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Патент USA US2406080

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i m LA m D
Filed July 18, 1942
5 Sheets-She'et 1
Aug. J20, 1946. _
Filed July 18, 1942
5 She'ets-Sheet 5
,7; 7/0914? ~
Aug. 20, 1946.
' ‘hm. LAIRD
Filed July 18, 1942
6'6 '
' I
s Sheets-Sheet 4
Aug. 20," 1946;
2,406,080 _
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Filed July 18, 1942
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I Patented Aug. 20, 1946
James Madison Laird, Charleston, W. Va.
Application July 18, 1942, Serial No. 451,509
18 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in heat
ing and cooling devices in which desired tempera
tures may be established and maintained.
A feature of the invention is the provision of
a simple and compact arrangement, including
automatic controls, by which a pre-set tempera
ture can be maintained.
(01. 257-3)
Figure 9 is an elevation of the evaporator unit.
Figure 10 is an upright sectional view through
the heat interchanger and the over?ow con
trol units.
Figure 11 is a View illustrating an automatic
controlling switch.
Figures 1 to 4 show the general assembly of
the apparatus, which has a frame constructed of
‘welded metal angle members It and supporting
Another feature of the invention is the provi
sion of an apparatus for testing instruments
the" operating parts and closing panels in posi
throughout a wide range of temperature above 10
and below room temperature, together with con
-As shown in Figure l, the front panel FP closes
trol means for assuring maintenance of the in
the front of the apparatus and has adoor CD at
strument at a desired testing condition of tem
‘its upper end for permitting access to, and ad
justment of, certain control devices as described
A further feature of the invention is the pro 15 hereinafter. Beneath this door is a gauge LG
vision of means for economically employing a
which indicates the pressure on the “low” side of
refrigeration system in producing and maintain
the refrigerating system. The rotatable handle
ing low temperatures.
BV controls a by-pass valve between the “high’?
Still another feature of the invention is the
and “low” sides of the compressor system. A ro
provision of means for producing low and high“
tatable electrical switch HS controls the connec
temperatures, and including devices for ef?ciently
tion ‘of electrical heating units. A main switch
passing from low to high and high to low temper
MS effects control of the current ?owing through
all electrical parts of the system. A white pilot
A still further feature of the invention is the
lamp WP and a red pilot lamp RP indicate oper
provision of control devices for determining the ~
ation of the system under selected conditions, and
operation of an apparatus for producing tempera
the switches DS, RS and LS, respectively, con
tures extending over a high and low range, with
trol the dumping system, the refrigerating sys
maintenance of a desired temperature within
tem, and the liquid supply system. On the right
hand side panel GP, as shown in Figure 1, is pro
close limits.
A further feature of the invention is in the 30 vided a lower screen VS through which air may
provision of means by which the operation of a
move under the action of a fan (described herein
refrigerating system may be maintained within
after) for cooling the heated internal parts of the
close limits through observation of overflow when
apparatus. A high pressure gauge HG is visible
the evaporator attains a desired effective liquid
through the screen for indicating the pressure on
the “high” side of the refrigerating system. An
With these and other features as objects in
upperscreen WS likewise permits the movement
view, as will appear in the course of the follow
of air, and access is provided to a control screw
ing speci?cation and claims, illustrative forms of
LC-—a of an automatic control unit, as will be '
practicing the invention are shown in the ac
described hereinafter.
The top panel TP is provided with an ori?ce
through which access may be gained to the
mouths of the receptacle housing RH, into which
the standard device SD and the device TD to be
companying drawings, in which
Figure l is a perspective view of the apparatus
showing the front panel arrangement.
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view through the
apparatus, substantially on line ,2—2 of Figure 3.
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view, substan
tially on line 3-3 of Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a rear view of the apparatus With
tested are inserted, so that these devices can be
subjected to varying temperature conditions for
inspecting and standardizing the device 'I'D.
In Figures 2, 3 and 4, the assembly of a com
the rear panel removed.
pressor unit including the motor CM and the
Figure 5 is a conventionalized view showing
compressor C is indicated, as well as the posi
50 tion‘given a condenser D, a receiver R. and a
the conduit system and the associated parts.
Figure 6 is a diagram of the electrical circuits.
dehydrator DH in the refrigeration system, along
Figure '7 is a top view of the testing receptacle
with a fan FM which moves air through the
housing with its cover and guard sleeves removed.
condenser D, and through screens VS and XS
Figure 8 is an upright sectional view substan
tially on line B-8 of Figure '7.
r -
on opposite sides of the apparatus. The recepy
tacle housing RH is shown as mounted adja
cent the top of the apparatus, along with con
duits and associated structures, as will be de
scribed hereinafter. Figure 3 shows the hous
return conduit 21. Any liquid refrigerant which
is carried over in the conduit 26 is trapped in
the heat exchanger X, and ?ows through a con
duit 32 to the controller ‘0C.
ing HC of one of a number of automatic control
In passing from the refrigerating cycle to the
heating cycle, in operating the, apparatus, the
devices which are positioned for access through
the front closing door CD, and the housing LC
of a liquid control device having the adjusting
screw L_C—a thereon.
The conduit system employed in thi‘s'illustrated
refrigerant liquid in the evaporator EB ‘can be
discharged or dumped therefrom. For this pur
construction is shown on Figure 5
The compressor C delivers hot gaseous refrig
Verant into a valve connection 20, from which the _
gas can flow by conduit 2| into the condenser
D, where it is condensed and forms awarm lique- >
?ed refrigerant which passes through conduit 22
into the receiver R. From the receiver ‘R, dur
ing the normal operation of the refrigerating sys
tem in its cooling cycle, the warm liquid re
frigerant ?ows through'a conduit 23 having a de
pose a conduit 35 leads from a low point of the
evaporator E3 to the dump valve ‘DV. In prac
tical construction, it is preferred to enclose a por
tion of the small conduit 25 from the valve EV
within the conduit 35, as shown in Figure 7, as
"this protects such portion of the conduit 25
against any frosting on the exterior thereof and
provides a simpler assembly. From the dump
valve DV, the refrigerant can pass through con
duit-36 back into the receiver R. A check valve
'3‘! is provided in the conduit 36 to prevent high
pressure gas or liquid from passing directly from
the receiver R to the evaporator EB during nor
mal operation of the refrigeration system.
hydrator ‘DH ~therein vto ‘the middle chamber of
"a heat exchange device X, whose internal'con
s'truction is shown and described 'in connection
In order to provide a control on theo'peration
with Figure 10. From Figure 5 it will ‘be noted
that this heat exchange unit X is mounted'at'an 25 of the refrigerating system ‘when it is starting
and while it is operating at less than full-rated
angle to the horizontal of, for ‘example, three
capacity, a conduit 130 leads from ‘theoutlet or
degrees withjthe warm liquid refrigerant enter
pressure connection 29 of the ‘compressor C ‘to a
ing at the upper vend of the middle chamber.
?lter 4| and thence to a'by-pass valve BV, which
Heat exchange occurs with vrefrigerant "evapo
when opened permits the gas to continue through
rate'd'in evaporator EB, so that this warm ‘refrig
a conduit 152 to a manifold '43 and thence to the
erant .is cooled and then passes by conduit ‘2'4
inlet connection 28 ‘of the 'COITIPI‘GSSOI'I'C. ‘The
‘to .a solenoid-controlled valve EV ‘and thence by
gauge HG is connected tothe conduit at for in
a‘ small ‘conduit 25 of restricted ‘cross sectional
dicating the pressure at the “high side” of the
area'to the evaporator or boiler EB, preferably
compressor C. The gauge LG is connected to'the
with ‘employment of the duct 35 as described
manifold 43 to show the pressure at the “low side” '
hereinafter and illustrated in Figure ‘7. ‘It will
be understood that when'the‘temperature of liq
uidiin conduit 24 has not beenreduced'by the
heat exchanger X, to the temperature prevailing
within the evaporator EB, a certain'amount 1of
flash .gas is ‘formed at 'the eXitY'o’f "valve EV, ‘so
that the mixture of ‘gas and liquid-‘refrigerant will
move rapidly in ‘the small conduit ‘25, and thus
be delivered into ‘the evaporator "EB quickly,’
of-the ‘compressor'iC.
‘The testing receptacle structure, shown as the
housing RH in Figures 2 to "5, has an internal
construction as set outin ‘Figures 7 vto '9. An
outer closing wall lii'l‘receives the successive vlayers
of corkiil and 'asbestosf52 to provide aheat-in
sulating structure. Within the heat insulation is
positioned a vessel 53 providing a central well
‘having a sump 54 with a drainage conduit E60.
45 Within this 'well' is ‘received the vevaporator vor
ling effect ‘upon the liquid level formed in the
boiler unit and 'its associated parts. ‘As shown in
evaporator 'EB.
Figure ‘8, when ‘the apparatus is to be employed
'The action of .the evaporator ‘EB ‘in-reducing
wherewith "the valve EV has a sensitive control
the temperature of the surrounding medium is
for testing thermometers and the like, the evap
accomplished by ‘the entry ofthe heat units into 60 orator is constructed as two separate annular
chambers "55. A pair of cylindrical external
this evaporator so that a portion of the liquid
walls .56 have concentric internal walls v5'! spaced
refrigerant content therein is vaporized. This
therefrom to provide an annular chamber ‘for-re
vapor passes off through the vlarge conduit “26
ception of the refrigerant ‘liquid, the endsof the
(see also Figure 9) and passes ‘through a trap
- LT from which entrained liquid can return to
the conduit 26 and the evaporator EB; and then
the vapor enters the left-hand end chamber of
the heat exchanger X, and flows relatively up
ward through the ducts thereof tolthe right-hand
end chamber and thence through the conduit 2'!
back to the inlet connection ‘28 and thus to the
compressor (Llcompleting a refrigerant cycle of
The evaporator E-Biis of ?ooded‘ type, and is
intended to maintain a substantially constant'liq;
uid level during the course or its operation. ‘This .
I liquid level is determined by an overflow connec
tion-leading by conduits 30, ~32 into an "over?ow
control chamber 0C which is provided with a
plurality of heating ?ns. on its exterior, so'that
he temperature of the controller 0C is nor
mallymaintained above the temperature of the
vliq'uid‘in the evaporator vEB. ,Upon evaporation
of liquid refrigerant in ‘the controller DC, ‘the
gas can pass by 'conduit'cl to the ‘general gas
chamber being closed by the annular ?anges 358
' which are brazed or otherwise secured to provide
a'tight shell. The supply conduit ‘25 for liquid
refrigerant leads into ‘the conduit 135 having a
branched connection or manifold ‘5'9 with. open
ings 66 into the two-chambers '55 'e'ssentiall'yvat
their bottoms. The annular space between the
inserted portion of the conduitl2'5 and within the
conduit \35 serves as a drainage conduit through
which the liquid maybe drawn off from the an
nular chambers 55 under “dumping” conditions,
as described hereinafter.
Refrigerant gas formed within the chambers
55 isreturned to the compressor of the refrigerat
ing system through the return conduit 26 ‘having
the individual openings éIii into the chambers .55.
The ‘maximum liquid level in the'chambers '55. is
‘controlledlbytheover?ow conduit 38 ‘which-‘has
ports iii-2 into-thechambers. The two evaporator
chambers‘55 are thus connected byithree inani
folds both for fluid ‘now and f0r"meéha,?i(}a1ii11~
tegration, and furthers'upports 63. may also be
provided to assure a strong and rigid structure.
Around the exterior'of theevaporator'structure
is wrapped a helix 05 of tubing having its ends
(Figures '1 and 8) carried outside the closing‘wall
Liquid from the over?ow conduit 30 ?owsdirectly
to the conduit 32 and thenceinto the overflow
control device 00, and any liquidgathering in
the end chamber 16 islikewise transferred into '
the, over?ow control device 00, so‘ that such
liquid encounters the bulb 220 connected with the
conduit 200 leading to the automatic liquid con
50 to provide an inlet portion 66 and an outlet
portion 61. This coil 65 is employed for the pas
trol LC (Figure 5). Since this liquid is at a low
sage of a heat-exchange fluid under the condi
temperature, the bulb 220 responds immediately
tions set out hereinafter, more particularly in 10 by reducing the gas pressure Within the duct 200‘
connection with elements I50 to I51 in Figures
and thus causing the liquid control LC to close
‘the valve EV and liquid no longer is delivered into
3 and 4.
. i
The electrical heaterv elements HE, HF are il—
the evaporator chambers 55 and therewith the .
lustrated as located‘in insulatingsupports posi
liquid level therein is maintained, save and ex‘
tioned alongside the sump 54 and beneath the
cept as evaporation may occur. Therefore,‘ the
bottom of the well 53, and as having the con
system has a safety feature in that if the ?ow of
ductor wires I29, I30, I33 extending thereto.
The top of the well 53 is closed by a plate 68
liquid through the conduit 30 beinterrupedfor
any reason, so that the desired maximum over
?ow level is not maintained in the chambers 55, a
further automatic, control is effected when liquid
which are of smaller external diameter than’the
is brought over through the gas return conduit 26.
inside of the walls 51 and have top ?anges for
When the liquid entering the over?ow control de
supporting :them on the plate 53; these guard
vice OC cools the bulb7220, the liquid itself is heat
sleeves 69 extend through the length of the units
ed and gives off gas which can return through the
and prevent. contact of the thermometer directly
conduits 3| and 32 and reach the main return
with the walls 51 whereby to assure that the tem
conduit 21. Furthermore, this liquid is also being
perature applied to the thermometer will be that
heated from the wall 82 which is being maintained
of the liquid in th well 53, and also to avoid dam
at a temperature higher than that of the liquid
age to the walls by physical contact therewith.
by theaction of the ?ns 85 which are exposed to
The sleeves 69 are preferably apertured to assure
the ‘temperature of the air within the general
a free circulation of ?uid within the wells, where 30 housing provided by the closing panels‘ and such
by the temperature therein may be maintained
gas likewise passes off through the conduits 3I
uniform and thus accurate determinations made.
and 32; so that the overflow control device 0C is
The internal structure of thepreferred ‘heat . soon cleared of refrigerant liquid and returns-to
interchanger and overflowparrangement isshown
35 its original temperature, wherewith the bulb 220
having two openings therein concentric with the
chambers 55, for receiving the guard sleeves 69
in Figures 5and 10.’ The heat exchanger has a
cylindrical wall 10 which is sealed by end pieces
,‘II, 12 which may be brazed in position. Inter
mediate header walls 13, 14 are brazed within the
body 10 and sealed to the connecting tubes 15.
again produces a pressure in the duct 200 to per
mit a further in?ux of liquid to the chambers55.
The electrica1 circuit connections are, conven
tionally shown in Figure 6, in which the supply
main I00 is connected through the main switch ‘ 5
The axes of the wall 10 andof the tubes 15 are 40 MS for controlling the refrigerating ‘system, with
preferably inclined at an angle of, say, three
degrees to the horizontal, so that there will be
drainage through the structures.’ The heat in
a conductor I02 leading to a contact of the refrig
crating control device RC and from a second ter
minal of this device a conductor I03 leads to the
terchanger provides a left-hand end chamber 16,
compressor motor CM and the fan motor FM,
a central chamber 11 surrounding the tubes 15, 45 which are connected in multiple and by the con
and a right-hand end chamber .18. The retum
ductor I04 and the refrigeration switch RS back
ing refrigerant gas enters the chamber 1-6 through
to the supply main IOI. Thus, the operation of
conduit 25, flows towardthe right within the
the motors CM, FM is under control of the device
ducts-15 to the end chamber 18, and then passes
RC and the switch RS.
through conduit 21 back toward the compressor,
Further a conductor I05 is branched from con-i
thelgas serving to cool the tubes 15. Therela
ductor I03 and extends through the liquid control
tively hot liquid refrigerant, under pressure, en
device LC to the solenoid I05 which operates the
ters the central chamber 11v at its upper end
control valve EV with a return by conductor I01
through the conduit 23, and ?ows downwardly
and the liquid control switch LS to the conductor
in this chamber around the tubes 15 and effects 55 I04 and thus back to the supply main _| 0| through
a heat exchange therewith and by movement in
direction opposite to the gas flow within the
the switch RS.
} p
Further, the white pilot lamp WP is connected
tubes; so that the refrigerant liquid is relatively
between the conductor I03 and the conductor I01,
cooled to avoid the formation of excessive ?ash
so that it is under control of the switch LS and
gas upon passage through the valve EV, and to 00 the control RC, and indicates at all times while
cause a relative super-heatingof the refrigerat
the system is in condition to effect refrigeration.
:ing gas on its way back to the compressor. The
For the transition between the cooling andvthe
cool liquid refrigerant leaves the central cham
heating ‘cycles, a circuit is established fromthe
ber 11 through the conduit 24. In the event that
supply main I00 by a branch of conductor I02ito
liquid as such, or as bubbles or mist, is carried 65 a dump control manual ‘switch DS and by_,.con
over through the .pipe‘ZGLinto the :end chamber
ductor III to the solenoidy92 of the dump; control
10, it can ?ow downwardly through the pipe 32
valve DV, and thence by conductor 93 to a, contact
into the upper end of the over?ow control 00,
of the dump control device DC. From the, other
which is ‘positioned vat ‘substantially the same
contact of the device DC, the circuit is completed ‘
angle'as the heat i terchanger'X. This over?ow 70 by
conductor 94 back to the supply main IOI.
control device comprises altubular body 82 hav
when the switch DS is closed and the device.
ing the closing end walls 83, 84 brazed or other
for closing, the dump valve DY, is
wise sealed thereto. Surrounding the body are a
plurality of heat-?ns 85 closely engaged with this
body and secured thereto for easy transfer of heat. - 15
Forjthe heating cycle, current ?ows‘ hfomthev
pressure therein; but it will be noted that the
pressure in this manifold at which the corre
sponding control device will be effective can be
regulated by proper adjustment of the spring 2l2
of the particular control device.
In operation, the well 53 is usually supplied
with a liquid which maintains ?uidity and does
not decompose throughout the range at which
the testing is to be accomplished. A high boiling
hydrocarbon, for example, may be employed at
temperatures from 50 degrees below zero F. to
500 degrees above. The particular liquid can be
selected with due regard to the temperature range
to be covered, the absence of reaction by the
liquid upon the structure or the apparatus to‘
be tested, etc.
The temperature in the well 53, and of the
liquid therein, is thus reduced to a point deter
mined by the setting ,of the adjusting screw
LC—a of the liquid control device LC. In the
initial starting of the system, it is preferred to
open the by-pass valve BV, to unload the com
pressor and its motor, .this valve then being
closed wholly or partly to obtain the maximum
e?iciency within the system by the‘ desired type
of operation ‘of the refrigeration control del
vice RC.
By adjustment of the liquid control device LC,
the temperature of the liquid within the well 53
may be set at any desired point, or successively
at a plurality of points at which direct com—'
parisons of the readings of the devices SD and TD
may bemade.
'_ ' ; >
When the device is to be employed, for exam
If it is now desired to test this same’ device
ple, for testing the engine thermometer of an
TD at temperatures above room temperature,'
airplane in the temperature range of minus 40
then refrigeration switch RS is opened, and the
degrees F. to plus 500 degrees E, the standard
“dumping” switch DS is closed. The, refrigera
or comparison thermometer SD is inserted into
one of the guard sleeves 69, and the device TD '
tion system now comes to a'standstill. The
switch‘ DS supplies current to the dumping valve
DV under control of ‘the dumping control device
to be tested is inserted into the other.
Assuming that the test is ?rst to be made at
so that the valve DV opens and liquid ?ows
low temperatures, the main switch MS is closed, 25 DC,
from the chambers 55 through the discharge pipe
along with the refrigeration switch RS. As point
35, at valve DV, and back into the receiver R.
ed out with respect to the circuit diagram of Fig
It will be noted that the compressor is no longer
ure 6, current now ?ows to energize the com
pressor and fan motor CM, FM and a refrigerat
ing system operates to produce and deliver a
liquid refrigerant under pressure into the re
ceiver R. When the compressor has ‘operated
until the pressure within the manifold 43 (Fig
ure 5) has fallen to a desired low point, the re
frigeration control RC operates and the compres
sor and fan are stopped again. It will be noted
that this action can occur, if the valve EV is
operating, so that theevaporation of refrigerant
liquid in the chambers 55 soon builds up the pres
sure within the return conduits 26, 21 and. asso
ciated parts and the pressure in manifold 43
rises until the dumping control device DC closes
to actuate the valve DV as aforesaid, and, fur
ther, this pressure is being exerted upon the
liquid refrigerant in the chambers 55, to expel
this refrigerant downwardly into the receiver R. -
The check valve 31 prevents any blowing of-gas
closed, without any refrigerating effect being re
or liquid‘ from the receiver R backwardly into
vealed within the testing receptacle housing RH.
the chambers‘ 55 at times when dumping is not "
When the switch LS is closed, however, further
being accomplished, thus serving in series with
circuits are set up and the pilot lamp WP is lit.
the valve DV for accomplishing this purpose and?
These further circuits include a sensitive regu
safeguarding against possible leakages through‘
lation at the liquid control LC, for determining
the valve DV.
the current which energizes the winding I06 of
When the chambers 55 have been emptied; the
the solenoid valve EV. When the over?ow con 45 temperature of the liquid rises slowly, andthis
trol device 0C is warm, the bulb 220 causes the
behavior can be observed on the devices SD, "ID.
liquid control device L0 to close its contact and
This effect can be accelerated by energizing the
thereby cause opening of the valve EV. Liquid
heating switch‘HS,'so that current flows through
from the receiver R then flows through the de—’
one'or more sections of the heating elements HE,
hydrator DH and conduit 23, passing through
HF as described above. If liquid is still contained
the heat interchanger, and through the valve EV
within the chambers 55,'evaporation occurs rap
into the chambers 55 of the evaporator or boiler
idly, until the aforesaid pressurefsystem is set
EB, and continues to rise therein until a portion
up until the dump valve DV is opened and this
over?ows through the conduit 30 and passes‘into
discharged. The continued heating is un
the over?ow control device OC. As explained 55 der control of the heat control device HC, which, a
above, this causes a cooling of the control bulb
at the presently-set temperature, opens the‘cir
220 so that the liquid control device LC effects
cuit path through the heating switch ‘and the
closing of valve EV. It will be understood that
elements HE, HF. By adjustment of the heat
normally ?ash gas is formed as the preliminarily
control device HC, the liquid in the well 53 may
cooled liquid passes the valve EV and drops to 60 be brought to and maintained at a desired tem
the low pressure prevailing in the evaporator EB,
perature, or shifted in ‘succession to various
thereby assisting in the rapid movement of ?uid
steps of temperature for comparison of the de
through the supply conduit 25 and also to pro
vices SD, TD.
duce agitation within the chambers 55. The
During this heating cycle, the white pilot lamp >
liquid refrigerant itself is cooled to a low tem
WP is always extinguished, and the red heating
perature, and absorbs heat from the walls of the
pilot lamp RP is lit.
chambers 55. These gases pass upwardly in the
chambers and move through the return conduit
son of the device TD, it may be removed. If the
26 and liquid trap LT, and thence through the
heat interchanger X and conduit 21 back to the 70 testing of ‘the next device is to be accomplished
from the low temperature end of the range, then
compressor ‘again, and also causing a rise in the
the heating switch HS is turned to the “off” po
pressure prevailing in the manifold 43 so that
sition. No current now ?ows either to the heat
the refrigeration control device RC can be brought
ing 'or to the refrigeration system. ' The dumping
into operation to maintain a suf?cient‘supply of
liquid refrigerant in the receiver-R.
switch DS is kept open to assure that the dump-- ‘
ingv valve DV will remaillclosedz. ‘While the- sys
tem could be restored to‘ a low temperature by
permitting‘ the liquid‘ to: enter the chambers,‘ 5.5,
erant‘ in. the; refrigerating circuit ‘and' its. lower
part beingconnectedto deliverthe liquid, refrig
erant. to thevalve, the. lowerrend chamber being.
this would, represent a. loss of: ef?ciency and-ia.
connected'in' the circuit to receive the-returning
lack? of economy corresponding to the. WOI‘kflIEI 5 gaseous refrigerant from' the evaporator and the
quired for producing the necessary quantity‘ of:
refrigerant liquid. Hence, it. is. preferred to. use;
an intermediate-cyclefor lowering this tempera;
ture quickly/and economically. For this purpose;
as described above in connection with. Figure 4,.
a liquid such as water is admitted from connec-l
tion [-50: through valve l5li', and flows, through
the coil 65 contained. within the liquidirr the
well 53,, and rapidly brings this liquid. and the.
immersed, structures down to:v the: temperature of
available water, the water being discharged from’.
the outlet I53. When water, for example,;is.em.
played; as such a, liquid, it is desirable to elimi
nate'this water prior to‘ determinations; at: low
higher end chamber beingconnected‘ to deliver
the gaseous refrigerantto-the compressor:
4'. In an apparatus for maintaining- a temperature condition in a chamber, a, refrigeration’ sys
tem including a: compressor, a condenser, an. eXpansion valve and an evaporator connected in a
refrigeration circuit, said evaporator being lo
cated in- heat-exchange relationship to said.
chamber; a’ heat interchanger connected in- the
circuit. and including. a housing having internal;
' walls dividing it into two end compartments: and
a center compartment, a tube in the» center com
partment. and communicating. with the end com
partments, the housing and tubebeing positioned.
temperatures; and for; this purposethe valve 1T5“; 20 with one end chamber higherythanthe other, thev
is closed. and valves. I54, I55? are? open. * Water
upperjpa-r-t of the center chamber being connected
now'?ows‘through the drain. connections-L hi3, [5:5
to receive liquid: refrigerant» in the- refrigerating
the: system: is clear; Further testing: can.
now be ‘accomplished in the; manner: described.
It. is- obvious. that the. invention. is not Jliinited
' to. theform of, construction shown; but. may be
practiced in many ways within.’ the: scope: ‘of ‘the
appended‘: claims.
I claim:
circuit and its lower part being connected; to de
liver the liquid refrigerantto-the valve, the- lower
25 endv chamber being connected in the circuit toreceive. the- returning; gaseous refrigerant from: the
evaporator and the. higher end chamber being
connected to‘ deliver the gaseous refrigerant to’
the. compressor ;v an; over?ow conduit connectedzto‘
1.. In'an: apparatus; for maintaining a; temper
ature-condition in a. chamber,. a, refrigerating:sys-v
tem. including meansfor-liquefying. refrigerarni'
gas, an evaporator, said. evaporator being? located
in'heat-exchange relationship to- said chamber,
conduits for delivering the; liquid refrigerantto;
the evaporator and returning refrigerant; gas. to
said. evaporator and including a warmed ch'am-r
ber, over?owing liquid- beingY effective to' lower“
the-temperature of. said warmed chamber, means,
responsive to the temperature of said warmed
chamber for determining the operation’ of said
valve, and. a liquid» discharge conduit from- said.
loWer end compartment tcsaid-warmed chamber.
5.. In an apparatus for maintaining. a temper
ature. condition in a. chamber, a refrigeration
controlling: said. delivery or theeli‘quid refrigerant.
system including a. compressor, a condenser, a
an. over?ow‘ conduit, connected; to said; evaporator. 40 valve and. an evaporator connected in agrefriger
the" liquefying means and: including *m'cansl for:
and including‘ a warmed. chamber, over?owing:
liquid being; e?ectivet to- Iowerrthe' temperature of
said. warmed chamber, and meansfresponsive: to:
tion circuit,,.saidy evaporator being located inheate
exchange relationshipato‘said ch'amber, an ex:
ternally heated over?ow chamber ‘connected to
the temperature of said warmed chamber-fende
said‘. evaporator, and to. the refrigerant gas- return
termining the operation. of said: controlling 471 tothe compressor, temperature responsive means
2;. Inan: apparatus for maintaining: a, tempera:-v
ture condition inz'ar chamber, at refrigerationjsys
‘ tom-including a compressor, azcondensergi a valve
located in the-chamber for contactwith and quick 1
chilling by over?owing refrigerant liquid from
the evaporator and effective for determining the
operation of said valve, and means'respon-siveto.
and. an evaporator" connected: hr a- refrigeration. 50 the pressure at.- the inlet to said- compressor. for
circuit; saidi'evapgorator being. located inf heat
exchange relationship to saidchamber, - an overe'
?ow conduit from’ said evaporator; an. over?ow;
control device supplied‘. from- said conduit and
determining the operation of said compressor.
6:. In an, apparatus for maintaining a-tempera
turecondition in. a. chamber, a, refrigerating sys
tem including a compressor, a condenser, a res-y
having meansforrwarming the same; over?owing; ' in CA . ceiver, an expansion. valve and an evaporator
liquid entering said device being eifectiver to
connected in a, refrigeration circuit, said evapoe
lower the temperatureof said. device-u and means
responsive “to; the temperature; of: said’ device:
rator being located in heat-exchange relationship‘
nal; wallsv dividing it into two end compartments
and; a-scente-r compartment; a tube ‘in the center
compartment.» and. communicating~ with the end
tor being located in heat-exchange relationship
to. said chamber, said evaporator having a- con.
for closing andiopening said? valve.
du-it extending. from a low. level thereof to. said
3. In an apparatusfformaintaliningratemperm CO receiver and, including, a dump Valve, and means
ture: condition in; a chamber; a refrigeration sys
controlled. by the pressure at the inlet of. said
tenrincludi'ng a. compressor, a: condenser, anzexe
compressor. for determining the o'peni-ng'of. said
pansion. valve and: an evaporator’ connected in a
dump valve;
refrigeration circuit, said evaporator‘ being lo!
7. In an apparatus for maintaining. a tempera
cated; in heat-exchange relationship to' said‘
ture condition in a chamber, a. refrigerating sys
chambc?and: a1 heat interchanger connected in?
tem including a compressor, a condenser, a, re.
the circuit and including a, housinghaving-inter;
ceiver, an expansion valve. and; an evaporator
compartmentsthe. housing and time being posi
tioned at an: angle to-thehorizontal of substan.
tially '3‘ degrees ‘with: one end chamber higher,
thanthe. other, the. upper partjof the.» center
connected in a refrigeration circuit, said evapora;
to( said chambensaid evaporator having a. con_--_
duit extending from a low level thereofv to said.
receiver and including a dump valve, and :means,
controlled by, therpressure- at the inlet of said
compressor for determining- the opening of'said:
chamber being, connected to- receive - liquid refrig- 1 75 dump valve, the; liquid-iv supply‘ connecti'dnfrom!
14. W
a duct having a portion enclosed within said con
operation of said ?rst cooling means, said second
cooling system including discharge means for
freeing said cooling system of cooling liquid dur
8. In an apparatus for maintaining a tempera
ing times when the heating means or the ?rst
cooling means are in operation for establishing
ture condition in a chamber, a refrigerating sys
respectively high or low temperatures, whereby
the second cooling system can be made effective
said expansion valve to the evaporator including"
tem including means for liquefying refrigerant
gas, a receiver, and an evaporator, said evapo
for provoking a rapid transition from a high to a
rator being located in heat-exchange relation
ship to said chamber, conduits for delivering the
liquid refrigerant from the receiver to the evap
orator and returning refrigerant gas to the lique
fying means, a conduit connected with said evap
orator at a low level thereof and extending to the
receiver and including a dump valve, means for
heating said chamber, and means effective upon
heating of the chamber for effecting the opene
ing of the dump valve whereby to return the re
low temperature without load on the said refrig
frigerant liquid to the receiver preliminary to
extensive heating of said chamber.
the evaporator, and means for delivering an aque
eration system and whereby the said second cool'
ing system places essentially no load upon the
heating means and first cooling means when
either of the same is in service.
14. In an apparatus for maintaining, a tem
perature condition in a chamber, a refrigerating
system including an evaporator located within
the chamber, means for heating the chamber, a
cooling coil within the chamber and surrounding
ous liquid through said cooling coil independently
9. In an apparatus for maintaining, a tempera 20 of the operation ‘of the refrigerating system for
ture condition in a well chamber, a refrigerating
reducing the temperature within the chamber
system including means for liquefying refrigerant _
during transition from a heating cycle to a cool
gas and an evaporator, said evaporator being lo
ing cycle in said chamber, said delivering means
cated in said well chamber and comprising a
including discharge connections whereby the
structure having two separate evaporator spaces,
a liquid supply manifold connected to said spaces
cooling coil may be emptied of liquid preparatory
to operation of either the refrigerating system
and to the liquefying means for receiving refrig
or the heating means.
erant liquid therefrom, a refrigerant gas mani
15. In a testing apparatus for producing suc
fold connected to said spaces and to the liquefy
hot and cold effects of varying degrees in
ing means for returning refrigerant gas thereto, 30 a chamber, a ‘ refrigerating system including
an overflow manifold connected to said spaces
means for liquefying refrigerant gas, an evapo
and to a warmed chamber, and means responsive
rator in heat exchange relationship to said cham
to the temperature of said warmed chamber for
ber, and conduits including control means for the
determining the delivery of refrigerant liquid into
35 circulation of liquid refrigerant from the lique
said liquid supply manifold.
fying means to the evaporator and of refrigerant
10. A thermostatically controlled calibrating
gas from the refrigerator to the liquefying means;
apparatus for subjecting devices to testing tem
a heater in heat exchange relationship to the
perature at varying points within a range above
chamber; means for quickly removing liquid re
and below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, comprising a
frigerant from said evaporator preliminary to a
refrigerating system including a receiver for liq
test requiring an increasing temperature, and
ue?ed refrigerant and an evaporator, said evapo
means for passing cooling water in heat exchange
rator including means for receiving. the device to
relationship to the chamber during a test requir
be tested, a heating system for said evaporator,
ing a decreasing temperature, said water-passing
means for controlling the heating and cooling
means including devices for removing the Water
systems, and a discharge leading from said evapo
when the temperature during the test is below the
rator to said receiver and including a pressure
freezing point.
responsive valve means for opening said discharge
16. In an apparatus for maintaining a tem
when the pressure in the evaporator exceeds the
perature condition in a chamber, a refrigeration
pressure in said receiver.
system including a compressor, a condenser, a
. "11. A temperature-controlling apparatus com
valve and an evaporator connected in a refrig
prising a heat-insulating casing having a liquid
eration circuit, said evaporator being located in
receiving well, inner and outer walls and closing
walls for providing an annular chamber within
said well, the space within the chamber being
open at its upper and lower ends, means for sup
plying refrigerant liquid into said chamber and
heat-exchange relationship to said chamber, an
over?ow conduit from said evaporator, an over
55 flow control device supplied from said conduit and
having means for warming the same, a conduit by
which liquid is quickly drained from said over
for withdrawing refrigerant gas therefrom, means
flow control device, the liquid over?owing into
for heating the contents of said well, and means
said device being effective to lower the tempera
for energizing said heating means.
of said device, and means responsive to the
12. A temperature-controlling device for com 60 temperature of said device for closing and opening
paring instruments, comprising a casing, struc
said valve, said responsive means including a
tures each including inner and outerwalls and
thermostatic device having a bulb located in said
closing walls for providing an annular chamber
over?ow control device for contact by the over
within said casing, manifold conduits each com
?owing liquid for effecting a quick'valve closing
municating with the chamber of each structure
movement when liquid enters the device and
at the same predetermined level thereof and me
whereby the quick drainage of liquid from and
chanically connecting said structures, and a heat
warming of said device assures a quick valve open
exchange coil extending around said structures.
_ ing movement when the over?ow ceases.
13. In an apparatus for producing in a cham
17. In an apparatus for maintaining a tem
ber rapid transitions between selected tempera 70 perature condition in a well chamber, a refrig
tures, means for heating said chamber, a ?rst
erating system including means for liquefying re
means for cooling said chamber and including a
frigerant gas and an evaporator located in said .
refrigeration system, and a second cooling sys
well chamber, said evaporator comprising two
tem for delivering a cooling liquid for heat ex
spaced outer walls located at essentially the same
change with said chamber independently of the
level, two inner walla~ located within a-nd'sealed
to; the outer Walls to. provide two; annular evapo
rator; spaces with a compartment inside each in
men wall,‘ andv constantly open manifold; connec
tions‘ to: said; spaces for ‘delivering refrigerant liq
uid‘ thereto and returning refrigerant gas there
from and also; for establishing, a connection by
which’ a maximum liquid level is established‘ by
the‘?ow'of liquid refrigerant, from the receiver
to the-evaporator, a liquid'over?ow conduit lead~
ing from the evaporator at a high level thereof;
means for controlling said valve and including a
heat-responsive‘ element ‘ positioned to respond‘, to‘
the'temperature of a part of said over?ow con
duit,_ and heat-exchange means connected- to said;
conduit at said part for maintaining said ele
over?ow'from the spaces, the compartments with
in the evaporator Walls being open» at the- tops and 10 ment normally at a temperature above that of the
liquid in the evaporator, whereby liquid over-'
bottoms‘ for receiving instruments to lee-subjected
?owing from the evaporator is- effective at said
to the temperature in the well chamber- and for
part of the over?ow conduit to chill said heat
permitting free circulation of ?uid in the Well
responsive element immediately upon. contact
into and from said compartments.
and cause said element, to procure an
18; An apparatus having a refrigerating. system’
abrupt valve-closing movement of the/controlling 7
including a receiver for lique?ed refrigerant, an 15 means.
evaporator; conduitmeans including a valve for
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