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Патент USA US2406031

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Aug. 20, 1946.
2,406,031
R. D. PARKER
TELEGRAPH CIPHERING KEY TAPE MACHINE
Filed May 21,- 1942
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INVENTOR
R D. PARKER
BY
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ATTORNE V
Patented Aug. 20.1946
2,406,031
UNiTso ’ STATES PATENT osrics
TELEGRAPVH CIPHERING KEY TAPE
_
MACHINE
'Ralzemond B. Parker, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to
* Bell TelephonecLaboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application May 21, 1942, Serial No. 443,909
(Cl. 178-22)
8 Claims.
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1’
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2
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The key tapes are punched in accordance with
the random selections. This provides purely ran
dom tape. If a tape having a controlled bias is
desired it may be obtained by varying the num
bers of the two kinds of balls relative each to
teletypewriter signals.
In a system of secret telegraphy presently
the other as desired.
An object of this invention is the preparation
known in the art in connection with which this
of key tapes for enciphering and deciphering per
invention may be used, the enciphered code ele
mutation code teletypewriter signals in a'purely
ments as transmitted are the resultants of the
elements of the regular Baudot code signal modi-_ 10 random fashion.
A further object of this invention is the prep
?ed ‘by the elements of what is known in the art
aration of purely random key tape for encipher
as a key tape. The key tapes are prepared and
ing and deciphering permutation code teletype
supplied to each terminal in advance. The key
writer signals entirely by mechanical means.
tapes at each terminal are operated in synchro
The invention may be understood from the fol
nism. Each character element of the enciphered
lowing description when read with reference to
code may be made marking or spacing by suitable
This invention relates to secret telegraph sys
tems and particularly to the full mechanical pro~
duction of a purely random key tape for use in
enciphering‘ and deciphering permutation code
mechanism, depending upon whether each ele
ment of the regular permutation code represent
ing the character and the corresponding element
as randomly punched in the key tape are alike or‘
unlike.
Previous‘ proposals for making random cipher
ing or key tapesor equivalent devices have fol
the drawings herein in which:
lowed two general procedures.
numbers of two different kinds, are employed in
this invention. Exactly half of the balls are
opaque and exactly half are translucent. The
In accordance with one procedure,tapes have
been prepared at random manually by operators.
This method has two undesirable features. First,
it is‘ laborious and time-consuming. 'Second, it
seems doubtful whether a human operator can
'
Fig. 1 shows a side elevation of the apparatus;
» Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus; and
Fig. 3 shows the control circuit and tape punch
selecting, apparatus.
Refer now to Figs. 1 and 2.
A large number of balls I, comprising equal
balls are poured into a hopper 2. The balls are
thoroughly stirred by a spiral worm 3. The worm
is driven by a motor 4 and shaft 5 through a
actually prepare a mathematically random tape 30 gear box 6 which rotates the vertical shaft 1 to
and the‘ deviations from randomness may be such
which the worm 3 is rigidly secured. The shaft
as to aid unauthorized parties in deciphering
is held in position by bearing 18, ?xed to the
messages. In any case, the e?ort to make it ran
upper wall of gear box 6, bearing 19 secured to
dom increases the laboriousness of the task and
the lower portion of hopper 2 and bearing 8
adds a mental strain to the work.
which is integral with the horizontal bracket 9
secured to the right-hand vwall of hopper 2 by
In accordance with the second procedure, tapes
have been prepared mechanically. Presently
bolts 12.
'
For aninterval before tape is to be prepared,
known mechanical devices, however, do not in
fact produce mathematically random tape and,
power is supplied from source It! to motor 4 and
moreover, such devices generally are complex
the stirring mechanism comprising spiral worm 3
is operated to insure thorough mixing of the two
and expensive to construct. As a result, few, if
any, such devices have been suitable for or applied
kinds of balls. The bottom of the hopper H is
an inclined plane sloping downwardly to the right.
to the making of tape. The invention herein in
sures the provision of purely random tape. The
The lower portion l2 of the right-hand wall of
hopper 2 is extended and inclined downwardly
invention therefore promotes secrecy by insuring
that the symbols punched in the tape do not
toward the right, generally parallel at the bottom
follow any recurring pattern. The elements
incline plane I I of hopper 2 and spaced therefrom
punched in the key tape in accordance with this
to form therewith a chute. The balls gravitate
at random into the chute which is arranged to
invention, in other words, are purely random.
Further, the key tape is produced entirely me
accommodate ?ve rows of balls extending down
chanically and, its production does not require
wardly to the right to the position of the trans
any manual manipulation whatsoever.
verse barrier I 3 interposed in the paths of the
?ve rows of balls.
In accordance with this invention, equal num
bers of two kinds of. balls are thoroughly mixed
The mechanism thus far described will effect
and‘ thereafter selectedv in random sets of ?ve. 55 the random selection at the barrier I3 of ?ve
2,406,031
3
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balls which may be opaque or translucent in any
the belt. Preferably the transverse sections
formed by successive right-angle members 25 are
separated into five individual compartments by
combination.
It is pointed out that whereas, in the descrip
tion of the embodiment of the invention, appara
tus for a ?ve unit permutation code is described,
means of vertical walls 26.
The balls are rolled into the individual com
the invention is not so limited. By the addition
partments by gravity and are elevated by the
of a ball chute, a source of light, a photoelectric
continuous belt which moves in the direction
cell, an ampli?er and relay and a punch selecting
indicated by the arrows. When the balls reach
magnet, and making minor, obvious modi?ca
» the position of the opening 30 they are rolled out
tions to correspond, the invention may be applied ' of their compartments and into the hopper where
to the manufacture of tape for permutation, codes
‘r they are again mixed with the large mass of balls
having six elements. There is no limit to the
by the helical worm 3.
number of elements in a permutation code for
The associated. circuit which controls the
which corresponding selections may bem'ade in ‘ shutter 19 of the optical system as well as barrier
accordance with this invention. Further'thein- '
i3. and the perforator 3| will now be described.
vention may be applied to‘ a wide variety of uses?
Refer to Fig. 3. A rotary distributor 32, having
other than the punching of tape.
‘
a rotating arm 33 equipped with brushes 34a to
The two kinds of balls need not necessarily be
‘ 34e which engage a continuous conducting ring
present in exactly equal numbers. They may be
35 and a plurality of segmented rings 36, 31, 38
present in unequal numbers and the relative at and 39, is employed to controlgthe operation of
numbers may be varied at will from time to time
the shutter IS, the ,barrie‘r‘l3 and the perforator
to produce what might be ‘termed an opaque. bias
3|. The rotating arm 33 of the rotary'distrib7
or a translucent bias. This‘wouldnot be a de-'
utor 32 is rotated by means of a shaft 740 which
parture from the principle of the invention un
is connected through gear box 4| and'sh‘aft. 42
less the bias became considerable, Consequently, g5 to the motor 4. Brushes 34a to 346 are‘ all inter
approximate equality of the two‘ kinds of balls
connected in parallel. Battery v43 is connected by
is all that is required.
means of conductor 44 to solid ring 35. As the
It is pointed out, however, that as the number
rotary arm 33‘ is rotated, the insulating gaps be
of one kind or the other of the two kinds of balls
tween ‘the‘ rings are bridged by means of the
becomes preponderant a corresponding. bias is
brushes.
introduced.
conductor connected to one of its segments which
.
Each of the segmented rings, has a
An electro-optical system comprising ?ve sim
extends to an operating circuit. When rotary
ilar sets of equipment is ?xed in position im
arm .33 is in the position shown, all of the cir
mediately to the left of barrier l3. vEach of the
cuits extending from therotary distributor rings
five sets of equipment comprises a lamp or other :: are deenergized as the brushes are not in posi—
source of light, such. as“ M, a lens l5, and aper
tion to extend the circuit from battery con
ture IE in the extension I2, an aperture IT in
nected to solid ring. 35‘ to segments 46, 41., 4B or‘
the bottom inclined plane of the hopper, a dis
49. As arm 33 moves in‘ a clockwise direction,
placeable aperture I8 inthe common shutter“,
when brushes 34a and 34b form a bridge between
and a photoelectric cell 20.
‘
'
the ring 35 and segment 46, a circuit is estab
Light from the lamp I4 is directed by means
lished from battery 43 through conductor 44, ring
of the lens 15 at a ball which vmomentarily oc
35, brush 34a, brush 34b,.jsegment 46, conductor
cupies a position adjacent the barrier l3 in‘ one
55, and the winding of magnet 5| to ground,
of the ?ve rows. Depending upon whether the
energizing magnet 5|‘ which attracts armature
ball is translucent or opaque, the‘ light will be 1. 'l I, rotating itin a‘ clockwise direction about pivot
passed or prevented from passing through the
12. ‘The left-hand. end of armature‘ 'H is se
ball. Light which passes will pass also through
cured‘ by means of pin 13‘ to‘th‘e‘ bottom end 'of
the aperture H and, when shutter I9 is- properly
shutter l9’ which is moved"downwardlyithrough
positioned in a manner to be described below, the
guides‘ 14‘. and 15, tensioning spring‘ 52. When
light will enter a photoelectric cell 20.
shutter l9‘is ‘moved to its lower position the‘ mul
By means of photoelectrical circuit to. be de
tiple apertures 18 are positioned so as to. permit
light to pass. Such of the‘ balls I as are trans‘
scribed hereinafter, a perforating punch corre
sponding to a particular ball‘ will be operated or
lucent will permit‘ lightto‘ pass. Those ‘of'the‘m
prevented from operating to control the perfora
that are opaque will prevent the passage of light‘.
tion of a tape in a corresponding position. Five
When the manual‘ switch 53 is closed‘ a circuit is‘
punching magnets are controlled in this fashion.
established from .battery 54 through switch 53
After the punching has been effected the bar
and resistance 55 to the anodes 5B of the ?ve
photoelectric cells 20 in parallel. In the‘ case of
rier i3 is operated in‘ a mannertoxb‘e described
also hereinafter. The five balls which controlled
cells associated‘ with translucent balls, a cur‘
the operation of the punching mechanism for a
rent will ?ow through conductors 51 and resist
particular character pass the barrier and drop
ances 58‘ to ground, making the potential of‘the
through the return chute’ 2i sloping’ generally
grid of the associated three-element‘ vacuum
downward to the left.
tube 59; normally non-conducting, more‘ positive;
In order to return the balls to the hopper the
This, in turn, permits current to ?ow in the
mechanism is equipped with an‘endless belt 22
associated vacuum tube plate circuit through the
driven by gears 23 through shaft 24,v gear box 6,
winding of the associated relay 60. The various
shaft 5 and motor 4.
'
relays of the‘ group 60 will be operated or un
The‘ endless belt is supported at the'top“ by a
operated, depending upon’ whether the‘ corre
pulley 2'! which rotates freely on‘ a horizontal
sponding‘ ball I is translucent orjopaque. ,Ea‘ch‘
shaft 28 rigidly secured in any convenient man‘ 70 operated relay closes a corresponding‘contact‘ 6 I‘.
ner. Spaced from the belt‘on each side and at
I When the rotary arm 33 has moved into position
the top and‘ bottom thereof is a guard .29 having
such that brush 34c‘ engages‘ segment 4‘1,‘a.cir
v
an opening 30 above the top of the-hopper.
Securedrto the‘ belt 22 are a'seriesof trans
verse members 25 projecting at'right angles to“
cuit‘ will be‘ established from‘ battery 43.‘v through
conductor 44, ring'_35‘,‘brush 34a‘,.bru'sli34c‘, seg
ment 4T, resistance 63,'thrbughsucl-lcontacts '6!‘
2,406,031
5
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as are closed and through the winding of mag
an object and selecting at random a number of
said objects corresponding to the number of ele
ments in the particular code; (2) selectively con
trolling a plurality of tape perforating elements
through an electromechanical device dependent
upon the random selection of said objects.
3. In a telegraph system, a completely auto
nets 64 associated with such closed contacts to
ground, energizing magnets 64 corresponding to
translucent balls I.
Magnets 64 position
punches, not shown, in the perforator in posi
tion to punch ahole in a corresponding position
of the tape in a well-known manner. When the
rotary arm 33 moves into position sothat brush
34d engages segment 48, a circuit is established
from battery 43 through conductor 44, ring 35,
brush 34a, brush 34d, segment 48, conductor 16
and the winding of hammer magnet 66 to ground,
operating hammer magnet 66. The operation of '
matic, purely randomly controlled device for pre
paring key tape for enciphering permutation
code teletypewriter signals comprising a, con
tainer, a plurality of equal numbers of two dif
ferent kinds of objects in said container, means
for mixing said objects, means for randomly
the hammer magnet 66 operates the punches
selecting a number of said mixed objects corre
which have been set in the punching position 15 sponding to the number of variable elements in a
by such magnets 64 as have been energized, Tape
particular permutation code, a plurality of tape
61 will be punched in corresponding positions in
perforating elements and means for controlling
a well-known manner. >
the operation of said elements depending upon
When rotary arm 33 has moved into position
said random selections.
so that brush 34c engages segment 49, a. circuit 20
4. In a telegraph system, means for making
is established from battery 43, through conductor
purely random selections of two kinds of objects
44, ring 35, brush 34a, brush 34c, segment 49,
and means for controlling a tape perforator in
conductor 61, and the winding of barrier magnet
response to said selections.
69 to ground, energizing barrier magnet 68. The
5. In a telegraph system, a tape perforator, an
operation of barrier magnet 66 rotates the bail
object mixing machine, means for making ran
barrier l3 about its ?xed pins 69 and 10. This
dom selections of more than one class of objects
permits the ?ve balls which determine the set
mixed by said machine and means for controlling
ting of the punch magnets to escape. As the
said perforator in accordance with the natures
various brushes of rotary arm 33 move off seg
of the objects selected.
ments 46, 41, 48 and 49 the corresponding mag 30
6. In a telegraph system, in combination, a de
nets are deenergized. Shutter I9 is restored to
vice for making random selections, at photoelec
its original position by spring 52. The relays 60
tric cell controlled by the selections of said de
which have been energized are deenergized, open
vice and a tape perforator responsive to said
ing their corresponding contacts 6|. The respec
photoelectric cell.
tive associated magnets 64 are deenerglzed.
7. In a telegraph system, a container, an equal
Hammer magnet 66, is deenergized. Barrier
number of two di?erent kinds of units in said
magnet 68 is deenergized and barrier I3 is re
container, a device for thoroughly intermixing
stored. The restoration of barrier I3 is timed so
said units, a selection device for randomly se
that not more than one row of balls escapes into
lecting a number of said units corresponding to
chute 2| on each cycle.
40 the number of variable units in a particular per
What is claimed is:
mutation code and means responsive to the se
1. In a telegraph system, the method of pre
lection of one of said kinds of units for operating
paring a key tape for enciphering permutation
code telegraph signals which comprises: mixing
a tape perforating punch.
equal numbers of two different forms of an object
selecting at random a number of said mixed ob
jects corresponding to the number of elements in
means for controlling a ?xed number of ele
ments each of which is conditionable in a de?nite
number of di?erent ways, a series of bodies hav
the particular code and controlling the perfora
ing individual degrees of translucency variable in
tions of said tape in accordance with said selec
tions.
2. In a telegraph system, the method of pre
50 for utilizing said bodies in successive groups of
paring a key tape for enciphering permutation
code telegraph signals which comprises: (1)
mixing equal numbers of two different forms of,
8. A
permutation code 7 selector comprising
number equal to said de?nite number, and means
said ?xed number for conditioning groups of
said ?xed number of elements selectively.
RALZEMOND D. PARKER.
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