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Aug. 2a, 1946. _
G. A. LOCKE
2,406,623
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERINGv SYSTEM
Filed March 25,‘ 1944
15 Sheets-Sheet l
IIIHI'
INVENTOR
BY
6.
ATTORNEY
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Aug. 20, 1946.
2,406,023
G. A. LOCKE
TELE‘I‘YPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25‘, 1944
15 Sheets-Sheet 2
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TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENGIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25, 1944
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TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL E'NCIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25, 1944
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INVENTOR
G. A. LOC‘KE
BY Johan"
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AugQZG, 1946'.
a. A. LOCKE
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
_ Filed March 25, 1944
2,406,023
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TELETYPEWRITER S I GNAL ENC IPHERI NG SYSTEM
Filed March 25', 1944
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ATTORNEY
, Aug. 20, 1946.
e. A. LOCKE
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TELETYPEWRI'I‘ER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25, 1944
15 Shyeets-Sheet 7
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2,406,023‘
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25, 1944
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BY id”. a c-wz?
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Au. 20, 1946.
2,406,023
<5. A. LocKE
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25, 1944
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15 Sheets-sheet 9
'lNl/ENTOR
6. A. LOCKE
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ATTORNEY
Aug. 20, 1946.
2,406,023
G_ A_ LOCKE
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENGIPHERING SYSTEM
Filéd March 25, 1944
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Aug. 20, 194.
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s. A. LOCKE
TELETYP‘EWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
15_ Sheets-Sheet 12
Filed March 25, 1944
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Aug. 20, 1946.
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2,406,923
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING SYSTEM
Filed March 25, 1944
15 Sheets-Sheet 15
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)NVENTOR
G. A. LOCKE
BY 3n... ear-“46 _
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ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,405,023
1,.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,023
TELETYPEWRITER SIGNAL ENCIPHERING
SYSTEM
George A. Locke, Glenwood Landing, N. Y., as
signor to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incor
porated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New ,.
York
'
Application March 25, 1944, Serial No. 528,024
23 Claims.
(Cl. 178-22)
2
This invention relates to the enciphering of
telegraph signals and particularly to the en
elements in the permutation code combination
for the text letter and in the permutation code
ciphering of teletypewriter signals.
combination for the enciphering symbol are alike,
More particularly this invention is an improved
marking
elements will be produced and where
enciphering system for enciphering signals trans
they are unlike spacing elements will be produced
mitted by a modern teletypewriter in a manner
in the enciphered symbol.
to provide a neat printed record of an enciphered
In order to decipher the resultant code com
' message by a mechanism which dispense-s with the
binations transmitted to the distant receiver, it
well-known key tape.
is necessary to have a key tape at the receiving
An object of this invention is the improvement
of enciphering systems for telegraph signaling. 10 station which is identical with that used in en
ciphering the symbols at the transmitter. The
A more particular object of this invention is
received permutation code combination for a par
the improvement of systems for enciphering per
ticular enciphered character is matched with the
mutation code teletypewriter signals.
,
Another object of this invention is the provision 15 same code combination in the key tape and the
original permutation code combination corre
of an improved system for the modi?cation of
sponding
to the letter in the text is thereby pro
permutation code combinations resulting from
duced. This will become more apparent from the
the random enciphering of permutation code
following.
‘combinations for teletypewriter signaling which
latter combinations include functional code com
binations such as line feed, carriage return, ?g
ures, etc., so that such functional code combina
Let it be assumed that the Baudot permutation
20 code combination for a particular letter in a word
in a text to be enciphered is represented by
tions do not appear in their regular form at ran-
+ — + — — where + represents a current or
enciphering permutation code combinations.
A method of enciphering teletypewriter signals
which is well known in the art is the key tape
duce —— or spacing signal element the result and
marking signal element and —— represents a no
dom in the enciphered message.
Another object of this invention is to devise an 25 current or spacing signal element. Let it be as
sumed that the permutation code combination
improved system to produce‘a neat, compact typed
with which it is combined in the key tape to form
record of randomly enciphered teletypewriter per
an enciphered permutation code combination is
mutation code combinations which include func
+ — — —— +. In the enciphering mechanism
tional code combinations.
Another object of this invention is .the en 30 is arranged so that corresponding like signal ele
ments in the two combinations produce a + or
ciphering of permutation code telegraph signals
marking signal element and unlike elements pro
by means of a system of cams which produce the
method. In this method permutation code com
binations such as Baudot code combinations are
punched in a tape in random sequence. Each of
enciphered symbol will be:
+
—
+
—
—— Text
+ -- -— — + Key tape
+ + — + - Enciphered
the permutation code combinations, representing
If now the enciphered permutation code com
for instance a letter in a word in a message which 40
bination
is transmitted to a distant station and
is to be enciphered, is modi?ed by one of the code
combinations in the key tape. For instance, if the
?rst of the ?ve code elements corresponding to
the letter is a marking element and the ?rst of
matched against the identical code combination
in a key tape with which it has been enciphered
in a mechanism which is also arranged to produce
a marking signal element when corresponding sig
the ?ve code elements of the enciphering symbol 45 nal
elements in the received enciphered code com
in the key tape is also a marking element, the en
ciphering mechanism may be arranged so that a
marking element will be produced as the corre
sponding ?rst element in the resultant enciphered
symbol. If the second of the ?ve code elements 50
corresponding to the letter is a spacing element
and the second of the ?ve code elements of the
bination and in the key tape are alike and a spac
ing signal element when they are unlike, the per
mutation code combination of the letter of the
original text reappears:
+ + — + - Enciphered
+ --- - +Keytape
enciphering symbol is a marking element a spac
ing element will be produced in the enciphered
symbol. And, in general, where corresponding 55
+ —-
+
—
— Text
In order to minimize the possibility of the de
2,406,023
3
ciphering of an enciphered massage by unauthor
ized persons, it has been determined that a key
tape having about one million randomly occurring
permutation code combinations is required. If
one million code combinations were punched in a
single key tape the tape would be excessively
long. The practical equivalent is produced by
4
the enciphered combinations are arranged in
groups of ?ve separated by a space, ten groups
to the line.
In the arrangement per Patent
1,416,765, however, it is necessary to type the en
ciphered message on a teletypewriter receiver be
fore it can be transmitted. In producing the en
ciphered message a teletypewriter receiving in
strument is actually part of the enciphering
the use of two key tapes at each‘ station instead
mechanism. As stunt combinations appear and
of one. Each of the tapes has slightly less than
are recognized by the sensing circuits in the en
10
one thousand code combinations. The tapes
ciphering circuits, conditions are imposed on vari
have slightly different numbers of code combina
ous complementary control conductors which ex
tions. Each of the combinations in the ?rst key
tend into a teletypewriter receiving printer which
tape at a particular station is combined with a
forms part of the enciphering mechanism, per se.
particular code combination in the second key
From eight to thirteen conductors are employed
tape, say the ?rst code combination therein, to 15 in the various embodiments interconnecting the
produce an enciphering code combination which
teletypewriter receiver and the other parts of the
is then combined with the code combination of
enciphering circuit per Patent 1,416,765. In such
the text to produce an enciphered symbol. Then
an arrangement, obviously the teletypewrilter re
the second key tape is stepped to the next com
ceiver forms part of the enciphering mechanism
bination. Each of the code combinations in the
per se. It is controlled over the local conductors
?rst key tape is then combined with’ the second
and adjusted as necessary in response to the ad
code combination in’ the second key tape and so
jacent controls to print neat copy. If the tele
on. The number of enciphering code combina
typewriter enciphering mechanism other than
tions which can thus be produced is equal to the
the teletypewriter receiver in Patent 1,416,765
product of the number of code combinations in
were in one city and the receiver were in a dis
each tape. The combined lengths and the ltime
tan-t city, it would be necessary ‘to interconnect
and effort of producing the .two. key tapes is thus
the separated components of the apparatus 'in
very considerably reduced as compared with‘ the
Patent 1,416,765 by from eight to thirteen con
length of and the time and effort of producing a
ductors or their equivalent. The arrangement in
single key tape providing a corresponding num 30 Patent 1,e16,’765 is not intended to be and is not
ber of enciphering code combinations. However,
operated in such manner, but attention is called
the two key tape arrangement in this respect still
to this aspect of the operation of the apparatus
leaves much to be desired as the tapes tear easily
of Patent 1,416,765 in order to point out one of
and become multilated and worn if used for any
considerable length of time.
the important aspects of applicant’s invention.
In applicant’s arrangement it is not necessary
7 The invention herein corrects this condition by
an arrangement wherein a system of cams is used
to type ‘the enciphered message or to punch it'in
a tape before it is transmitted. The enciphered
for enciphering instead of paper tapes.' This
combinations are transmitted directly as they are
is achieved in part by using four sets of ?ve en
produced. The randomly appearing stunt com
40
ciph'ering cams each at each station. The start
binations are modi?ed as they appear and are
ing positions of each of the cams is adjustable
transmitteddirectly from the enciphering mech
with respect to the starting position of each of
anism to the distant city without'the intermedi
the others. This greatly increases the number
ary of a teletypewriter receiver. Spaces are in
of different enciphering sequences obtainable be
troduced between groups of'?ve combination and
fore repetition is necessary.
.
line_ feed and carriage return combinations are
As is wellunderstoodin the art, in modern tele
introduced after each ten groups of ?ve com
typewriter tranmissionv systems, in' addition to
binations each without employing a teletype
transmitting permutation code combinations
writer receiver in the ‘enciphering mechanism
representing letters and numbers it is also neces
per se.
.
sary to transmitv other combinations to perform
Atthe distant station the enciphered-message,
certain functions.‘ For instance it'is necessary to
in‘ accordance with‘ this invention may be re
transmit a particular code combination to insert
ceived directly in enciphered form on a teletype
a space between words. It is necessary to trans
writer receiver which Will print ten groups of ?ve
mit another particular code combination to ad
enciphered letters each to a line. If it is desired
just the receiving teletypewriter so that charac
the message may be simultaneously punched in a
ters are typed on the succeeding line. Another
tape which is then used to control the deciphering
particular code combination is required to return
mechanism which is part of this invention.
the carriage of the receiving teletypewriter to
If it is preferred the enciphered message may
the normal starting position. In addition, a‘ par
be typed in enciphered‘form, ten words of ?ve let
ticular code combination is required to shift the 60 ters each to a line at the transmitting end. When
receiving mechanism so that it prints ?gureslin
in this form, the enciphered message may be de
stead of letters and yet another to readjust the
livered to commercial companies for transmission
receiving teletypewriter to again print letters.
over commercial lines. As an aid in such opera
When the code combinations for the text of
tion, the apparatus of the invention herein is ar
a message are combined with the random enciph
ranged so that part of the message, such as the
ering code combinations, any one of the code com
address and signature maybe in plain text and
binations which performs the functions enumere‘
part may be enciphered. In response to the ap
ated above may be produced in random fashion.‘
pearance of particular sequences of three code
Reference is made to Patent 1,416,765, G. S.‘
combinations, either in the tape bearing the plain
Vernam, May 23, l922~which discloses an ar
rangement wherein randomly enciphered tele
typewriter code combinations ‘corresponding to
teletypewriter receiver stunt combinations are
70 text or in the tape bearing the enciphered mes
sage the enciphering and. deciphering mecha
nisms of the invention herein will-be controlled to
shift from plain text to, enciphered combinations
each translated into two-letter combinations.
Further in the arrangement per Patent 1,416,765 75 and vice versa
5
2,406,023
A feature of this invention is an arrangement
in which four sets of cams cooperate in pairs of
sets to establish a resultant enciphering permu
tation code combination.
6
There are ?ve rotatable cams in each set. Each
cam, not shown in Fig. 1 controls an individually
adjustable element or armature such as arma
tures 6 to ID controlled by cam set I. Each ar
mature is operated to engage one or the other of
rangement by means of which the starting posi
its two contacts such as II or I2, depending upon
tion of each of the cams of each set is individually
the Cutting of its respective cam. Successive per
adjustable with respect to the starting position of
mutation code combinations of the contacts as
each other cam in the group and the starting po
sition of the cam group is adjustable with re 10 sociated with each cam set are established in re
sponse to the rotation of the cams.
spect to the starting position of other cam groups.
The contacts associated with cam sets I and 2
Another feature of the invention is a system of
cooperate as a group to control the operation of
clutches which clutches are controlled in different
Another feature of this invention is an ar
manners in response to the random appearance of
relays I5 to I9. Similarly, the contacts associ
text at different times to permit the transmission
of other non-functional code combinations in
particular cam in cam set No. 2 presents a raised
ated with cam sets 3 and 4 cooperate as a group
functional code combinations in the enciphered 15 to
control the operation of relays 30 to 34. If a
surface in a particular position on its periphery to
armature
2I, the armature will be operated so as
functional code combinations when required.
Another feature of the invention is an arrange 20 to engage its contact 22. If simultaneously a
raised surface on the periphery of the correl
ment in which randomly enciphered permutation
sponding
cam in cam set No. I is presented to
code signal combinations including stunt combi
armature 6, armature 6 will engage contact I2.
nations translated into non-stunt combinations
Under these circumstances a circuit may be
are produced and transmitted from one station to
traced from ground through contacts 22 and I2 in
a distant station without the intermediary of a
series and through the winding of relay I5 to
teletypewriter receiver at the transmitting
battery, actuating the armature of relay I 5 to en
station.
gage its contact 23. If the periphery of the cam
These and other features will become appar
presented to armature 2I in cam set No. 2 is de
ent from the following description when read with
pressed,
the armature will engage contact 24. If
reference to the associated drawings exemplifying 30
the periphery of the cam presented simultane
one embodiment of the invention, in which:
ously to armature 6 in cam set No. 6 is depressed,
Fig. 1 is an introductory sketch explaining op
armature 6 will engage contact II. Under these
erations underlying the invention;
circumstances a circuit may be traced from
Fig. 2 is a diagram used in explaining the rela
ground through contacts 24 and II in series and
tionship of the major apparatus units involved in
their stead as well as the introduction of certain
_
teletyping a message, enciphering the message,
transmitting the enciphered message and receiv
ing an enciphered message in enciphered form on
the winding of relay I5 to battery, operating the
armature of relay I5 to engage contact 23 as here
tofore.
If either one of armatures 2| and 6
is actuated to the left and simultaneously the
Fig. 3 is a diagram used in explaining the rela 40 other of these two armatures is actuated to the
right there will be no path available to energize
tionship of the major apparatus units involved in
relay I5. Under these circumstances the arma
teletyping a message, enciphering the message,
a receiving page teletypewriter;
ture of relay I5 will engage contact 25. In order
transmitting the enciphered message, receiving
to energize a relay such as I 5 therefore it is obvi
the enciphered message on a typing reperforator,
deciphering the message and receiving the de 45 ous that each of the armatures such as 2I and 6
must be in corresponding positions. The arma
ciphered message on a receiving page teletype
tures of relays I5 to I9 will be operated in con
writer;
formity with the resultant of the permutation
Fig. 4 is a diagram showing the manner in
codes established by the cams of cam sets No, I
which the drawings per Figs. 5 to 13 should be
and No. 2. Similarly, the armatures of relays 30
arranged, each in relation to the other, to form 50 to
34 will be controlled by cam sets 3 and 4.
an operative system;
The code resultant relays 35 to 39 are con
Figs. 5 to 13 show the apparatus and circuits of
trolled through the cooperation of relays I5 to
the enciphering and deciphering system of this
invention;
I9 and 30 to 34.
If the armature of a relay
Figs. 14 to 17 are development diagrams used in 55 such as I5 in one group is actuated to a par
ticular position and the armature of a corre
explaining the arrangement of the four sets of
sponding
relay such as 30 in another group is
enciphering cams;
actuated to a corresponding position the circuit
Figs. 18 and 19 show details of the enciphering
extending from ground such as 4! will be closed
cams and enciphering auxiliary cams respec
through the contacts in series and the winding
tively;
60 of relay 35 to battery. If the armature of a relay
Fig. 20 shows details of the arrangement for
such as l5 in one group is actuated to a par
changing the settings of the various enciphering
ticular position and the armature of a relay
cams so as to vary the sequence of the encipher
ing combinations; and
such as 30 in the other group is actuated to a
non-corresponding position the path through the
Figs. 21 to 2'7 are time charts used in explaining 65 relay contacts will be open and the winding of
the relative times of occurrence of various opera
the corresponding code resultant relay will be
tions.
deenergized.
General description of operation
As a result of the above-described operations
the resultant of the permutation codes estab
Refer now to Fig. 1 which is an introductory 70 lished by cam sets I, 2, 3 and 4 will be set up
sketch for use in explaining the basic operations
by relays 35 to 39. Transmitting contacts 80 to
84 will be set permutatively in conformity with
In Fig. 1 four sets of enciphering cam-operated
the permutation code combinations of the mes
contacts are shown, cam set contacts I, 2, 3 and 4.
sage text. The armatures of relays 45 to 49
The cams will be described more fully below. 75 will be controlled by the settings of contacts
underlying the invention.
2,406,023
circuit .w‘illbe‘ established ‘from ground ‘through
' contact-80 andithe winding of .relay 45 tobattery,
to 59 is sensed to detect a stunt combination
operating the armature ofrelay 45 to engagecon
tact .50.
while the preceding code combination is being
If ‘a contact such as 80 is open the
transmitted.
armature of ' a relay such as 45 will be ‘actuated
to engage a contact such as 51.
The code com
8
two rcodetcombinations, the‘ invention herein is
arrangedso that each .of the randomly enciph
ered code combinations appearing on relays 55
89 :to 84. Ifa contact such as 89v is closed, .a
-
The transfer of the code combinations appear
. ing on relays 55 to 59 to the distributor relays
binations established on the armatures of relays
65 to 69 in proper order and the transmission of
45 to 49 will be combined with the enciphering
the code combinations are under control of dis
10
resultant code combinations established by re
tributor 19. This distributor has two pairs of
lays 35 to 39. If the armatures of- relays in
rings. These rings are indicated in the devel
corresponding positions on the message text re
oped condition. One pair of rings, solid ring ‘H
lays 45 to 49 and on the enciphering code re
and segmented ring '52, which are connected to
sultant relays 35 to 39 are both in corresponding
the single transmission channel formed by the
positions, circuits will be established from ground 15 two line conductors, controls the transmission
through contacts such as 85 and 50 in series and
of the enciphered code combinations. The sec
the winding of a relay such as relay 55, closing
ond pair of rings, grounded solid ring 13 and
contact 60. If the armatures of relays such as
segmented ring 14, controls the times of trans
35 and 5! are not actuated to corresponding
fer of the enciphered code combinations from the
positions, there will be no closed path available 20 group of relays comprising relays 55 to 59 to the
foroperating a corresponding relay such as relay
group of relays comprising relays 65 to 69. Rings
55. The permutation code combinations estab
‘H and '12 are interconnected by one pair of
lished by combining the permutation code com
brushes ‘i6 and ‘H and rings ‘I3 and ‘M are inter
bination of the message text with the permuta
connected by a second pair of brushes ‘i8 and 19.
tion code combination resulting from the oper 25 Both pairs of brushes are carried by one rotat
ation of cam sets I to 4 will be established on
able arm, not shown in introductory Fig. 1 but
the armatures of relays 55 to 59.
indicated as arm IUI in Fig. 6.
.If all that were required were the transmis
If a code combination appearing on the con
sion of enciphered permutation code combina
tacts of relays 55 to 159, when sensed by the se
tions resulting from the modi?cation of the mes 30 ries circuit through auxiliary contacts on these
sage text code combinations'by the resultant en
relays shown in the more detailed drawings, is
ciphering code combinations, the code combina
not a stunt combination appearing at random,
tions appearing on the code resultant relays 35
after the preceding code combination has been
to 39 could be combined directly with the code
transmitted by means of relays 65 to 69 and dis~
combinations appearing on the message text 35 tributor rings 12 and ‘H, the code combination
transmitting contacts 89 to 84. The three groups
will be transferred at the proper time under con
of relays, namely, the ciphered text transmit
trol of rings 13 vand 14 to the transmitting mech
ting relays 45 to 119, the storing relays 55 to 59
anism. It will then be transmitted. If, however,
and the distributor relays 95 to 59 are introduced
is a random stunt combination, the combi
to ‘permit the sensing of the enciphered text code 40 it
nation. corresponding to the letter E Will be es
combination to detect, among the random code
tablished on relays ‘65 to 69 as soon as the pre
combinations appearing, thecode combinations
ceding character has been transmitted. During
which ‘would if transmitted cause a receiving
this interval ‘the code combination correspond
teletypewriter to respond by returning its car
to therandom stunt Will be modi?ed by
riage to the starting position, operating the line 4. ing
changing the ?fth'element only. The changing of
feed mechanism operating the spacing mecha
the fifth element of any of the ?ve stunt com
binations results in the formation of a code com
bination corresponding to a particular one of
nism, shifting to the upper or lower case or in
troducing a space at undesired times.
In short,
these relays‘prevent the random transmission of
?ve-letter combinations. Then the resulting let
functional or stunt combinations as they are 50 ter combination will be transferred to the trans
known in the art and introduce functional com
mitting apparatus for transmission as the sec
binations at proper times to print the enciphered
text in a neat pattern, namely, in ?ve-character
ond letter of the two-letter combination substi
tuted for the random stunt combination.
groups, ten groups to a line.
The above will'serve as an introduction to the
detailed description to follow.
»
In order to perform these functions consider
able apparatus in addition to that disclosed in
Fig. 1- and shown on the detailed circuit and
apparatus drawings herein is required. For in
stance, in order to determine‘if a stunt code com
bination has been established at random on re
lays 55 to 59, circuitsare established in series
through contacts, which are shown only in the
more detailed drawings, when the stunt code
combination appears. Under such circumstances
the stunt code combination is not transmitted.
The single stunt combination is replaced by a
two-letter combination. The ?rst letter of the
It is pointed out that in order to performother
functions such ‘as to introduce a combination
(H)
fora space at the proper interval, to separate the
code combinations into groups of ?ve symbols
(or code words as they will be called herein) and
in order to introduce proper code combinations
at the end of a line, etc., a counting mechanism,
a system of clutches and controls therefor are
' included in the detailed drawings. Further, the
substitution of two combinations for one intro
duces complications. For instance, a complica
two-letter combination is always an E. The sec
ond letter may be any one of ?ve letters depend
ing upon the particular function. The combina
tion corresponding to ‘the function is changed
by modifying the ?fth element of the combina
tion.
‘In order to do this, that is, permit the transla
tion of a random stunt code combination into 75
tion arises when a, random stunt combination oc
curs in position to be transmitted as the ?fth
elementof a code- word and the letter E and the
second letter of the two-letter combination must
be separated by a space. Another occurs when a
random stunt combinationrappears in position for
transmission as the last combination in the last
code word of a line. Caring for these and other
2,406,023
conditions requires that the system Of Fig. 1 be
elaborated into the detailed system of the inven
tion shown on the other drawings herein which
will now be described.
Refer now to Fig. 4. Fig. 4 shows the manner
in which Figs. 5 to 13, inclusive, should be ar
ranged each in relation to the other to form an
operative system.
The keys in Fig. 5 may be operated in differ
ent manners to obtain diiferent operating ar
rangements as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
In the arrangement shown in Fig. 2 a sending
and receiving page teletypewriter equipped with a
perforator is indicated by the left-hand rectangle.
are incorporated herein by reference as part of
the present speci?cation.
With the keys in Fig. 5 in the positions shown,
a circuit may be traced from battery 50! through
the receiving selector magnet 502, contact 503
of key 504, teletypewriter transmitting contacts
505 and contact 506 of key 584 to ground 501,
energizing the sending and receiving teletype
writer. The sending and receiving teletypewriter
is equipped with a well-known perforator which
perforates the code combinations of the charac
ters and stunt functions of the message typed
on the teletypewriter in a well-known manner.
The perforated tape is stored on a storage reel
It is connected to a cipher unit which enciphers 5 598. The perforated tape containing the mes
and transmits the message. The cipher unit is,
sageto be enciphered is then transferred’ to a
" indicated by the middle rectangle. The cipher
perforated tape supply reel 101 in Fig. 7 and is
unit transmits the message to a receiving-only
run over roller 102 through tape lever roller 103
page teletypewriter which prints the enciphered
and roller 104 over the sensing pins 105 to 109
message in ?ve-letter code words, ten Words to a
under the in?uence of the tape feed mechanism
line. The receiving-only page teletypewriter is
represented by the right-hand rectangle. It may
be located at the same station as the enciphering
‘H0 in a manner to be described more in detail
hereinunder. The code combinations appearing
in the tape are modi?ed by the mechanism of the
ciphering unit in a manner to be described and
are impressed on the transmitting distributor
60]. The enciphered signals are impressed on a
circuit which may be traced from ring 602 of the
apparatus shown in the two left-hand rectangles,
or if desired, if may be located at the office of
the local commercial telegraph company or at
an o?ice in a distant city. The enciphered mes
sage in this form may, if desired, be transmitted
distributor through conductor 603 into Fig. 5
where the circuit extends through contacts 509
pany. Thereafter, the received message may be 3 O and 5 ID of key 504, contact 5| I of key 512 through
deciphered and printed as it appeared in the orig
selecting magnet 5l3 of the receiving-only tele
inal text by running the message through the ci
typewriter 525, through contact 5M of key 5| 2,
phering unit and modifying it by means of the
contact 5! 5 of key 5IB through the selecting mag
code combinations resulting from cam settings cor
net 5i‘l of the typing reperforator 526, contact
responding to those used in originally encipher
518 of key 5|6, contact 5I9 of key 520 and resist
ing the text.
ance 52! to battery 522. The’ opposite side of the
over the facilities of a commercial telegraph com
Fig. 3 shows an arrangement wherein, as rep
resented by the successive rectangles from left to
right, a sending and receiving page teletypewriter
with perforator, perforates and records a plain
text message. The plain text message is im
pressed on the cipher unit which enciphers and
transmits the message directly to a distant sta~
tion. The enciphered message is received in the
distant station by a typing reperforator which re
perforates and prints the ciphered message. The
ciphered message is impressed on the cipher unit
which deciphers the message. Then the deciph
transmitting circuit extends through brushes 604
40
and 605 in series through the outer ring of dis
tributor 6M, conductor 606 which extends into
Fig. 5 and through contact 523 of key 520 to
ground 524. Under these circumstances, the
enciphered message will be printed by the receiv
ing-only teletypewriter 525 and will be reper
forated by the typing reperforator 526. This set
up corresponds generally to the arrangement
shown in Fig. 2 except that a typing reperforator
is connected into the system also so that the
enciphered message will be both printed on the
ered message is received on a receiving-only page
receiving-only teletypewriter and reperforated by
teletypewriter which prints the deciphered mes 50 the typing reperforator.
sage.
While the system is thus arranged, a distant
The reference numeral 521 in Fig. 5 represents
teletypewriter switching system indicated by rec
a teletypewriter set which comprises a receiving
tangle 528 is connected by means of conductors
printer, a keyboard operated type perforator and
529 and 530 through loading 53! in such manner
a keyboard operated transmitter. A set which 55 that a calling signal 532 may be operated to sig
combines these units is disclosed in Patent 1,965,—
nal an incoming message. Conductor 529 is ex
572 granted July 10, 1934, to C. W. Burcky et al.
tended through resistance 533 and contact 534 of
The receiving printer unit which is contemplated
key 526 through calling signal 532 to ground.
Conductor 530i is connected through contact 535
tail in Patent 1,904,164, granted April 18, 1933, 60 of key 520 to ground.
in the Burcky et a1. patent is disclosed in full de
to S. Morton et al.
The reference numeral 525 in Fig. 5 represents
a receiving-only teletypewriter. Such a receiving
teletypewriter is disclosed also in the above-men
The keys may be operated in a manner to pro
vide the arrangement indicated in Fig. 3. For
this condition, as indicated in Fig. 3 after the
message has been typed and reperforated and
65 thereafter enciphered, it is transmitted to a dis
tioned Patent 1,965,572.
tant station. In order to transmit from the ci
The reference numeral 526 in Fig. 5 represents
phering unit to a distant station, keys 5l2, 5| 6 and
a typing reperforator. Such a mechanism is dis
520 in Fig. 5 are actuated. The transmitting dis
closed in Patent 2,273,909, granted February 24,
tributor is then connected through conductor 603,
1942, to C. W. Swan.
The reference numeral 625 in Fig. 7 represents 70 contacts 509 and 5H) of key 504, contacts 536
and 53‘! of key 5l2, contacts 538 and 539 of key
a tape transmitter. Such a transmitter is dis
5! 6, contact 540 of key 520 and resistance 533 to
closed in Patent 2,055,567 granted September 29,
conductor 529 which extends to the distant sta
1936 to E. F. Watson.
tion. Conductor 606 is extended through con
The disclosures of the aforementioned patents
tact 541 to conductor 530 which extends also
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