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Патент USA US2406059

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Flled June 10, 1943 ‘
Auxiliary name '
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
Charles J. Burch, Plain?eld, N. J ., assignor to The
Linde Air Products Company, a corporation of
Application June 10, 1943, Serial No. 490,295
2 Claims. (Cl. 29-1482)
This invention relates to the art of metal work
ing and more particularly to spinning end clo
sures in hollow articles.
In spining the open end portion of a, metal
tube or cylinder, the end of the blank is closed at
the center. The central portion of the closure,
however, is non-homogeneous, being traversed
by a hair-line pipe or valley, which is highly un
desirable especially in chemical bombs and the
' perature ?ame against the work so as to melt the
metal in the closure immediately prior to the
completion of the spinning operation, and ex
truding the melted meta1 and all oxide inclusions
from the resulting closure, so that the metal is
homogeneous throughout.
Referring to the drawing:
Fig. l is a fragmentary view partly in cross
section and partly in side elevation of a rotat
like. To overcome this in the past it has been 10 ing tube having its end portion heated by th
proposed to drill out the defective central por
?ames of a multi?ame heating head;
tion of the spun closure and ?ll the resulting
Fig. 2 is a similar view of the tube at the begin
hole with a plug. It has also been proposed, in
ning of the spinning operation, an auxiliary
the case of brass parts, to put a drop of'solder
?ame being directed against the work so as to
on the formed closure as a precaution against 15 melt the metal at the zone of closure;
leaks. Such proposals involve additional mate
Fig. 3 is a similar view showing the auxiliary
rial and added steps in making the ?nished prod
?ame directed against the work at the zone of
uct and are not entirely satisfactory in avoid
closure during the completion of the spinning
ing leaks in the case of gas containers in which
the gas is under a minimum pressure of the order 20
Fig. 4 is a similar view of the completed clo
of 100 pounds per square inch, for example.
sure without oxide inclusions;
Therefore, themain object of this invention
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view in cross section
is to provide an improved spinning process of
of a cylinder having a semi-spherical end clo
closing the open end of a metal cylinder or tube,
sure made according to the invention; -
which overcomes difficulties and disadvantages 25 Fig. 6 is a similar view with the auxiliary ?ame
of the prior art and results in an end closure
directed against the inside of the closure; and
that is entirely free of oxide inclusions and is
. Fig. 7 is a similar view of the resulting closure
homogeneous throughout. Another object of the
is entirely free of oxide inclusions.
invention is to provide a tube end closure spin—
to Figs. 1,. 2, 3 and 4 of the draw
ning process which eliminates the hair-line pipe 30
ing, the end portion Ill of a tube or cylinder C
from the resulting end wall. A further object
is heated by the group of ?ames ll extending
of the invention is to provide an improved prod
longitudinally of the end portion In and directed
perpendicularly against the same from a multi
In a hot spinning operation where the tube
end is to be closed, it has been the practice to 35 ?ame heating head H which is mounted in proper
lateral position with respect to the tube C‘, the
heat such end prior to, or during forming, to a
latter being rotated about its longitudinal axis
temperature that would allow the metal to be
by any suitable machine (not shown). The
easily spun inwardly. The center of the end
?ames ll are preferably produced by burning
closure would thus be formed shut, and a forge
weld simulated. However, the formation of oxide 40 amixture of oxygen and acetylene which may
be mixed either externally or internally of the
on the metal surface thus forced together, led
head H. Post-mixed oxy-acetylene ?ames are
to oxide inclusions and a doubtful closure at
preferred as the heating means, although the end
the end. According to the present invention, by
portion It of the tube C may be heated in a fur
means of an auxiliary ?ame, directed at the
center'of the end just as the edge is being forced 45 nace or by induction or in any suitableway in
cluding friction. After the end portion ID of
closed, a true fusion weld is made, thus assuring
the tube C has been suitably heated, a tool T
that the oxides will be melted and forced out,
applies pressure inwardly against such heated
and solid metal result.
portion l? as the tube C rotates about its longi
More particularly, according to the present
invention, there is provided the process of form 50 tudinal axis, and the heated portion i9 is spun
or turned inwardly, as shown by Fig. 2. In order
ing hollow articles, which comprises closing the
open end of a metal cylinder by a spinning oper
to prevent hair-line cracks or oxide occlusions
. ation, the ?nal closure being incidentally sub
at the center of the resulting closure, according
ject to a hair-line of oxide inclusions, and pre
to the invention, an auxiliary ?ame l2, prefer
venting such hair-line by directing a high-tem 55 ably an oxyacetylene ?ame from a blowpipe
nozzle N, is directed against the extreme annular
end !3 of the rotating work?.
As the spinning operationjcontinues, ‘as shown
by Fig. 3, the .auxiliary?anie i2 is kept directed
against the edge ['3 of the tube C, so that a
Fig. 6 shows a modi?cation 'wherein the ?ame
[2 is directed continuously against the work E
at the zone 28 of closure from the inside of the
cylinder E, during the completion of the hot
spinning operation to eliminate oxide inclusions
entirely from the closed end 2| of the cylinder.
The. resulting product is like that shown in Fig.7.
A featured the invention is the actual melt
closing operations is. completed, some of the
ing of the ‘metal at the edge before the opening
melted metal and all of the oxide inclusions are
axially displaced, leaving an end wall 15 the in-J 10 .is completely closed, to form a real fusion weld,
as distinguished from a simulated forge weld of
terior of which is entirely free of oxide inclusions,
the prior art inwhich the metal is said to “weld”
the metal being solid and homogeneous through
itself together at the line or point of closure.
out such interior.
The‘ latterproduces an inferior weld that in
‘ By way of example, a tube ‘(Lhaving an‘ out
cludes objectionable, oxides which are eliminated
side diameter of 1.35 inches, ‘and‘a wall ‘thick
by the present invention.
ness of 16 gauge, was heated by the multi?ame
lnfthezm'odi?ca'tion of the invention shown in
oxy-acetylene heating head I-Land‘ arscmarelendaL
closure l5 formed by the flat faced tool TV While, - Fig. 6, it will be understood that the internally
disposed auxiliary ?ame l2 may be directed
the end was being closed, a single auxiliary
?ame i2, burning about 9 cubic feet per hour of 20 against the end closure in accordance with the
invention whilea forming tool is being applied
oxygen and a like amount of acetylene; was di
to the outside of the semi-spherical end portion
rected manually ‘at’ the point of the closing cone
of the tube or cylinder E.
just. before it was completely ‘closed. A true
Practice of the present invention entirely
fusionweldthusrwas produced at the center of
theclbsure, which closure ‘was gas tight under 25 eliminates the hair-line crack or oxide inclusions
which'was present in all closures formed by spin
100 pounds per square ‘inch of" hydrogen.
ning operations known prior to- the invention.
Hair-line cracks .7 or’ oxide‘ inclusions at the
Thus, the invention reduces the cost and im
center'and all doubts as to whether the tubes are
proves the resulting product to such an extent
perfectly sealed'are 'eliminatedby-the use of an
auxiliary ?ame according to the present inven 301 that it has gone into commercialuse on a large
‘puddle or appreciable amount M of molten metal
‘formed atthecenter of the closure. .As the
In,.the' example given above, a No. 6 tip at
tached to a W'—17. oxweld blowpipe was used to
obtain the auxiliary ?ame l2.‘ After the main
heating head H was shut o?, the forming oper
ation ‘was started’. The auxiliary-flame l2rwas
direotedagainst'the,edge |3*of\ the‘tube C in a
substantially axial direction; As the forming
progressed, this edge it moved toward-the cen
ter ‘somewhat like a- shutter,» decreasing the di- .
ameter of the opening at the smaller end of the
conical portion. When such diameter reached
% inch to 1;; inch, the edge l3 was visibly molten
and ran together’ forming“ a puddle M at the
center. ~ Thus‘,v while the end portion was still in
the form of a» cone, the ‘end orthe tube was per
fectly-'sea'ledf.-i' Further forming pushed in the
cone, leavin'g4a é?at» end 15 and a substantially
square annular corner 16.,’
ReferringltoFig. 5,'end of a metal
cylinder. D is shown. beingzclosed by a hot spin
ningLOper-ation. Oxide inclusions in the ?nal clo
sure: are :entirelyeprevented,according to the in
ventionnjby directing the-‘?ame 12 against the
worked as to melt the metal; at H in the closure
I 8,-immediately prior-to the completion of the hot
spinning ‘operation which closes'the end wall IQ
of. the cylinder. D, as shown by Fig. 7. In this
example, the end wall I9 of the cylinder is semi
spherical, and is entirely free of oxide inclusions,
the metal being solidandhomogeneous through
scale in the manufacture of chemical I bomb
burster tubes and the like.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of closing an end of a tubular
metal article which comprises rotating said ar
ticle about its longitudinal axis while initially
applying a group of heating ?ames longitudinal
ly to a portion of the article extending back from
the open end to be closed; applying pressure in
wardly against such heated end‘ portion while
the article is rotating, to spin inwardly said heat
ed portion and the periphery of its end edge and
thereby progressively close said end of said ar
ticle; and, beforehsaid end is completely closed
and while continuing such rotation and such ap
plication of inward pressure, directing an aux
iliary flame, separate from said group of ?ames,
against said end ecEe-and the part adjacent
thereto, to provide suil’icient additional heat to
melt metal along said edge at the‘ ?nal closing
zone, whereby oxide inclusion is eliminated from
said'clo‘sing zone as said end is completely closed
during the continuance of such rotation and
such application of ‘inward pressure.
2.1A method. of closing an endiof a tubular
metal article as claimed in claim 1, wherein said‘
auxiliary ?ame is disposed within said tubular
metal article‘ and is directed against the inte
rior side of said end edge and the interior sur
face. of the part adjacent tozsaid edge.
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