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Патент USA US2406032

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Aug- 20, 1946.
Filed NOV. 23. 1942
FIG. 2
81’ 9,4“, 5‘
Patented Aug. 20, ‘1946
Ralzemond D. Parker, Brooklyn.
Y., assignor to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Ywa corporation of New York
Application November 23, 1942, Serial No. 466,645
9 Claims. (01. 178—22)
This invention relates to secret telegraph sys
tems and particularly to the full automatic pro
duction of a purely random key tape for use in
5 LI
An object of the invention herein is the provi
sion of improved means for and methods of pro
ducing random key tape for use in enciphering
‘ and deciphering permutation code telegraph sig
5 inals. Another object of the invention herein is
to simplify and cheapen the mechanism required
In a system of secret telegraphy presently
to produce purely random key tape.
known in the art, in connection with which this
A feature of the invention herein is the con
invention may be used, the enciphered code ele
trol of each of the punch selecting magnets of
ments as transmitted are the resultants of the
elements of the regular permutation code signals l0 ‘a permutation code tape perforator by the ran
domly occurring noise in a separate source of
modi?ed by the elements of what is known in the
noise for each punch selecting magnet. A fur
art as a key tape. The key tapes are prepared
ther feature of the invention herein is the con
and supplied to each terminal in advance. The
trolling of the operation of each of the punch
key tapes at each terminal are identical and are
operated in synchronism. Each character ele "5 selecting magnets 01 a multielement permutation
code tape perforator by means of a separate polar
ment of the enciphered code may be made mark
encipherlng and deciphering permutation code
teletypewriter signals.
ing or spacing by suitable mechanism, depending
relay controlled by a separate ampli?er-recti?er
connected to a separate source of randomly oc
upon whether each element of the regular permu
curring noise.
tation code representing the character and the
These and other features of the invention will
corresponding element as randomly punched in 20
become apparent from the following description
the key tape are alike or unlike.
when read with reference to the associated draw
Previous proposals for making random cipher
ing in which:
ing or key tapes or equivalent devices have fol
Fig. 1 shows the mechanism of this invention;
In accordance with one procedure, tapes have 2'5‘1 and
Fig. 2 shows a diagram used in explaining the
been prepared at random manually by operators.
lowed two general procedures.
This method has two undesirable features. First,
it is laborious and time consuming. Second, it
General description
seems doubtful whether a human operator can 3'0:
Fig. 1 shows ?ve amplifier-reoti?ers indicated
actually prepare a mathematically random tape
by rectangles at the left of the drawing. The
and the deviation from randomness may be such
input of each ampli?er-recti?er is coupled to a
as to aid unauthorized parties in deciphering mes
different source of random noise by means of an
sages. In any case, the effort to make the tape
independent receiver. The irregular outputs of
random increases the arduousness of the task and 35. ampli?ers arranged so that the gain is so high
adds a mental strain to the work.
that tube and resistance noise is great may be
In accordance with the second procedure, key
coupled to a recti?er without employing a re
tapes have been prepared mechanically. Me
ceiver if ‘desired. ‘The recti?ed noise currents
chanical devices for producing random key tape,
from each of the five noise sources control the
however, are complex and expensive. As a re
4-0 operation of an individual polar relay. The arma
sult, few, if any, such devices have been suitable
ture of each of the polar relays assumes one or
for or applied to the making of key tape. The
another of its two positions depending upon the
invention herein represents an improvement over
intensity of the noise. It is locked in engage
presently known mechanical devices for the prep
ment with one or the other of its two contacts
aration of key tapes. The mechanism of this in
vention is relatively simple and inexpensive to 45 depending upon the position it has assumed,
under the control of battery supplied once per
produce and to operate. With properly chosen
punching cycle to either of two locking windings
noise sources the resultant key tape produced by
on the polar relay through the segments of a
the invention herein should be perfectly random.
rotary distributor. Each of the ?ve polar relays
By this is meant that when a sufficient number,
say one thousand characters, are punched in a 50 controls the operation of a second polar relay
which, in turn, controls the energization of an
tape by means of the mechanism described herein
individual punch selecting magnet in the tape
it should be found by actual count to contain sub
perforator. The selecting magnets of the perfo
stantially equal numbers of all of the thirty-two
rator will control their respective punches so that
possible characters provided in a five-element
permutation code.
55.correspondingipositlonsw in a key tape will be .
punched or remain unpunched, depending upon
the position assumed by the armature of each of
the corresponding relays. The punch perforating
magnet associated with the ?ve selecting magnets
will be energized once for each rotation of the
distributor arm after the punches have been set
in position to operate. those of theme punches
which have been set"in= the punching position'by"
the selecting magnet.
Detailed description
At the left of the drawing each receiver, such‘.
as I, is coupled in any convenient manner to
a separate source of random noise; The source“
to drive shaft 3| through gear box 32. When
motor 30 rotates the arm 26 of rotary distributor
21 is rotated. On the face of the distributor 2'!
there is a continuous conducting ring 33 to which
is connected at ground source of battery 41. On
the face of the distributor there are also ?ve
segmented rings comprising conducting: segments
3I'to 39, inclusive, and nen=conduactinge segments
40 to 45, inclusive. As the brush arm 26 rotates
current is supplied during a portion of its rota
tion by means of interconnected conducting
brushes #8‘ from ring 33 to segments 34 to 39, in
elusive, simultaneously. When the brushes 4B
position. tel-bridge the gap between ring
be anybyconvenient?
static in a'i-rad‘io‘
source; receiver, it} 33' and‘segment 38¢; a circuit may be traced from
subject, however, to requirementgtexplalnednheree
ground; tnroughbattery 41, ring 33, brushes 46,
segment 38 and conductor 48 to armature 4 of
inafter. The receiver l is coupled to an ampli
relay 31 Depending‘ upon whether or not the
eftec? in winding ill of relay 3 of the output
is supplied
2. The
to recti?ed
winding output
Ill of of
relay 3 to
20 current of the noise ampli?er 2 is at the moment
control the operation? or its=arnmture 4 between
of su?icient. magnitude to- prepondenate: ever. the
its'opposediccntaets 5 and 6:, A biasing’: current
eil’ect of. the‘ biasing current in. winding. 11 of
issuppliedi over: a circuitentending from ground;
relay 3, armature-tot. relay 3. will be. in. engage.
through battery 8;. variable resistance 9 and the
ment with either of. its contacts 5- or 5. It the
winding ‘I of relay: 3 to ground: The-‘magnitude 26 armature A is in engagementwithicontaot Bathe
of the“ current is adjusted'by' means-of variable
circuit. extends through windingllaof relay 3 and
resistance 9 so- as‘ to maintain the armature’ A
winding t9- of‘ relay. IJI to ground, operating. the‘
of relay‘ 3 in engagement- with each or its" two
armature H of relay 147+ to engage contact 16.
contacts, 5 and.- 61 approximately one-half of the
the annatureA-isin engagement with contact
Fig. 2 is a. current versus time graph.
irregular line therein simulates the‘ output cur~
rent‘ of a noise ampli?er-recti?er, such as ampli
her-recti?er 2when connectedltoa source of noise‘
suitable for use with this invention. This source
of noise' might» be
ampli?er adjusted‘ to- have
such a’ high’ gain that tube and» resistance noise
is very noticeable in its: output. The horizontal
line in Fig. 2 indicates the magnitude of the
30 6. the. circuit extendsthrough. contact 6, winding
50 of. relay, 3 and winding. Illr of. relay. H to
ground, operating the armature I5 of relay l-1
toward the lett to: disengage from contact Hi.
When currentr?ows-through winding 43-01’ relay
3 armature 4 is locked in» engagement with con
tact 5. When current ?owsvv through winding: 50
of relay 3 armature lvisr locked’ in. engagement
with contact 6.; The.’ armature A: of relay 3 re
mains-locked to either- contact 501" 5 while brush
biasing current. in" winding 1' of» relay 3‘ relative 404 46 traverses segment 38; As a. result of this,
to the‘ recti?ed noise current in winding I0. A
armature I 5 of relayr ll will: be maintained in
suitable‘ source of noise for the purpose of this
one or the other of its twowpositions while brush
invention is one in which the variations above
46! traverses segmentril?r It the armature t5 of
and below a» ?xed- level'?uctuate rapidly’ and- are
relay I1 is in engagement with contact 16 a cir
approximately equal in duration. Each source 45 cult may be traced from ground.. through. bat
I- may be selected to be- of a? different type’ of
tery I4T armature l5v and. contact IS-oi relay H
noise, for example, one source may be amrapidly
and. through thewinding. of. selector magneti?ta
operated typewriter... another static from a re
ground, energizing. the selector. magnet. When
ceiver, another a musical instrument, etc. In
the. winding. of the selector. magnet 23¢ is energized.~
every- case best‘ results wilt be- obtained by ad 60 its associated punch. is» set- in. the. perforating.
justlng the‘ ampli?cationvuntilithe noise from the
position. The selector magnet could: of course.
source results in approximately- equal numbers
control; the. operating. elementof someother form
of marking" and‘ spacing: conditiom. Reference‘tc
orrecording; device as well as punched tape such.
Fig. 2 indicates that’ the‘ magnitude of the our
as amagnetizedtapeor disc.
rent output of a:
ampli?er exceeds thermagw 55
Each of punch» selecting. magnets 21 to“ will
nitride or the biasingcurrentaboutr one-halt the
be controlledsinmltaneously in the same manner
time. Figi 2 is" intended to- exemplify a suitable
as described. for punch. selecting magnet 20 by
recti?ed‘ noise currentpattem and a’ biasing curmeans of corresponding independent noise
rent of proper magnitude with relation to the‘
sources, ampli?er-recliners, rotary distributor
pattern of the noise current.
60 segments and. relays as shown. on the drawing.
Ther e?ects of the‘ biasing current and oi the
As brush 4&- sweeps over. segment 39- a circuit
noise ampli?er output; current iii-windings- ‘l- and
is established from ground, tlsiroughw battery 4:1,
III‘ of relay 3 are- arranged try oppose each other
ring. 33, brushx 45;. segment 38, conductor it and
sea-that each e?eet' tends to actuate-the armature
the: winding. at punch perforating magnet 2.5- to
4 of relay 3' in the opposite direction. If it» is 65 ground, operating the perforating‘ mechanism.
assumed; th'artrt'her effect of: the biasing current in
Each of the punches- that has been’ set in the
winding ‘I tends to: actuate the
II of
punching position.» will per?orate the tape in cor—
relay 3 to engage with- contact‘ 5- and that the
responding positions and the tape will be moved
effect: of theoutputcurrent of the noise ampli?er
into the: suceeding. position; irr a well-known man
in- windingi ll‘ of relay_ 3 tends to actuate the 70 ner. Rotaryarm- 36 rotates clockwise-as indicated.
armature-1tl or relay 3 to! engage with contact
by! the arrow. Segment 33: subtends a smaller
61 it is apparent’ that the‘ armature will- engage
arc‘ than the other cmrdnctimg‘segments 34 to 38'
each! contact- approximately one-half the time.
and brush 46 engages it’ later'than it engages seg
When switckr 234:; closed power is suppliettfrom
34- to 38 to; prostate time for the'settmg oi"
power source 29‘te'motcr 30». Motor “decoupled
75 the punches before magnet 25 is energized.
The armature A of relay 3 will remain locked
in position in engagement with either contact 5 or
in response to variations in noise in individual
noise sources.
5. In a mechanism for manufacturing key tape
contact 6 until the rotary arm 25 has swept brush
for enciphering permutation code telegraph sig
46 onto the non-conducting segments 44. If mag
nals a polar relay, means responsive to variations
net 20 is energized it will remain energized for in in noise for controlling the operation of said re
substantially the same interval. When brush 46
lay, a pair of opposed contacts on said relay and
sweeps onto the non-conducting segments, relay
a second control means comprising a biasing
4 will be unlocked. The armature 4 of relay 3
winding on said relay for maintaining the arma
will then be free to assume position for the next
ture of said relay in engagement with a particular
Each of the other circuits controlling select
ing magnets 21 to 25 will be released simultane
one of said contacts approximately one-half of
the time.
6. In a mechanism for manufacturing key tape
ously in a corresponding manner.
What is claimed is:
for enciphering permutation code telegraph sig
i. In a mechanism for producing key tape for
enciphering permutation code telegraph signals a
nals a polar relay, a ?rst control on said relay
responsive to variations in noise, a second control
on said relay comprising a biasing winding, a
plurality of means for punching a tape in a plu—
third control on said relay comprising a locking
rality of positions, a plurality of sources of noise
path connected to a ?rst contact on said relay
and a plurality of means individually responsive
and a fourth control on said relay comprising a
to variations in the intensity of noise in said plu 20 second locking path connected to a second con
rality of sources for controlling said punching
tact on said relay.
means individually.
7. In a mechanism for manufacturing key tape
2. In an enciphering mechanism for controlling
for use in enciphering permutation code telegraph
the enciphering of a plurality of elements of a
signals, a plurality of ampli?ers connected to a
multielement permutation telegraph code com
plurality of noise sources, a plurality of polar re
bination a plurality of separate independent
sources of noise, a plurality of noise receiving
means connected individually to said sources and
means responsive to the variation in the noise in
said sources for controlling variations in the in
dividual elements of said permutation code com
3. In a mechanism for producing key tape for
enciphering permutation code telegraph signals a
plurality of separate independent sources of noise.
a plurality of noise receivers connected in
lays individually responsive to variations in the
noise in said sources, a transmitting distributor,
means comprising said distributor and a plurality
of locking windings on each of said relays for
locking the armatures of said relays in either of
their alternate positions and means for energiz
ing a plurality of selecting magnets in response
to the operation of said relays.
8. In a mechanism for producing key tape for
enciphering permutation code telegraph signals, a
plurality of ampli?ers set at inordinate gain to
dividually to said sources, a plurality of ampli?er
produce noise, a tape producing recording means
recti?ers responsive individually to said receivers
and means interconnecting said ampli?ers and
and a plurality of means responsive to said ampli
said recording means for controlling said record
?er-recti?ers for determining the character of 10 ing means in response to noise variations in said
individual elements in a particular code combina
tion recorded in said key tape.
9. The method of producing permutated sets of
4. In an enciphering mechanism for preparing
two conditions which comprises selectively deter
key tape for enciphering permutation code tele
mining each condition of the set as a function of
graph signals a number of selecting mechanisms
a characteristic at a given instant of a given
corresponding to the number of elements in a
source of noise and combining the two conditions
particular permutation code, means for con
thus determined in permutations.
trolling said elements comprising an ampli?er
recti?er individual to each or said elements and
means for controlling said rectiflers individually 50
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