45 of the component of the missiles may be controlled by nose and a well 46 in the plate 42. While the properly proportioning the end openings in the missile in Fig. 2 is in the water either the cement tubes or by any other suitable means for instance, has not been su?iciently loosened or the pressure ‘if the missiles are ?red by explosive charges, 45 of the water on the shaft 40 is such so that the the size of the charges may be varied to produce the desired velocities so that their vertical com‘ ponents are. maintained constant. It naturally follows from the description just given that if top nose 31 will remain inplace. When, how ever, the missile has shot out of the water, the spring 39 will force the nose away from the rest of the’body igniting the cap~43 and exploding the angle of direction of the missiles are all the 50 a powder 44 causing a detonation and a visible same, then equal muzzle velocities will provide light which maybe seen'within the range that substantially the same kind of dropping to the the device is, used. In' this manner the‘ device water surface. It is of course noted that varia— may have use both for day-light and night search tions in wind velocity and direction may have anv e?ect upon these factors, but in general, this 55 ing and attack'and may be used "as initially de scribed in hunting and tracking down submarines. effect may be neglected since in general all mis Having now described my invention, I claim: ' siles will go in the same direction ‘and all fall 1'. A method of ~spotting submerged submarines The operator may ‘with a projectile having a negative buoyancy time missiles either‘lfrom- the ?ring out of the ‘before striking ‘the submarine and 'a' positive projector or” from the instant when they reach 60 buoyancy thereafter, which compris$ ‘ ?ring a the water. If timing is done from the‘ instant group of projectiles directed to drop substantially of projection of the missiles some mechanical simultaneously into:the water in 'a given area arrangement may be used whereby th'e‘rotation and descend and rise at known rates,‘ measuring of the handle 26 will start the timing interval. The rising of vthe projector out of the Water again, 65 ‘the time" intervals between‘the' ?ring and ‘reap pearance of the‘ projectiles when they break‘ the however, after a submersible‘ object has been surface and noting their distance and bearing. encountered will in general be noted either by in a rather con?ned area. ' 2. A method of spotting submerged submarines the eye or by some stop watch mechanism to with’ a projectile having a‘ negative buoyancy end the timing interval when the‘ missile is ob served coming out of the water. The computa 70 before striking the submarine and a positive buoyancy thereafter, which vcomprises"?ringifa tion'of the depth is a simple. proportioned rate. group of projectiles directed to drop substantially ‘simultaneously into the water in a, given area and descend and rise at known rates, measuring ‘the ‘time; intervals between the‘ moment when the as observed, then the depth may-be‘ judged as 200 75 projectiles Strike’ the waterianu reappear again That‘ is if one second represents 20 feet of depth, two seconds would represent'llO feet and soy on, 'so that if the time interval should be 10 seconds 2,405,990 5 and noting the distance and bearing of the pro jectiles. 3. A system for spotting submerged submarines comprising in combination a projectile having a negative buoyancy before striking the submarine and means released from the projectile upon striking to provide a positive buoyancy, and means for ?ring groups of said projectiles said means adapted to space the projectiles over a given 10 water area and to drop said projectiles substan tially simultaneously into the water whereby a submarine may be spotted by comparing the time intervals between the striking of the water by the projectiles and their reappearance. 6 4. A system for spotting submerged submarines comprising in combination a projectile having a negative buoyancy before striking the submarine and means released from the projectile upon striking to provide a positive buoyancy, and means for ?ring groups of said projectiles adapted to space the projectiles over a given area and to drop substantially simultaneously into the Water, said means providing substantially the same ver tical velocity component for the projectiles. JOHN T. BEECHLYN.