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Патент USA US2406020

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Aug- 20; 1945-
w. y. LANG ET AL
2,406,020
TELEGRAPH SIGNAL ENCIPHERING ‘MECHANISM
Filed July 1, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG. /
KEYBOARD
PERFORATOR
KEYBOARD
HERFORATOR
I
T
1/
'
'
-
~
.
w
1.’ LANG
WVEMORS'E Ir‘ WATSON ‘
8%
ATTORNEY _
Aug. 20, 1946.
2,406,020
W. Y. LANG ETAL
‘TELEGRAPH SIGNAL ENCI-PHERING MECHANISM
Filed July 1, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
. W. K LANG
INVENTORSZEE WATSON
%
W‘ ‘
A T7'0RNE V
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
UNIT
arcane
STS PATENT
Fries
2,406,020
TELEGRAPH SIGNAL ENCIPHERING
MECHANISM
Wilmarth Y. Lang, Towaco, N. J ., and Edward F.
Watson, Larchmont, N. Y., assignors to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application July 1, 1942, Serial No. 449,266
10 Claims. (01. 178-22)
1
2
This invention relates to enciphering systems
for permutation code telegraph signals. More
particularly, this invention relates to the full
mechanical preparation of random key tape for
which the scrambled signal elements from the
use in enciphering and deciphering such signals.
. selector are selected before they are in turn im
pressed on an individual polar relay which con
trols the reperforator.
Refer now to Fig. 1.
Switches E5, E5, 25 and 25
are closed. Keyboard perforators i and 2 have
vices for preparing ciphering key tapes. The
keys such as 3 and 4. As the keys are depressed,
present invention has the advantage of employ
tapes 5 and 5 are perforated in a Well-known
ing apparatus used in well-known telegraph sys
manner. When sui?cient tape has been punched,
tems. No special apparatus is required. The 10 switch controls 1 and 8 are lowered closing con
characters in key tapes produced by this method
tacts 9 and l El. When contacts 9 and i5 are closed,
have been found by actual count of frequency and
a circuit is established which may be traced from
sequence to closely approach perfect random.
battery H through the winding of magnet 12,
Further, the device is a full mechanical arrange
winding of magnet 13, contact 9, switch Hi, con
ment. It requires no manual manipulation and 15 tact ii], and switch [5, to ground i5. Magnets l2
a minimum of adjustment.
and I3 attract their respective armatures ii and
There are presently available a number of de
It is an object of this invention to provide a
ES. The armatures are rotated in a clockwise di
full mechanical device employing telegraph sys
rection around ?xed pins 19 and 25, respectively.
tem apparatus for producing random key tape for
The right-hand end of each armature is with
an automatic enciphering and deciphering system. 20 drawn from its position against shoulders 2| and
The invention may be understood from the fol
lowing description when read with reference to
the associated drawings in which:
Fig. 1 shows two transmitting distributors to
each of which signal elements are supplied from
two different sources and in which the signal ele
ments supplied from the two sources are combined
so that the output from the distributors is rela
tively random. One source of signal elemen sup
ply for each distributor, as shown is an individual
punched tape which is produced, as indicated, in
an individual keyboard perforator associated with
each distributor. This tape is preferably one con
taining all possible combinations in the code an
equal number of times but with the characters
punched in random sequence. The tapes in the
22 of cams 23 and 24. Power is supplied when
switches 25 and 26 are closed from source 2? to
motors 28 and 29 which rotate shafts 3D and 5!.
Shafts 35 and 3| are coupled through clutches 32
and 33 to the driven shafts 34 and 35. The driven
shafts are coupled through worms 36
3'! and
gears 38 and 39 to the distributor shafts 45 and
4!. When the right-hand end of the armatures
H and I8 are withdrawn from engagement with
the shoulders 2| and 22, shafts 4E! and 4! are ro
tated driving the rotary arms 42 and d3 of the dis
tributors 44 and 45.
Depending upon whether a corresponding posi
tion in tapes 5 and 'e‘ is punched or unpunched,
armatures 45, M, 48, as and 55 associated with
tape 5 and armatures 5|, 52, 53, 54 and 55 associ
two transmitters may be in the forms of long re
ated with tape 5 will be in engagement with their
peating loops, but if so they should be of different
length. rI'he second source of signal element sup
respective upper contacts 55, 51, 58, 59, 55, 6t, 52,
ply for each distributor is a single vibrating relay which serves both distributors. The trains of
63, 55 and 65 or their respective lower contacts
55, 5'5, 58, 59, ‘It, ‘H, ‘l2, 13, ‘M and ‘E5. Each of
the armatures 45 to 55 which is in engagement
signal elements as transmitted by each of the two
with its upper contact will supply positive battery
distributors represent the combination of the sig
from source 15 to a particular segment of the
nal elements impressed on the distributor by the
group numbered l to 5 on the outer ring of dis
hey tape and the signal elements impressed on 45 tributor 45 or 55. Each of armatures 45 to 55
the distributor by the vibrating relay. The ran
which is in engagement with its lower contact will
dom signals resulting from the combination of
supply negative battery from source ‘i’! to a par
these two signals in each distributor are trans
ticular segment of the group numbered l to 5 on
mitted through an individual output circuit from
the outer ring of distributor M or 45. It is point
ed out that armatures 4-6 to 55 are connected to
each distributor; and
segments I to 5 of distributor 45 and that arme
Fig. 2‘ shows two polar relays each of which
receives and repeats the signal supplied by each
tures 5| to 55 are connected to segments I to 5
of distributor 44. The armature of relay ‘is is,
of the two distributors of Fig. 1. It shows also
driven from a source of 20-cycle current 79 be
a ?ve-bank selector in which the signal elements
repeated by the two relays are combined and 55 tween its contacts 85 and BI by the e?ect of cur
rent ?owing through its left-hand winding from
which is ‘arranged to be stepped at intervals to
the ZO-cycle source. When the armature of relay
scramble the output from the two polar relays in
‘i8 engages its upper contact, a circuit may be
different manners in response to the production
traced from positive battery 16 through contact
of a specific symbol in the output of the scram
bling mechanism. It shows also a distributor in 60 8| and the armature of relay 18 to parallel
Y
_
2,400,020
4
3
branches.
The upper branch extends to what are
distributor
II9.
Positive battery
connected
normally the stop segment and the start segment
through resistance I99, contact 99 and the arma
of distributor 45 which are connected in parallel.v v ,_ ture of relay 91 will be impressed through ter
minal I 9411 and rotary brush H2 on segment 4
The lower branch extends to what are normally
of distributor II9. Similarly, this same positive
the stop and start segments of distributor 44V
battery will be impressed through terminal I95a
' which are connected in parallel. When the armaer
and brush II3 on segment 3, through terminal
ture of relay 18 is in engagement with its lower
I98a and rotary brush II4 on segment 2 and
contact 89, a circuit may be traced from negative
through terminal H310: and rotary brush M5 on
battery 11 through contact 89 and the armature
segment I.
.
of relay 18 to the same segments of the two dis
When switch I I5 is closed, power is supplied
tributors.
'
from power source II1 to motor H8, driving
As long as there is su?icient slack in tapes 5
shaft II9, clutch I29, shaft I2I, worm I22, gear
and 8 contacts 9 and I9 will remain closed. Mag
I23, shaft I24 and rotary arm [25 of distributor
nets I2 and I3 will remain energized. Rotary
arms 42 and 43 will continue to rotate. As brush 15 I I9. When arm I25 has rotated into the position
so that brush I28 engages segment i, positive
82 sweeps over each segment of distributor 45
battery will be connected through brushes I28
positive or negative battery depending upon
and I21, solid continuous ring I28 of distributor
which is connected to the segment at the instant
will be conducted through brush 83 to solid ring
H9, conductor I29, resistance I39 and the bottom
winding of relay I3I to mid-point I32 of a poten
88. Correspondingly, positive or negative vbat
tery momentarily on the segments of distributor
44 will be connected. through brushes 84 and 85
to solid continuous ring 81. From the solid ring
88, conductor 88 extends to the top winding of
tiometer. The potentiometer comprises positive
battery I33, resistance I84, resistance i35 and
negative battery I38.v As the rotary brush I25
of distributor II9 sweeps over segments 2, 3, 4
relay 89 and the circuit extends through junction 25 and 5 it impresses whatever battery condition is
point 99 to the mid-point 9| of the potentiometer
found on the bank terminals of the selector on
the bottom winding of relay I8I. When positive
comprised of the circuit which extends from
ground to positive battery 92, resistance 93, re
sistance 94 and negative battery 95 to ground.
battery is connected to the left-hand terminal
of the bottom winding of relay I8I, the armature
Similarly, conductor 98 extends from the solid 30 of relay I3I will be actuated to the left. When
negative battery is connected to the left-hand
ring 81 of distributor 44 through the bottom
winding of relay!" to the mid-point SI of the
terminal of the bottom winding of relay I3I,
potentiometer.
'
7
When negative battery is, applied through a
segment of either distributor to conductors 88 35
and 98 the armatures of relays 89 and 91 will
be actuated to the left to engage their left-hand
the armature of relay I3;I will be actuated to the
right.
v
_
When the armature of relay I3I engages its
left-hand contact I82, a circuit is established
from positive battery I83'through resistance I84,
contacts 98 and 99, respectively. When positive
contact I82, armature of relay I H, variable re
sistance I35 and the winding of magnet I38 of
battery is connected through the distributors to
conductors 88 and 98, the armatures of relays 40 the reperforator I31 to negative battery I 38 ener
gizing the winding of the reperforator. When
89 and 91 will be actuated to the right to engage
the armature of relay I3I engages contact I89,
their respective contacts I99 and I9I. The cir
cuit through the bottom winding of relay 89 and
negative battery I19 is connected through resist
through the top winding of relay 91 is used to
ance HI and contact I89 to the circuit which
lock the armature in the position which it has 45 extends through the winding _of magnet I38.
Negative battery is thus connected to both ter
assumed. The manner in which this is per
minals of magnet I38 and the magnet will be
formed will be described hereinafter.
deenergized. As the magnet is energized and
When the armature of relay 89 is in engage
ment with contact 798 a circuit may be traced
deenergized, a tape is perforated in one of its
from positive battery through resistance I92, 50 ?ve transverse positions or remains unperforated
contact 98 and the armature of relay 89 to ter
minals on the ?ve banks I93, I94, I95, I98 and
I91 of the multibank selector I98. Correspond
ingly, when the armature of relay 91 is in engage
ment with its left-hand contact 99, a circuit is 55
in a well-known manner.
It was pointed out above that the armatures of
relays 89 and 91 were locked in position. The
manner in which this is performed will now be
ance I99, contact 99 and the armature of relay
explained. A circuitmay be traced from the mid
point 9I of the potentiometer associated with re
lays 89 and 91 through the bottom winding of
91 to terminals on banks I93 to I91 of selector
I98. It may be observed that, in the case of the
relay ‘89, top winding of relay 91, resistance I42,
conductor I43, conductor I29, solid ring I‘28 of dis
established from positive battery through resist
bottom left-hand row of terminals of selector 60 tributor H9 and brush I21 to brush I28. As brush
banks I93 to I91 designated I93a to I91a,_the
I28 engages'segments I to 5 insuccesssion, the cir- '
armature of relay 89 is connected to terminal
cuit will be extended in turn through the corre—'
I93a. The armature of relay 91 is' connected to
sponding selector switch brushes and the particu~
‘terminals 194a, I95a, [98a and 191a. The ro
lar terminal with which the particular brush is en
tating brushes associated with banks I93 to I91 95 gaged, through the armature of relay 89 or 91, de
of selector Hill are connected to ?ve segments,
pending upon which of these armatures is con
numbered I to 5,of rotary distributor II9. Thus,
nected to the particular bank terminal, to positive
brush III connects to segment 5, brush II2 con
or negative battery through contact 98, ‘99, I 99 or
nects to segment 4,>brush II3 connects to seg
I9I depending upon the particular armature and
ment 3, brush II4 connects to segment 2 and 70 the particular contact with which the armature is
brush I I5 connects to segment I. The positive
in engagement. The bottom winding of relay’ 89
battery connected through resistance I92 and
and the top winding of relay 91 are arranged so
contact 98 to the armature of relay 89 will be
that, in response to the connection of the par
impressed through terminal I93a of bank I93
ticular battery with which the armature of either
and rotary brush III on segment 5 of rotary
relay is in engagement at the moment, ‘the arma-v
2,406,020
5
6
ture will be maintained in the position which it
has assumed during the interval while rotary arm
I25 traverses a corresponding segment of distribu
tor H6. If it is assumed, for instance, that the
on their respective terminal banks for an interval
armature of relay 9'! has been actuated to the
left to engage contact 96 when rotary arm I25 is
in position so that brush I26 engages segment I,
the circuit from solid ring I28 will be extended
engage their respective third terminals, etc.
Attention is called to the fact that the different
until the symbol for the letter H reappears in the
punched tape, when the operation will be repeated
and brushes I II, to H5 will he stepped so as to
terminals on terminal banks I03 to I61 are con
nected to the armatures of relays 89 and 97 in dif
ferent manners. This has the effect of further
through brush, I21, brush I26, segment I, selector
arm “'5, terminal IIl'Ia of selector bank IIJ'I, ar
IO scrambling the signals and prevents their recur
mature of relay 91, contact 99 and resistance I09
to positive battery. The effect of current flowing
in this path through the top winding of relay 9?
will lock, the armature of relay ‘9'! in engagement
with contact 99 during the interval that brush I26
is traversing segment I of distributor IEO. As
rence in any decipherable pattern.
Relay IBI is also provided with a locking cir
cuit. This circuit may be traced from the mid
point I52 of the potentiometer, comprising posi
tive battery I33, resistance I53, resistance I54 and
negative battery I35, through resistance I55, top
brush I26 traverses segment 2, the armature of.,.. .. Winding oirelay I3Lto the armature of relay I3! .
relay 9'! which is impressing battery on contact
IOBa will be locked in whatever position it has
assumed by the effect of current ?owing through
its top winding. correspondingly, when brush I ‘23
of distributor III) engages segment 3, the locking
circuit for the top winding of relay 9'! is extended
through selector brush I I3 and contact I??a to
the armature of relay 9?. When brush
traverses segment 4, the locking circuit for the
top winding of relay 9? will be extended through
brush H2, terminal I944» of banl: I94 and the
Depending upon which contact the armature of
relay IiiI engages, the locking circuit will extend
either through contact I62 and resistance I64 to
positive battery I63 or through contact I59 and
resistance I‘II to negative battery I'iil.
Attention is directed to the fact that the con
ducting segments on distributor I I0 are separated
by insulating gaps. The conducting segments of
distributor I I0 subtend smaller radial angles than
is usually the case in a distributor arranged for
the transmission of ?ve-element permutation
code telegraph signals. The insulating gaps sep
armature of relay 9?. Depending upon which po
sition the armature of relay 9‘! has assumed. posi 30 arating the conducting segments are consider
ably longer than usual. It was shown above that
tive or negative battery will be supplied to the re~
the armatures of relays 89 and I'I'Iv are locked in
lay armature, through the locking winding on the
position during the interval While brush I26 of
same relay, while brush I26 traverses the corre
sponding
91 in thesegments
assumed toposition.
lock the armature of
When brush 2Z5 ..
traverses segment 5, the locking circuit is ex
tended through selector brush II I, terminal lfl?a
of selector bank Ill-'5, armature of relay B9 and
through contact 98 or Hit! to positive or negative
distributor I I9 is sweeping over a particular con
ducting segment. Since the armature of each.
of these relays is looked during this interval, time
must be allowed to permit each of these arma
tures to assume a new position in response to a
battery pulse of a different polarity if supplied
battery depending upon the position assumed by it) from distributors 43 or 44. For this reason, the
insulating gaps separating the conducting seg
the armature of relay 89. The armature of relay
89 will be locked in the position which it has as
sumed by the effect of the current ?owing from
positive or negative battery through the locking
winding of relay 89 while brush I26 traverses
segment 5.
It is pointed out that selector brushes I I I to I I5
are arranged to step so as to engage terminals. in
corresponding positions on their respective termi
nal banks simultaneously. The brushes remain
in engagement with a particular terminal for an
interval. When the symbol for the letter H or
other designated character is produced by the re
perforator in the perforated tape, contact I44 is
closed in a well-known manner. This establishes
a circuit from positive battery through contact
I44, winding of relay I45 and resistance I46. to
negative battery operating relay E45. When relay
ments of distributor I ID are long enough so that
the time required for brush I26 to sweep over
each of them is suilicient to permit the armature
of relay 8.9 or 9‘! to assume a new position if re
quired.
It was pointed out also above that the arma
ture of relay I3I was locked in whatever position
the armature of relay I3I assumed. While brush
I26 is sweeping across a particular conducting
segment of distributor I III, the armature of relay
ISI will be actuated so as to engage contact I62
or contact I69 depending upon the polarity of
the battery sup-plied from the particular con
ducting segment. As soon as the armature of
relay I 31 engages with contact IE2 or contact IE9‘,
the armature of relay I3I is locked in the posi
tion it has assumed by the effect of current flow
I45 operates it looks over a path from positive
ing ‘from. that contact through its top winding.
battery through contact I 41, contact I48, wind
ing of relay I 45 and resistance I45 to negative
When brush I25 sweeps off a conducting seg
ment, although current is no longer being sup
battery. The operation of relay I555 also estab
plied to the bottom winding of relay I3I through
lishes a circuit from negative battery through re
rotary distributor II 6 since brush I26 is in en
gagement with an insulating segment, the look
sistance I49, contact I58 and the winding of the
multibank selector stepping magnet IEI to posi
tive battery energizing the stepping magnet.
Switch arms I I I to I I5 of the multibank selectors
are stepped one position to engage the next termi
nal on their respective terminal banks. The di
rection of rotation is indicated by the arrow. As ‘
the brushes are stepped forward one position, con
tact I 41 is opened. This opens the locking path
of relay I45. Relay I45 releases opening con
tacts I48 and I50. Rotary brushes III to H5 will
remain in engagement with the second terminal
ing circuit through the top winding of relay I3I
remains effective to maintain the armature in
engagement with the contact determined by the
polarity of the battery supplied from the con
ducting segment last engaged by brush I26. The
armature of relay I3I will remain locked in posi
tion while brush I26 sweeps over the succeeding
insulating segment. When brush I 26 engages the
succeeding conducting segment of distributor I I0,
current will again be supplied through conductor
I 29 to the bottom winding of relay I3I. If the
2,406,020
8
polarity of this current is different from that of
the current supplied from the last segment en
gaged by brush I26, the armature of relay I3I
ing a symbol in a multielement permutation sig
nal telegraph code, and means for combining
elements forming part of one of said symbols in
each tape into a single pattern of punched and
unpunched areas in a single key tape to form a
will be operated so as to engage its opposite con
tact since the effect of the current ?owing through
the bottom winding is dominant over the effect
of the current ?owing through the top or looking
single enciphering symbol.
‘
4. A mechanism for producing key tape for a
multielement permutation code telegraph sys
Winding of relay I3I.
Attention is called to the fact that whereas
tem comprising a tape, punched and unpunched
insulating segments of greater than normal length 10 areas in said tape representing a permutation
must be provided on distributor I IE! to permit the
code telegraph symbol, a switch, means for op
armatures of relays 89 and 9'! to respond to the
erating said switch to generate telegraph signal
polarity of the current supplied from distributors
elements, and means for combining signal ele
43 and 44 during the interval while brush I26
ments forming part of said symbol produced by
is sweeping over an insulating segment, provi 15 said tape with signal elements produced by said
sion is made to supply a signal impulse of normal
duration to the perforator mechanism. This is
of longer duration than would be supplied by the
shortened conduction agent on the distributor I I0
acting alone. This is accomplished by means of 20
the locking arrangement for relay I3! described
above. Its function, as is doubtless apparent, is
ceeding insulating segment.
extending from a point on a potentiometer
through a winding on each of two polar relays,
through a rotary distributor to a plurality of cir
cuits extending through a plurality of switching
to maintain the armature of relay I3! in engage
ment with the contact it has last engaged during
the interval while brush I26 sweeps over the suc
switch to form in a key tape a single encipher~
ing symbol in a permutation telegraph code.
5. In a telegraph system, a telegraph circuit
devices to an armature on each of said relays
and opposed contacts on each of said relays con
25 nected to batteries of opposite polarities.
Positive and negative battery, respectively, are
permanently supplied to the stop and start seg
ments of rotary distributor IIU over obvious cir
cuits. The pulses supplied to the bottom winding
of relay I3I as brush I26 sweeps across the stop
and start segments are, therefore, not varied. A
'
'
6. In a mechanism for producing key tape for
a permutation code telegraph system, a first
source of permutation code signal elements, con
nected to a ?rst rotary distributor, a second
source of permutation code signal'elements con
nected to a second rotary distributor, a third ro
tary distributor and means for combining signal
positive pulse is supplied to the bottom winding
elements transmitted from said ?rst and second
of relay I3I by the stop segment of distributor ~ distributor in said thirdrdistributor to form sig
_! I0, operating the armature of relay I3I so as to 35 nal elements in the same permutation code for
engage contact I 62 and supply positive battery
ciphering purposes.
invariably to reperforator magnet I36 energizing
'7. A mechanism in accordance with claim 6
the magnet for this condition. A negative pulse
including a signal element scrambling device in
is supplied to the bottom winding of relay I3I
termediate the signal element output of one dis
by the start segment of distributor I I0, operating 40 tributor and the Signal element input of another
the armature of relay I3I so as to engage contact
IE9 and supply negative battery invariably to the
winding of reperforator magnet I36 deenergizing
the magnet for this condition.
Attention is called to the fact that the distrib- 1
utors shown are run at different and unrelated
speeds to add to the secrecy.
What is claimed is:
1. A mechanism for producing key tape for
a permutation code telegraph system comprising 7
a permutation code signal scrambling device, a
distributor.
8. A mechanism in accordance with claim 6
including a signal element scrambling device in
termediate the signal element output of one dis
tributor and the signal element input of another
distributor, and means responsive to the produc
tion of a particular character by said mechanism
for operating said scrambling device to promote
secrecy.
9. Inan enciphering system for a permutation
code telegraph system, means for producing du
key tape perforator controlled by said device and
plicate enciphering and deciphering key tapes,
means connected to said perforator for changing
the setting of said device in response to the pro—
said means comprising a multibank selector, and
means in said producing means for modifying the
settings of said selector in response to the pro
duction of a single particular permutation code '
signal combination de?ning a particular key
duction in said key tapes of a particular symbol
by said producing means.
10. A system for producing a key tape for en
ciphering or deciphering permutation code tele
graph signals, a ?rst means for producing multi
element permutation code telegraph signals in
said key tape and a second means, comprising a
ing brushes connected in said ‘scrambling device,
and means for stepping said brushes to new po~
multibank selector, for altering the signals which
sitions in response to said production of said com
would normally be generated by said ?rst means
bination de?ning said particular key character in 65 in response to the production of a particular
said perforator.
multielement permutation code signal in said key
3. A mechanism. for producing key tape for a
tape so as to produce di?erent signals in said key
tape.
permutation code telegraph system comprising a
?rst and a'second punched tape, a pattern of
WILMARTH Y. LANG.
punched and unpunched areas in each represent
EDWARD F‘. WATSON.
character in said perforator, so as to scramble
. the signal elements comprising the key charac
ters in a different manner, to promote secrecy.
2. A mechanism in accordance with claim 1
which includes a multibank selecting switch hav
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