Патент USA US2406031код для вставки
Aug. 20, 1946. 2,406,031 R. D. PARKER TELEGRAPH CIPHERING KEY TAPE MACHINE Filed May 21,- 1942 . 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 - FIG. I 0' \",¢ I 8 1:‘II. /30 9 _ ‘a ' . (/22 D r Q 'r/ 3 I 2 . (a g/ '4 1 I / ' z g 29/ // j/Zg I: - I6‘ 7*’ 52 \/ l7 ’ AMPLIFIER AND §_' I_: _7mX_ Hi \/ 4 RELAY UN/T . l8‘ _ . l9 _ ‘g, ' 20 7 +/'26 I l 5/ 0 53 3/ 1 _ / "-22 :/25 Q 2/ 78 ' 23 . 24 4 1 (MAGNET/G PERFORA TOR . (/4 ' GEAR GEAR “BOX 801' 5 ~z-J2 v ROTARY - > DISTRIBUTOR 2 4/ IN I/EN TOR VR 0. PARKER 27%~ ATTORNE V Aug- 20, 1946- " R. D. PARKER 2,406,031 TELEGRAPH CIPHERING KEY TAPE MACHINE Filed May 21, 1942 ' z Sheets-Sheet 2 8 Tr?"m$1‘, A. l-[. 26- Ron RY E . am, 24 6 t 5 \ 4‘? if o/sm/au TR f_ o 6? ‘MAGNET/C PERFORATOR AMPLIFIER AND __ RELAY wv/r_ HOUSING IN l/EN TOR‘ y R. 0. PARKER 82%” A T TORNE V Aug.- 20, 1946. I 2,406,031 R. D; PARKER TELEGRAPH CIPHERING KEY TAPE MACHINE Filed May BL, 1942 BALL 'u/v/r , 7.5 57 3 Shéets-Sheet 5 AWL/HER b ncur'umr 1%] E; /67 INVENTOR R D. PARKER BY f34M ATTORNE V Patented Aug. 20.1946 2,406,031 UNiTso ’ STATES PATENT osrics TELEGRAPVH CIPHERING KEY TAPE _ MACHINE 'Ralzemond B. Parker, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to * Bell TelephonecLaboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application May 21, 1942, Serial No. 443,909 (Cl. 178-22) 8 Claims. ' . . . 1’ ' 2 - The key tapes are punched in accordance with the random selections. This provides purely ran dom tape. If a tape having a controlled bias is desired it may be obtained by varying the num bers of the two kinds of balls relative each to teletypewriter signals. In a system of secret telegraphy presently the other as desired. An object of this invention is the preparation known in the art in connection with which this of key tapes for enciphering and deciphering per invention may be used, the enciphered code ele mutation code teletypewriter signals in a'purely ments as transmitted are the resultants of the elements of the regular Baudot code signal modi-_ 10 random fashion. A further object of this invention is the prep ?ed ‘by the elements of what is known in the art aration of purely random key tape for encipher as a key tape. The key tapes are prepared and ing and deciphering permutation code teletype supplied to each terminal in advance. The key writer signals entirely by mechanical means. tapes at each terminal are operated in synchro The invention may be understood from the fol nism. Each character element of the enciphered lowing description when read with reference to code may be made marking or spacing by suitable This invention relates to secret telegraph sys tems and particularly to the full mechanical pro~ duction of a purely random key tape for use in enciphering‘ and deciphering permutation code mechanism, depending upon whether each ele ment of the regular permutation code represent ing the character and the corresponding element as randomly punched in the key tape are alike or‘ unlike. Previous‘ proposals for making random cipher ing or key tapesor equivalent devices have fol the drawings herein in which: lowed two general procedures. numbers of two different kinds, are employed in this invention. Exactly half of the balls are opaque and exactly half are translucent. The In accordance with one procedure,tapes have been prepared at random manually by operators. This method has two undesirable features. First, it is‘ laborious and time-consuming. 'Second, it seems doubtful whether a human operator can ' Fig. 1 shows a side elevation of the apparatus; » Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus; and Fig. 3 shows the control circuit and tape punch selecting, apparatus. Refer now to Figs. 1 and 2. A large number of balls I, comprising equal balls are poured into a hopper 2. The balls are thoroughly stirred by a spiral worm 3. The worm is driven by a motor 4 and shaft 5 through a actually prepare a mathematically random tape 30 gear box 6 which rotates the vertical shaft 1 to and the‘ deviations from randomness may be such which the worm 3 is rigidly secured. The shaft as to aid unauthorized parties in deciphering is held in position by bearing 18, ?xed to the messages. In any case, the e?ort to make it ran upper wall of gear box 6, bearing 19 secured to dom increases the laboriousness of the task and the lower portion of hopper 2 and bearing 8 adds a mental strain to the work. which is integral with the horizontal bracket 9 secured to the right-hand vwall of hopper 2 by In accordance with the second procedure, tapes have been prepared mechanically. Presently bolts 12. ' For aninterval before tape is to be prepared, known mechanical devices, however, do not in fact produce mathematically random tape and, power is supplied from source It! to motor 4 and moreover, such devices generally are complex the stirring mechanism comprising spiral worm 3 is operated to insure thorough mixing of the two and expensive to construct. As a result, few, if any, such devices have been suitable for or applied kinds of balls. The bottom of the hopper H is an inclined plane sloping downwardly to the right. to the making of tape. The invention herein in sures the provision of purely random tape. The The lower portion l2 of the right-hand wall of hopper 2 is extended and inclined downwardly invention therefore promotes secrecy by insuring that the symbols punched in the tape do not toward the right, generally parallel at the bottom follow any recurring pattern. The elements incline plane I I of hopper 2 and spaced therefrom punched in the key tape in accordance with this to form therewith a chute. The balls gravitate at random into the chute which is arranged to invention, in other words, are purely random. Further, the key tape is produced entirely me accommodate ?ve rows of balls extending down chanically and, its production does not require wardly to the right to the position of the trans any manual manipulation whatsoever. verse barrier I 3 interposed in the paths of the ?ve rows of balls. In accordance with this invention, equal num bers of two kinds of. balls are thoroughly mixed The mechanism thus far described will effect and‘ thereafter selectedv in random sets of ?ve. 55 the random selection at the barrier I3 of ?ve 2,406,031 3 4 balls which may be opaque or translucent in any the belt. Preferably the transverse sections formed by successive right-angle members 25 are separated into five individual compartments by combination. It is pointed out that whereas, in the descrip tion of the embodiment of the invention, appara tus for a ?ve unit permutation code is described, means of vertical walls 26. The balls are rolled into the individual com the invention is not so limited. By the addition partments by gravity and are elevated by the of a ball chute, a source of light, a photoelectric continuous belt which moves in the direction cell, an ampli?er and relay and a punch selecting indicated by the arrows. When the balls reach magnet, and making minor, obvious modi?ca » the position of the opening 30 they are rolled out tions to correspond, the invention may be applied ' of their compartments and into the hopper where to the manufacture of tape for permutation, codes ‘r they are again mixed with the large mass of balls having six elements. There is no limit to the by the helical worm 3. number of elements in a permutation code for The associated. circuit which controls the which corresponding selections may bem'ade in ‘ shutter 19 of the optical system as well as barrier accordance with this invention. Further'thein- ' i3. and the perforator 3| will now be described. vention may be applied to‘ a wide variety of uses? Refer to Fig. 3. A rotary distributor 32, having other than the punching of tape. ‘ a rotating arm 33 equipped with brushes 34a to The two kinds of balls need not necessarily be ‘ 34e which engage a continuous conducting ring present in exactly equal numbers. They may be 35 and a plurality of segmented rings 36, 31, 38 present in unequal numbers and the relative at and 39, is employed to controlgthe operation of numbers may be varied at will from time to time the shutter IS, the ,barrie‘r‘l3 and the perforator to produce what might be ‘termed an opaque. bias 3|. The rotating arm 33 of the rotary'distrib7 or a translucent bias. This‘wouldnot be a de-' utor 32 is rotated by means of a shaft 740 which parture from the principle of the invention un is connected through gear box 4| and'sh‘aft. 42 less the bias became considerable, Consequently, g5 to the motor 4. Brushes 34a to 346 are‘ all inter approximate equality of the two‘ kinds of balls connected in parallel. Battery v43 is connected by is all that is required. means of conductor 44 to solid ring 35. As the It is pointed out, however, that as the number rotary arm 33‘ is rotated, the insulating gaps be of one kind or the other of the two kinds of balls tween ‘the‘ rings are bridged by means of the becomes preponderant a corresponding. bias is brushes. introduced. conductor connected to one of its segments which . Each of the segmented rings, has a An electro-optical system comprising ?ve sim extends to an operating circuit. When rotary ilar sets of equipment is ?xed in position im arm .33 is in the position shown, all of the cir mediately to the left of barrier l3. vEach of the cuits extending from therotary distributor rings five sets of equipment comprises a lamp or other :: are deenergized as the brushes are not in posi— source of light, such. as“ M, a lens l5, and aper tion to extend the circuit from battery con ture IE in the extension I2, an aperture IT in nected to solid ring. 35‘ to segments 46, 41., 4B or‘ the bottom inclined plane of the hopper, a dis 49. As arm 33 moves in‘ a clockwise direction, placeable aperture I8 inthe common shutter“, when brushes 34a and 34b form a bridge between and a photoelectric cell 20. ‘ ' the ring 35 and segment 46, a circuit is estab Light from the lamp I4 is directed by means lished from battery 43 through conductor 44, ring of the lens 15 at a ball which vmomentarily oc 35, brush 34a, brush 34b,.jsegment 46, conductor cupies a position adjacent the barrier l3 in‘ one 55, and the winding of magnet 5| to ground, of the ?ve rows. Depending upon whether the energizing magnet 5|‘ which attracts armature ball is translucent or opaque, the‘ light will be 1. 'l I, rotating itin a‘ clockwise direction about pivot passed or prevented from passing through the 12. ‘The left-hand. end of armature‘ 'H is se ball. Light which passes will pass also through cured‘ by means of pin 13‘ to‘th‘e‘ bottom end 'of the aperture H and, when shutter I9 is- properly shutter l9’ which is moved"downwardlyithrough positioned in a manner to be described below, the guides‘ 14‘. and 15, tensioning spring‘ 52. When light will enter a photoelectric cell 20. shutter l9‘is ‘moved to its lower position the‘ mul By means of photoelectrical circuit to. be de tiple apertures 18 are positioned so as to. permit light to pass. Such of the‘ balls I as are trans‘ scribed hereinafter, a perforating punch corre sponding to a particular ball‘ will be operated or lucent will permit‘ lightto‘ pass. Those ‘of'the‘m prevented from operating to control the perfora that are opaque will prevent the passage of light‘. tion of a tape in a corresponding position. Five When the manual‘ switch 53 is closed‘ a circuit is‘ punching magnets are controlled in this fashion. established from .battery 54 through switch 53 After the punching has been effected the bar and resistance 55 to the anodes 5B of the ?ve photoelectric cells 20 in parallel. In the‘ case of rier i3 is operated in‘ a mannertoxb‘e described also hereinafter. The five balls which controlled cells associated‘ with translucent balls, a cur‘ the operation of the punching mechanism for a rent will ?ow through conductors 51 and resist particular character pass the barrier and drop ances 58‘ to ground, making the potential of‘the through the return chute’ 2i sloping’ generally grid of the associated three-element‘ vacuum downward to the left. tube 59; normally non-conducting, more‘ positive; In order to return the balls to the hopper the This, in turn, permits current to ?ow in the mechanism is equipped with an‘endless belt 22 associated vacuum tube plate circuit through the driven by gears 23 through shaft 24,v gear box 6, winding of the associated relay 60. The various shaft 5 and motor 4. ' relays of the‘ group 60 will be operated or un The‘ endless belt is supported at the'top“ by a operated, depending upon’ whether the‘ corre pulley 2'! which rotates freely on‘ a horizontal sponding‘ ball I is translucent orjopaque. ,Ea‘ch‘ shaft 28 rigidly secured in any convenient man‘ 70 operated relay closes a corresponding‘contact‘ 6 I‘. ner. Spaced from the belt‘on each side and at I When the rotary arm 33 has moved into position the top and‘ bottom thereof is a guard .29 having such that brush 34c‘ engages‘ segment 4‘1,‘a.cir v an opening 30 above the top of the-hopper. Securedrto the‘ belt 22 are a'seriesof trans verse members 25 projecting at'right angles to“ cuit‘ will be‘ established from‘ battery 43.‘v through conductor 44, ring'_35‘,‘brush 34a‘,.bru'sli34c‘, seg ment 4T, resistance 63,'thrbughsucl-lcontacts '6!‘ 2,406,031 5 6 as are closed and through the winding of mag an object and selecting at random a number of said objects corresponding to the number of ele ments in the particular code; (2) selectively con trolling a plurality of tape perforating elements through an electromechanical device dependent upon the random selection of said objects. 3. In a telegraph system, a completely auto nets 64 associated with such closed contacts to ground, energizing magnets 64 corresponding to translucent balls I. Magnets 64 position punches, not shown, in the perforator in posi tion to punch ahole in a corresponding position of the tape in a well-known manner. When the rotary arm 33 moves into position sothat brush 34d engages segment 48, a circuit is established from battery 43 through conductor 44, ring 35, brush 34a, brush 34d, segment 48, conductor 16 and the winding of hammer magnet 66 to ground, operating hammer magnet 66. The operation of ' matic, purely randomly controlled device for pre paring key tape for enciphering permutation code teletypewriter signals comprising a, con tainer, a plurality of equal numbers of two dif ferent kinds of objects in said container, means for mixing said objects, means for randomly the hammer magnet 66 operates the punches selecting a number of said mixed objects corre which have been set in the punching position 15 sponding to the number of variable elements in a by such magnets 64 as have been energized, Tape particular permutation code, a plurality of tape 61 will be punched in corresponding positions in perforating elements and means for controlling a well-known manner. > the operation of said elements depending upon When rotary arm 33 has moved into position said random selections. so that brush 34c engages segment 49, a. circuit 20 4. In a telegraph system, means for making is established from battery 43, through conductor purely random selections of two kinds of objects 44, ring 35, brush 34a, brush 34c, segment 49, and means for controlling a tape perforator in conductor 61, and the winding of barrier magnet response to said selections. 69 to ground, energizing barrier magnet 68. The 5. In a telegraph system, a tape perforator, an operation of barrier magnet 66 rotates the bail object mixing machine, means for making ran barrier l3 about its ?xed pins 69 and 10. This dom selections of more than one class of objects permits the ?ve balls which determine the set mixed by said machine and means for controlling ting of the punch magnets to escape. As the said perforator in accordance with the natures various brushes of rotary arm 33 move off seg of the objects selected. ments 46, 41, 48 and 49 the corresponding mag 30 6. In a telegraph system, in combination, a de nets are deenergized. Shutter I9 is restored to vice for making random selections, at photoelec its original position by spring 52. The relays 60 tric cell controlled by the selections of said de which have been energized are deenergized, open vice and a tape perforator responsive to said ing their corresponding contacts 6|. The respec photoelectric cell. tive associated magnets 64 are deenerglzed. 7. In a telegraph system, a container, an equal Hammer magnet 66, is deenergized. Barrier number of two di?erent kinds of units in said magnet 68 is deenergized and barrier I3 is re container, a device for thoroughly intermixing stored. The restoration of barrier I3 is timed so said units, a selection device for randomly se that not more than one row of balls escapes into lecting a number of said units corresponding to chute 2| on each cycle. 40 the number of variable units in a particular per What is claimed is: mutation code and means responsive to the se 1. In a telegraph system, the method of pre lection of one of said kinds of units for operating paring a key tape for enciphering permutation code telegraph signals which comprises: mixing a tape perforating punch. equal numbers of two different forms of an object selecting at random a number of said mixed ob jects corresponding to the number of elements in means for controlling a ?xed number of ele ments each of which is conditionable in a de?nite number of di?erent ways, a series of bodies hav the particular code and controlling the perfora ing individual degrees of translucency variable in tions of said tape in accordance with said selec tions. 2. In a telegraph system, the method of pre 50 for utilizing said bodies in successive groups of paring a key tape for enciphering permutation code telegraph signals which comprises: (1) mixing equal numbers of two different forms of, 8. A permutation code 7 selector comprising number equal to said de?nite number, and means said ?xed number for conditioning groups of said ?xed number of elements selectively. RALZEMOND D. PARKER.