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Патент USA US2406017

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Aug. 20, 1946; V
~K. C. D. HICKMAN
2,406,017
VACUUM APPARATUS
Filed April 17, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet l
‘KENNETH 0.1‘). HICKMAN
INVENTOR
ATTORNEY
K c. n H m K M A N
VACUUM APPARATUS
Filed April 17,‘ 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG
. 4 . ,
FIG. 5 .
C. D. HICKJWAN
INVENTOR
A TTORNE Y
2,406,017
Patented Aug. 20, .1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE'
2,406,017
VACUUM APPARATUS .
Kenneth C. D. Hickman, Rochester, N. Y., as
signor to Distillation Products, Inc., Rochester,
N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 17, 1945, Serial No 588,750
'6 Claims. (Cl. 230-101)
1
This invention relates to improved vacuum
apparatus and, in particular, to an improved
vacuum pump of the liquid jet type.
2
pumping chamber 4 through which cooling fluid
is circulated by introduction through conduit I8
and withdrawal through conduit 20. Numeral 22
designates a conduit connected to the lower por
tion of separating chamber I2 which is connected
to a liquid compressor 24 which serves to with
draw relatively low vapor pressure liquid 26 from
chamber l2 and to circulate it under high pres
pumping chamber where the heated ejected liquid
sure through conduit 28, heating coil 30, valve 32
stream is partially vaporized so that the vapors
and jet nozzle 6. Heating coil 30 is heated by
and ejected liquid have a common direction and 10 means of a jacket 34 through which heating fluid,
In Hickman and Becker U. S. Patent 2,338,583,
January 4, 1944, there is described a new type of
vacuum pump in which a heated low vapor pres
sure liquid is ejected transversely through a
so that both entrain gases to be pumped. The
is circulated by introduction through conduit 38
and withdrawal through conduit 38. Numeral 40
designates insulating material surrounding heat~
ing jacket 34 and conduit 28. Numeral 42 desig
moved from the separation chamber by a vacuum 15 nates a truncated cone which is positioned in
pump.
pumping chamber 4 so that it is concentric there
entrained gases are thus forced into a separation
chamber where the liquid and vapors are sepa
rated from the gases, the gases then being re
I have found, in accordance with my invention,
with and so that jet 44 passes through the ap
that if means for guiding the vapors given off by
proximate center thereof.
the liquid stream in such a pump are positioned 20 Referring to Fig. 2, numerals 50-52-56-58-66
between the ejected stream of liquid and the walls
and 62 designate a plurality of truncated cones
of the pumping chamber, the pumping action of
which are positioned centrally within pumping
such a pump is materially improved.
chamber 4 so that the jet of liquid 44 passes cen
In the following description I have set forth
trally therethrough.
several of the preferred embodiments of my in
Referring to Fig. 3 numeral I50 designates a
25
vention, but it is to ‘be understood these are given
plurality of thick-walled truncated-cone vapor
by way of illustration and not in limitation
guiding members. The walls of the guiding mem
bers are so shaped that the vapors receive extra
thereof.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein like
expansion as they move downwards.
numbers refer to like parts;
Referring to Fig. 4, numeral I62 designates a
30
Fig. .1 is a vertical section of an improved liquid
narrow throat portion having parallel sides of
jet pump having a single truncated cone acting
appreciable length at the lower part of diffuser
as a vapor guiding means positioned between the
jet of liquid and the wall of the pumping cham
ber;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary enlarged sketch of the
tube 4. The residual kinetic energy of the stream
is caused to entrain gases in this portion of the
pump, and the pumping effect is thus increased.
35 Numeral I64 in Fig. 5 and numeral H36 in Fig. 6
pumping chamber illustrated in Fig. l and modi
designate modi?cations of the throat shown in
?ed by the provision of a plurality of truncated
Fig. 4 which have the effect of increasing the en
guiding cones, and;
Fig, 3 is a fragmentary enlarged view showing
trainment of gases.
'
In operating the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1
conduit 8 is connected to the system to be
evacuated and conduit I4 is connected to the
Figs. 4, 5, and 6 are fragmentary enlarged views
backing pump (not shown). Cooling liquid is cir
showing modi?cations of the throat portion of
culated through jacket 16. Heating ?uid is cir
the diffuser tube.
culated through jacket 34. A low vapor pressure
Referring to Fig. l, numeral 4 designates an 45 liquid is introduced into separating chamber i2
elongated pumping chamber of circular cross
and compression pump 24 is actuated. The com
section provided at its upper enlarged end with
pressed liquid 26 flows through coil 30 where it
modi?ed truncated conical guides with thick
walls; and
a jet nozzle 5 and with an intake conduit 8 for
is partially heated. The liquid then flows in a
connection to the system to be evacuated (not
stream cooling the valve 32 through jet nozzle 6
shown). The lower portion of pumping chamber 60 and is ejected therefrom at a relatively high
4 is provided with a constricted throat It which
velocity to form a liquid stream 44. This liquid
enters into a spherical separation chamber [2
is partially vaporized due to the vacuum which
which is provided with a conduit l4 connected to
exists in pumping chamber 4 and which is pro
a backing pump (not shown). Numeral l6
55 duced by the backing pump. The vapors pro
designates a jacket surrounding the lower part of
'
2,406,017
duced from the liquid stream have a high velocity
and direction of movement corresponding to that
of the liquid jet 44 from which it is derived.
Therefore, gases passing through conduit 8 are
entrained by the liquid and vapor stream and are
forced downwardly into the throat ID. The
vapors are condensed on the walls of chamber 4,
and this liquid condensate and the remains of the
liquid jet ?ow or pass into separating chamber
l2 along with the gases being pumped. The gases
are removed through conduit III by the backing
pump, and the liquid collects in chamber l2 and
is recycled through the system by pump 24-. Cone
42 apparently provides a local concentration of
the vapors derived from liquid jet 44 and, in any
event, improves the pumping action.
The apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2 is operated
in the same manner. However, due to the pro
vision of a plurality of truncated cones 50 an
accentuation of the pumping effect is produced
4
and separating means containing a low vapor
pressure liquid, means for compressing such col
lected liquid, means for heating collected liquid,
means for conveying compressed and heated liq
uid to the nozzle for reuse and an exhaust port
for removing the entrained gases from the col
lecting and separating means.
3. A high vacuum pump adapted to evacuate
closed systems to low absolute pressures com
prising in combination a closed chamber, a liquid
jet nozzle of small aperture located near one end
of the chamber, and directed toward the opposite
end of the chamber, an inlet for gases to be en
trained or pumped, which inlet is positioned near
to the liquid jet nozzle, at least one truncated
cone vapor-guiding means positioned inside the
chamber so that it surrounds the liquid jet and
is approximately concentric therewith, a collect
ing and separating means for liquid and entrained
gases at the end of the chamber opposite to the
at cones 50-52-56, etc., serving to produce a local »
concentration of the vapors and to improve the
nozzle, said collecting and separating means con
taining a low vapor pressure organic liquid, means
and Hecker patent for further details regarding .
for compressing such collected liquid, means for
heating collected liquid, means for conveying
compressed and heated liquid to the nozzle for
pumping action.
Reference is made to the above noted Hickman
the operation of this type of pump.
One advan
tage of my improvement is that the velocity of
the ejected liquid stream need not be as high as
described in said patent, although such higher
velocities can ‘be used. This is due to the effect
of the truncated cones which produce a local
concentration of vapors and guide them in the
reuse, and an exhaust port for removing the en
trained gases from the collecting and separating
means.
‘
'
'
'
'
4. A high vacuum pump adapted to evacuate
closed systems to low absolute pressures compris
ing in combination a closed chamber, a liquid jet
nozzle of small aperture located near one end of
proper direction. Thus, the liquid need be pro
the chamber, and directed toward the opposite
pelled only by a pressure greater than the pres
end
of the chamber, an inlet for gases to be en
sure of the gas which is being pumped. Also,
the size of the stream can be large with low . _, trained and pumped which inlet is positioned near
to the liquid jet nozzle, a truncated cone posi
velocities, thus increasing ‘the evaporating area
tioned inside the chamber so that it surrounds
and reducing the need for overheating the liquid.
and is concentric with the liquid jet and so that
Pressures between 50 and 200 pounds per square
inch for streams having a diameter of ale" to 1" , its smallest end is nearest the nozzle, a collecting
and separating means for liquid and entrained
are preferred, but higher or lower pressures and
gases
at the end of the chamber opposite to the
smaller or larger diameter streams can be used.
nozzle, means for compressing actuating liquid,
My improved pump will operate economically
means for heating compressed actuating liquid,
against very high backing pressures.
means for conveying compressed and heated liquid
What I claim is:
to the nozzle for reuse and an exhaust port for
1. A vacuum pump adapted to evacute a closed
removing the entrained gases from the collecting
system comprising in combination a closed cham—
and separating means.
‘
her. a liquid jet nozzle located near one end- of
5. A high vacuum pump adapted to evacuate
the chamber, and directed toward the opposite
closed systems to low absolute pressures compris
end of the chamber, an inlet for gases to be en 50
ing in combination a closed chamber, a liquid jet
trained or pumped, which inlet is positioned near
nozzle of small aperture located near one end of
to the liquid jet nozzle, means for guiding the
the chamber, and directed toward the opposite
vapors given on by the liquid jet which means is
end of the chamber, an inlet for gases tolbje en
positioned so that it is between the liquid jet and
the chamber wall, a collecting and separating 55 trained or pumped which inlet is positioned near
to the liquid jet nozzle, at least one truncated
means for liquid and entrained gases at the end
cone positioned inside the chamber so that it
of the chamber opposite to the nozzle, means for
compressing and heating actuating liquid, means
for conveying compressed and heated liquid to
the nozzle for reuse and an exhaust port for re
moving the entrained gases from the collecting
and separating means.
2. A high vacuum pump adapted to evacuate a
closed system to a low absolute pressure compris
ing in combination a closed chamber, a liquid
jet nozzle of small aperture located near one end ‘
surrounds and is concentric with the liquid jet
and so that its smallest end is nearest the nozzle,
a collecting and separating means for liquid and
entrained gases at the end of the chamber oppo
site to the nozzle, said collecting and separating
means containing a low vapor pressure liquid,
means for compressing such collected liquid,
means for heating collected liquid, means for
conveying compressed and heated liquid to the
nozzlefor reuse, and an exhaust port for remov
of the chamber, and directed toward the oppo
ing the entrained gases from the collecting‘ and
site end of the chamber, an inlet for gases to be
separating means.
‘
'
entrained or pumped, which inlet is positioned
' 6. A high vacuum pump adaptedto evacuate
near to the liquid jet nozzle, means for guiding
closed systems to low absolute pressures compris
the vapors given off by the liquid jet, positioned
’
‘70
ing in combination a closed chamber, a liquid
so that it is between theliquid jet and the wall
jet nozzle of small aperture located near ‘one end
ofthe chamber, a collecting and separatingmeans
for liquid and entrained gases at the end of the
chamber apposite t9 the nude said cqlleqtins
of the chamber, and directed toward the oppo
site end of the chamber, an inlet for gases to be
entrained or pumped, which inlet is positioned
2,406,017
5
near to the liquid jet nozzle, a plurality of trun
cated cones positioned in spaced relation inside
the chamber so that they surround and are con
centric with the liquid jet and so that their
smallest ends are nearest the nozzle, a collecting
and separating means for liquid and entrained
gases at the end' of the chamber opposite to the
nozzle, said collecting and separating means con
6
taining a low vapor organic pressure liquid, means '
for compressing such collected liquid, means for
heating collected liquid,, means for conveying
compressed and heated liquid to the nozzle for
reuse, and an exhaust port for removing the en
trained gases from the collecting and separating
means.
‘
KENNETH C. D. HICKMAN.
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