Патент USA US2406032код для вставки
Aug- 20, 1946. 2,406,032 R. D. PARKER TELEGRAPH SIIGNAL ENCIPHBRING MECHANISM Filed NOV. 23. 1942 FIG! OUI'Pl/r OF NOISE FIG. 2 ‘NFL/HEP 27 BIAS IN RELAY m ‘WNW VAVAMAJVQ, IN VEN TOR R.D.PARKER 81’ 9,4“, 5‘ 2,406,032 Patented Aug. 20, ‘1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2.4083332 TELEGRAPH SIGNAL ENCIPHERING MECHANISM Ralzemond D. Parker, Brooklyn. Y., assignor to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Ywa corporation of New York Application November 23, 1942, Serial No. 466,645 9 Claims. (01. 178—22) 1 . This invention relates to secret telegraph sys tems and particularly to the full automatic pro duction of a purely random key tape for use in 5 LI 2 An object of the invention herein is the provi sion of improved means for and methods of pro ducing random key tape for use in enciphering ‘ and deciphering permutation code telegraph sig 5 inals. Another object of the invention herein is to simplify and cheapen the mechanism required In a system of secret telegraphy presently to produce purely random key tape. known in the art, in connection with which this A feature of the invention herein is the con invention may be used, the enciphered code ele trol of each of the punch selecting magnets of ments as transmitted are the resultants of the elements of the regular permutation code signals l0 ‘a permutation code tape perforator by the ran domly occurring noise in a separate source of modi?ed by the elements of what is known in the noise for each punch selecting magnet. A fur art as a key tape. The key tapes are prepared ther feature of the invention herein is the con and supplied to each terminal in advance. The trolling of the operation of each of the punch key tapes at each terminal are identical and are operated in synchronism. Each character ele "5 selecting magnets 01 a multielement permutation code tape perforator by means of a separate polar ment of the enciphered code may be made mark encipherlng and deciphering permutation code teletypewriter signals. ing or spacing by suitable mechanism, depending relay controlled by a separate ampli?er-recti?er connected to a separate source of randomly oc upon whether each element of the regular permu curring noise. tation code representing the character and the These and other features of the invention will corresponding element as randomly punched in 20 become apparent from the following description the key tape are alike or unlike. when read with reference to the associated draw Previous proposals for making random cipher ing in which: ing or key tapes or equivalent devices have fol ‘ Fig. 1 shows the mechanism of this invention; In accordance with one procedure, tapes have 2'5‘1 and Fig. 2 shows a diagram used in explaining the been prepared at random manually by operators. lowed two general procedures. invention. This method has two undesirable features. First, it is laborious and time consuming. Second, it General description seems doubtful whether a human operator can 3'0: Fig. 1 shows ?ve amplifier-reoti?ers indicated actually prepare a mathematically random tape by rectangles at the left of the drawing. The and the deviation from randomness may be such input of each ampli?er-recti?er is coupled to a as to aid unauthorized parties in deciphering mes different source of random noise by means of an sages. In any case, the effort to make the tape independent receiver. The irregular outputs of random increases the arduousness of the task and 35. ampli?ers arranged so that the gain is so high adds a mental strain to the work. that tube and resistance noise is great may be In accordance with the second procedure, key coupled to a recti?er without employing a re tapes have been prepared mechanically. Me ceiver if ‘desired. ‘The recti?ed noise currents chanical devices for producing random key tape, from each of the five noise sources control the however, are complex and expensive. As a re 4-0 operation of an individual polar relay. The arma sult, few, if any, such devices have been suitable ture of each of the polar relays assumes one or for or applied to the making of key tape. The another of its two positions depending upon the invention herein represents an improvement over intensity of the noise. It is locked in engage presently known mechanical devices for the prep ment with one or the other of its two contacts aration of key tapes. The mechanism of this in vention is relatively simple and inexpensive to 45 depending upon the position it has assumed, under the control of battery supplied once per produce and to operate. With properly chosen punching cycle to either of two locking windings noise sources the resultant key tape produced by on the polar relay through the segments of a the invention herein should be perfectly random. rotary distributor. Each of the ?ve polar relays By this is meant that when a sufficient number, say one thousand characters, are punched in a 50 controls the operation of a second polar relay which, in turn, controls the energization of an tape by means of the mechanism described herein individual punch selecting magnet in the tape it should be found by actual count to contain sub perforator. The selecting magnets of the perfo stantially equal numbers of all of the thirty-two rator will control their respective punches so that possible characters provided in a five-element permutation code. 55.correspondingipositlonsw in a key tape will be . 3 2,406,032 punched or remain unpunched, depending upon the position assumed by the armature of each of the corresponding relays. The punch perforating magnet associated with the ?ve selecting magnets will be energized once for each rotation of the distributor arm after the punches have been set in position to operate. those of theme punches which have been set"in= the punching position'by" the selecting magnet. Detailed description At the left of the drawing each receiver, such‘. as I, is coupled in any convenient manner to a separate source of random noise; The source“ 4 to drive shaft 3| through gear box 32. When motor 30 rotates the arm 26 of rotary distributor 21 is rotated. On the face of the distributor 2'! there is a continuous conducting ring 33 to which is connected at ground source of battery 41. On the face of the distributor there are also ?ve segmented rings comprising conducting: segments 3I'to 39, inclusive, and nen=conduactinge segments 40 to 45, inclusive. As the brush arm 26 rotates current is supplied during a portion of its rota tion by means of interconnected conducting brushes #8‘ from ring 33 to segments 34 to 39, in elusive, simultaneously. When the brushes 4B are: position. tel-bridge the gap between ring or thenoise noisemay produced be anybyconvenient? static in a'i-rad‘io‘ source; receiver, it} 33' and‘segment 38¢; a circuit may be traced from subject, however, to requirementgtexplalnednheree ground; tnroughbattery 41, ring 33, brushes 46, segment 38 and conductor 48 to armature 4 of inafter. The receiver l is coupled to an ampli relay 31 Depending‘ upon whether or not the eftec? in winding ill of relay 3 of the output pli?er ?er-recti?er is supplied 2. The to recti?ed winding output Ill of of relay 3 to 20 current of the noise ampli?er 2 is at the moment control the operation? or its=arnmture 4 between of su?icient. magnitude to- prepondenate: ever. the its'opposediccntaets 5 and 6:, A biasing’: current eil’ect of. the‘ biasing current in. winding. 11 of issuppliedi over: a circuitentending from ground; relay 3, armature-tot. relay 3. will be. in. engage. through battery 8;. variable resistance 9 and the ment with either of. its contacts 5- or 5. It the winding ‘I of relay: 3 to ground: The-‘magnitude 26 armature A is in engagementwithicontaot Bathe of the“ current is adjusted'by' means-of variable circuit. extends through windingllaof relay 3 and resistance 9 so- as‘ to maintain the armature’ A winding t9- of‘ relay. IJI to ground, operating. the‘ of relay‘ 3 in engagement- with each or its" two armature H of relay 147+ to engage contact 16. contacts, 5 and.- 61 approximately one-half of the If the annatureA-isin engagement with contact time. Fig. 2 is a. current versus time graph. The irregular line therein simulates the‘ output cur~ rent‘ of a noise ampli?er-recti?er, such as ampli her-recti?er 2when connectedltoa source of noise‘ suitable for use with this invention. This source of noise' might» be ampli?er adjusted‘ to- have such a’ high’ gain that tube and» resistance noise is very noticeable in its: output. The horizontal line in Fig. 2 indicates the magnitude of the 30 6. the. circuit extendsthrough. contact 6, winding 50 of. relay, 3 and winding. Illr of. relay. H to ground, operating the armature I5 of relay l-1 toward the lett to: disengage from contact Hi. When currentr?ows-through winding 43-01’ relay 3 armature 4 is locked in» engagement with con tact 5. When current ?owsvv through winding: 50 of relay 3 armature lvisr locked’ in. engagement with contact 6.; The.’ armature A: of relay 3 re mains-locked to either- contact 501" 5 while brush biasing current. in" winding 1' of» relay 3‘ relative 404 46 traverses segment 38; As a. result of this, to the‘ recti?ed noise current in winding I0. A armature I 5 of relayr ll will: be maintained in suitable‘ source of noise for the purpose of this one or the other of its twowpositions while brush invention is one in which the variations above 46! traverses segmentril?r It the armature t5 of and below a» ?xed- level'?uctuate rapidly’ and- are relay I1 is in engagement with contact 16 a cir approximately equal in duration. Each source 45 cult may be traced from ground.. through. bat I- may be selected to be- of a? different type’ of tery I4T armature l5v and. contact IS-oi relay H noise, for example, one source may be amrapidly and. through thewinding. of. selector magneti?ta operated typewriter... another static from a re ground, energizing. the selector. magnet. When ceiver, another a musical instrument, etc. In the. winding. of the selector. magnet 23¢ is energized.~ every- case best‘ results wilt be- obtained by ad 60 its associated punch. is» set- in. the. perforating. justlng the‘ ampli?cationvuntilithe noise from the position. The selector magnet could: of course. source results in approximately- equal numbers control; the. operating. elementof someother form of marking" and‘ spacing: conditiom. Reference‘tc orrecording; device as well as punched tape such. Fig. 2 indicates that’ the‘ magnitude of the our as amagnetizedtapeor disc. rent output of a: ampli?er exceeds thermagw 55 Each of punch» selecting. magnets 21 to“ will nitride or the biasingcurrentaboutr one-halt the be controlledsinmltaneously in the same manner time. Figi 2 is" intended to- exemplify a suitable as described. for punch. selecting magnet 20 by recti?ed‘ noise currentpattem and a’ biasing curmeans of corresponding independent noise rent of proper magnitude with relation to the‘ sources, ampli?er-recliners, rotary distributor pattern of the noise current. 60 segments and. relays as shown. on the drawing. Ther e?ects of the‘ biasing current and oi the As brush 4&- sweeps over. segment 39- a circuit noise ampli?er output; current iii-windings- ‘l- and is established from ground, tlsiroughw battery 4:1, III‘ of relay 3 are- arranged try oppose each other ring. 33, brushx 45;. segment 38, conductor it and sea-that each e?eet' tends to actuate-the armature the: winding. at punch perforating magnet 2.5- to 4 of relay 3' in the opposite direction. If it» is 65 ground, operating the perforating‘ mechanism. assumed; th'artrt'her effect of: the biasing current in Each of the punches- that has been’ set in the winding ‘I tends to: actuate the II of punching position.» will per?orate the tape in cor— relay 3 to engage with- contact‘ 5- and that the responding positions and the tape will be moved effect: of theoutputcurrent of the noise ampli?er into the: suceeding. position; irr a well-known man in- windingi ll‘ of relay_ 3 tends to actuate the 70 ner. Rotaryarm- 36 rotates clockwise-as indicated. armature-1tl or relay 3 to! engage with contact by! the arrow. Segment 33: subtends a smaller 61 it is apparent’ that the‘ armature will- engage arc‘ than the other cmrdnctimg‘segments 34 to 38' each! contact- approximately one-half the time. and brush 46 engages it’ later'than it engages seg When switckr 234:; closed power is suppliettfrom ments 34- to 38 to; prostate time for the'settmg oi" power source 29‘te'motcr 30». Motor “decoupled 75 the punches before magnet 25 is energized. 2,406,032 5 The armature A of relay 3 will remain locked in position in engagement with either contact 5 or in response to variations in noise in individual noise sources. 5. In a mechanism for manufacturing key tape contact 6 until the rotary arm 25 has swept brush for enciphering permutation code telegraph sig 46 onto the non-conducting segments 44. If mag nals a polar relay, means responsive to variations net 20 is energized it will remain energized for in in noise for controlling the operation of said re substantially the same interval. When brush 46 lay, a pair of opposed contacts on said relay and sweeps onto the non-conducting segments, relay a second control means comprising a biasing 4 will be unlocked. The armature 4 of relay 3 winding on said relay for maintaining the arma will then be free to assume position for the next ture of said relay in engagement with a particular character. Each of the other circuits controlling select ing magnets 21 to 25 will be released simultane one of said contacts approximately one-half of the time. 6. In a mechanism for manufacturing key tape ously in a corresponding manner. What is claimed is: for enciphering permutation code telegraph sig i. In a mechanism for producing key tape for enciphering permutation code telegraph signals a nals a polar relay, a ?rst control on said relay responsive to variations in noise, a second control on said relay comprising a biasing winding, a plurality of means for punching a tape in a plu— third control on said relay comprising a locking rality of positions, a plurality of sources of noise path connected to a ?rst contact on said relay and a plurality of means individually responsive and a fourth control on said relay comprising a to variations in the intensity of noise in said plu 20 second locking path connected to a second con rality of sources for controlling said punching tact on said relay. means individually. 7. In a mechanism for manufacturing key tape 2. In an enciphering mechanism for controlling for use in enciphering permutation code telegraph the enciphering of a plurality of elements of a signals, a plurality of ampli?ers connected to a multielement permutation telegraph code com plurality of noise sources, a plurality of polar re bination a plurality of separate independent sources of noise, a plurality of noise receiving means connected individually to said sources and means responsive to the variation in the noise in said sources for controlling variations in the in dividual elements of said permutation code com bination. 3. In a mechanism for producing key tape for enciphering permutation code telegraph signals a plurality of separate independent sources of noise. a plurality of noise receivers connected in lays individually responsive to variations in the noise in said sources, a transmitting distributor, means comprising said distributor and a plurality of locking windings on each of said relays for locking the armatures of said relays in either of their alternate positions and means for energiz ing a plurality of selecting magnets in response to the operation of said relays. 8. In a mechanism for producing key tape for enciphering permutation code telegraph signals, a plurality of ampli?ers set at inordinate gain to dividually to said sources, a plurality of ampli?er produce noise, a tape producing recording means recti?ers responsive individually to said receivers and means interconnecting said ampli?ers and and a plurality of means responsive to said ampli said recording means for controlling said record ?er-recti?ers for determining the character of 10 ing means in response to noise variations in said individual elements in a particular code combina ampli?ers. tion recorded in said key tape. 9. The method of producing permutated sets of 4. In an enciphering mechanism for preparing two conditions which comprises selectively deter key tape for enciphering permutation code tele mining each condition of the set as a function of graph signals a number of selecting mechanisms a characteristic at a given instant of a given corresponding to the number of elements in a source of noise and combining the two conditions particular permutation code, means for con thus determined in permutations. trolling said elements comprising an ampli?er recti?er individual to each or said elements and means for controlling said rectiflers individually 50 RALZEMOND D. PARKER.