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Патент USA US2406082

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Aug. 20, 1946.‘ -~ >
l-llr LANGE
2,406.08: ~
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ELECTRONIC FREQIJEu'éYwoMRoL DEVICE
Filed Oct. 30, ‘1943'
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Aug. 20,1946.
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.ELECTRONIQ FREQUENCY-CONTROL DEVICE
I Filed Oct. .30, 1943-
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Patented Aug. 20, 1946
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2,406,082
"ELECTRGN‘IC"FREQUENCY-CONTROL
.
_
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.‘DEVICE
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.
.
‘Edward H. ‘Lange, Baltimoreyy‘Mld.
_
"Application ‘October '30, 1943, Serial “No. “508*;3‘67
._
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..
l'ilClaims.
.1
‘
-‘~-a thermionic -> device ffor ‘generating :rectangular
waves -» or saw-tooth waves ~with~a1high degree. of
frequency »~sta~bility, substantially _ independent of
.thermion-ic htubeeresist-ance, and lfor i controlling
Thisqnven-tionapertains to i=electr-onic control
devices for yéltag'afrequency intercontrol, and
more ‘particularly:- to devices for seGlll‘il-lg-lw high
"degree of frequency-stabilityandwave-form con
i-thev wave-‘form of such-generated waves.
~tro1,L for- production-‘of! either 4 substantially; pure 7
sine-waves Ior ~wavesi~rich in rharmonicsivsuch -.as
‘rectangular or; sawétcoth waves, with ‘La .hi'gh?e
agree 10f frequency-stability, lover .a rangeaofi low
a
A sixth object of this invention isztopprovide
simple .means for ‘.generating . such lrectangular;
saw-tooth, or.‘ other irregular shapelwaves; in .the
’‘
- high “or. radioefrequencyl range. as welLas
-the '
or audio -andH-super-audio frequencies, or; oveiua
range of high ‘orMradio-frequencies, ,with 2 fre "10 “lower audio-sfrequency mangemand to..provi;de
voltage-control means whereby the frequency-{of
quency-stability substantially independent. .of
variations of thermionic-tube resistancetand; net
-~such generated .waves .can be .readily -.c.ontr.olled
work 1 resistance ; over ;the..1high;frequency, range,
~or.modulated, iwithout .changeof vjvvave-shiil?w. . ,
. 7 ‘These objectacandtothers.hereafter noted, will
and? independent of ‘thermionic: tube . resistance
over “the low frequency-range ;..for. providing. sim r135 :,be..:better .imderstocd. by;reference,.to, theaccom
-panyingedrawinga- and. tocthee appended ;. claims.
' -ple thermionic :means determining ‘a .resultant
output-voltage asto maXim-umevoltage‘andzwave
Referring to the drawings,
-
.
.
7;‘
.
,
_ .
,
7' .qFig. lshows. a.funda-mentalefrequency phase
form‘. from. sinusoidal‘ input-voltages, and roen
‘vbalanced thermionic“ alternating current, genera
4 trolling .the characteristics of .. the ‘output-3101a
ages- with .facility lover. a Wide. range of: modi?ca- ‘‘ ‘~20 l tor,‘ ,With1a thermionic ,- voltag?r CQn'tr-Oh device: for
- »-suppressing harmonicsnbyr feeding ‘back upon “a
> tionsiofL these. characteristics,‘including. the limit
ing of the outputevoltages to .a- constant:value,
independent of. increases .in value ‘of the. input
licontrolagrid voltages, iopposing the ‘oscillation
, ; sustaining ,V01tageS,; after ea selected ‘ magnitude
_.of the oscillation-sustaining ;V0ltages has been
- voltages.
.An object of 1. this;.invention= is to provide simple 25 . reached; the; generator. having means for modu-‘
ylating .the fundamental; generated‘ frequency, ire
thermionic means'fiortimproving the ‘frequency
- sponsive ‘with ?halglges in bias-voltage ‘upon the
stability of: thermionic. generators of alternating
control-grid.
'
_ __ _,
p
n'
currenta'and for controlling. wave-form and con
_ Big. _2 illustrates a‘ modi?cation ;a6f;~Fig. ‘1, a
stituent harmonics of these‘alternatingcurrents.
Another-object of this“ invention is to_-. provide a»Hartlevrtyrev Oscillating ~<=imllit ‘being. emiilqyed
.for the oscillator, thethermionic voltage-control '
a novel phase-balancing or normalizing-device
. device ‘having parallel-impedance for feeding
for resistance-capacitance type ioscillators?for
balancing the‘ quadrature-componentiof cathode
ing“ voltages, permitting; different bias’ “voltages
35:, fer‘. the .sronstani bias of.» the: voltage-denim ide
riceand fertile controlegtid; alsoheving a “modi
lrrr?ed form of phase-balancing. impedance.
by restricting the wave-form of generatedia'lter
Bantam-es.- Ia 'thérmibnicigeeérator; with '
nating currents to substantially pure sine-Waves,
anode voltage relative to cathode-anodealter
nating current, together with simple‘ thermionic '
means for increasing the effectiveness. of balance
to attain a highdegree of frequencyistability, in
V
a voltage-control.devicelemploying "a double-di- r
the low or audio and super-audio frequency range. {40g ode, controlling the ffl'eed-ba‘ck"voltagegafter a >
,Still another object of this inventioniis to .pro
vide "simple means whereby the generators so
‘stabilized,- can have the generated frequency also
controlled or modulated by’voltage—control.means,
I selectable 'i'n'agnitiide .of Q feed-back voltagehas
:beeh‘reached.
.
_
_
,
I
,
I
g
'
’
Y‘
“ taining‘phase-balancing‘ impedancesgand‘ a [par
without the necessity of-a separate reactance-..4 5¢allel~irnpedance
modulator tube and circuit.
"
""Fi'g_.‘4"i1lustrates 'amdeincanen bring,’ 3, "con
circuit'c'onnected wit‘n't
“
‘ '
age-control device, for applying, threshold“
oscillation =~oppos§ing voltages; and permit‘
;A fourth object of-this invention is toryprovide . ‘» mined»
ting/different bias rupon f'thelvoltage-control-l de
harmonic constituents of an alternating outpute ~viceiandi upon-1 a:- gridwof theiithermionicétgenera
' a simple "device for controlling the amplitude and
- voltage in relation ,tolsinusoidal input-voltages.
including the vlimiting ofjvthe amplitude?iof the
output-voltage to a constant value independent
offlarge increasesin'amplitude of'the input-“volt
50:35012.v
’
_
..
;
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.
" _ .‘?FJIig.‘-‘5' illustrates?azthermioniclalternatin‘gicur
~ rentge'neratorzhavingj a: Hartley:-typercircuittwith
f :a triode;;and :havingaivoltageecontrolgdevicelavith
a parallel-impedance;:circuit-,1permitting‘different
invention“ is: f tot :provide‘; 55-’ bias voltages,fonsaid'deyicaand- upon. the .triode
2,406,082
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~
1
ionic voltage-control device ;v also connections of
balancing.
such a device to a triode.
>
.
istic of required effective-value of voltage upon'
.1 > a grid-oontrol’element to produce a particular
‘ : effective-value of alternating current through
cathode-anode, and associated network; alsoa
superposed characteristic of available feed-back‘
' voltage ‘ifor producing self-sustained oscillations, .
f V
..
grid, and having impedance means for phase-;
Fig. .6 illustrates in graph form, a character
3
4‘
.
>
-
Fig. 18 illustrates in graphic form various char
acteristics of resultant output-voltage in relation
to input-voltage, .as effected by the ratio of in
put-voltage to superposed threshold-determined
voltage .from the thermionic voltage-control de
. vice, and by the relative phase of the superposed’
voltage; either degenerative or'regenerative.
Fig. 19‘ (I) illustrates'an impressed'sinusoidal
in relation to the same effective-Jvalues'of "cath-‘ 10
ode-anode alternating currents, and certain rela-j input-voltage and a corresponding amplitude
tions' pertaining tov conventional typesrof oscil
VTlimited, resultant voltage, obtainable from the
'lators.
e 7 thermionic voltage-control device, for example, as
Fig. r{illustrates in graph form, the same char-i?
in, Fig. 17.
‘
Fig. 19 (II) illustrates certain rec
nacteristics illustrated inv Fig. 6, and, in addition,‘ 15 tangular and saw-tooth Waves, and combinations,
illustrates the manner, in which the feed-back,
obtainable from the thermionic tube connections
characteristic can be modified bymeansof the
Fig.20, to the thermionic voltage-control device,
and to a previously described thermionic alterj
old valueof voltage, and for determining. an}
nating current generator.
‘
.
equilibrium operating voltage within the range .20
Fig. '20 illustrates a thermionic tube with out
of voltages'in. whichgsubstantially pure sine‘
put-impedances for producing rectangular vand
l v devices of this invention, in reference to a thresh- ‘
Waves of cathode-anode current are produced.
‘ saw-tooth voltage waves, and input-connections‘
Fig. 8 illustrates a sinusoidal impressed'voltage l . to grid-controlYmeansincluding connections to
upon a voltage-control device of this vinvention, ;
one or" the types of thermionic generatorpre- '
also the effect of therconstant bias-voltage of 125 viously noted, 'andito the ‘double-diode type of
thisdevice.
1'
.p
..
'
'
voltage-control device of said-generator.
I
wFig. .9 illustrates a resultant vvoltage, forjexam- ‘
In prior art, methods have been devised for
ple with reference toFig. 8, and for use. in pro- ‘
maintaining the 'feedebackvoltage of generators
portioning a threshold-‘determined oscillation- 1 V employing thermionic tubes in substantial phase
‘opposing voltage, upon a generator of this in .30 opposition to cathode-anode alternating "cur
rents, so that variations of'ztube'resistance or
Fig. 10' illustratesa tuned plate type 'alter- l resistance of a phase-shifting ‘network are to a
hating current generator, ‘having a triode, phase- ‘
large extent compensated; for example, Method
balancing impedances, and a double-diode type 7 and meansfor normalizing thermionic oscil
vention.
‘
'
‘
voltage-control devicelfor suppressing harmonic ,35 lators, U.'S.~Patent No; 2,305,362, of the present
frequencies, and stabilizing the fundamental gen- ‘
.
erated frequency;
' -
Fig. 11 illustrates a thermionic alternating cur-V ‘
‘ rent generator having phase-balancing imped-~l
‘ ' ances, a voltage-control device, and bias-control ’
I Pmeans for controllingor’modulating the funda- -‘
inventor. These processes,‘ for: improving the‘,
frequency-stability'of thermionic generators, in
volve only phase-balancing for the'fundamental
generated frequency, and employ a fundamental
frequency quadrature—phase voltage . in. quadra-v
ture with the cathode-anode alternating vcur
" mental generated frequency, this generator dif- '11 rents; when the‘ voltages execute large'swings as
‘ fering from others'above noted, in that both the l
" feed-back Voltages and the threshold-determined "
1' feedback-opposmg . voltages are applied to a
screen-grid, leaving the control-grid free for
phase-balancing voltages, and frequency modu
‘
lating purposes.
is always-the case when the current equilibrium
is brought about in the conventional manner,
7 and curvatures of the characteristics of .the'tube I
are involved as well as. cut-off of anode current
for a part of a cycle, then ‘harmonic amplitudes
are present to a large degree, .and phase-balanc
‘
' Fig.12 illustrates an application‘of the gen
1 erators of this invention “for purposes of fre
'§ quency-mixing, and in particular the. modi?ca- =
tion of a difference-frequencyby means of a bias
fect of these harmonics in disturbing the balance
maintained for the fundamental generated fre
voltage produced by a conventionaldemodulator, ‘
quency, by the normalizing or ‘phase-balancing
-
> 1 applied to one of the generators of this invention.
ing of'the fundamental-frequency alone, cannot
eliminate all undesirable phase angles. . The ef- ' '
’
methods'mentioned, can be visualized from the.
Fig. 13 ‘illustrates 'a' thermionic alternating 55 resultant’ reactance for. the network connected ‘
1 current generator particularly‘ suitable ‘for low , with the cathode-anode, which can be'expressed
5 frequencies, that is, for audible orpsuper-audible ;
; frequencies, and having novel fundamental-fre
V1
quency'phaseébalancing means.
"
>
-
7
' , jFi'g. 14 illustrates a vectOr-diagramfonthe
as followsi ‘,
I
a+£;<1./1.>2+
/
." 230.11g)?
60
‘; generator of Figs.’ 13 and 15, and/shows‘ certain _ in which'X1 is the equivalent series reactance of
important relationships employed in compensat
the network at the‘ natural resonant frequency.
inglthe quadrature‘ecomponent of cathode-anode ‘ or fundamental generated’ frequency of the
voltage relative to the, cathode-anode alternatingv ' ' phase-balanced or normalized» oscillator, K3 the .
65 reactance of thenetwork for‘the third harmonic,
gcurrent._f
'
I
w j i . Fig.
illustrates the generator of Fig. rl_3,-with I
I a, double-diode type voltage-control device, for .
and in general, Xn ‘the reactance ofthe network
for the nth odd harmonic; 'a1s0’I3/I11iS the ratio
*of third harmonic amplitude to * fundamental
. ;,suppressingi harmonic ‘frequencies, and for im
' proving the frequency-‘stability of the generatorgt 70 ‘amplitude, and in general In/Ii 'is' the‘ratiorof
; . . Fig.sl6.illustrates a thermionic voltage-control
; device having a double-diodefand connections
1 to ascreen-grid, control-grid, cathode-and anode,
amplitude of nthoddT harmonic’ to fundamental
"amplitude; The reactance X1,¢i's normally com
pensatedyin ‘its undesired effects inf'cornbina
' tion‘ with resistance; variations‘ of: tube‘ treet
,~work in modifying generated frequencyZ by'thet' /
» Fig. 17 illustrates a double-diode type t jéim-c ivphaseebalancing ‘or’ normalizing process above '
‘forcontrolling alternatingcurrents?
‘
‘
2,486,635
. , ‘5 _,
.
referred to,however,the disturbing "effect of the
remainder upon theygenerated“ frequency is 'ap;
rectangular 'orsa'w-tooth ,Wavesrrcm the ‘fre
quencyistabilized simple-‘harmonic ‘waves Lso
parent, especially inview? of modi?cations of the
harmonic constituent ratios,v by modi?cation of
tube parameters, cathode-anode voltagefe'tc.
An important feature of this'invention, isjthe
produced..,,,..,
‘An importantifeature of ‘the voltage-control
_'
devicepf this finventionhis v‘the simple means
employed permitting separate ‘and distinct values
offvoltag'e-bias to belutiliz'e‘d uponthediode or
diodes, and upon ‘the'grid control-element to
simple means for determining an equilibrium of
the generated alternating current” after‘ a
threshold-value of feed-back ' voltage 1 of "snea
able ;amount has been reached, and formsub
stantially ‘eliminating the undesired effects‘ of
which ,thedevi'cefi's connected,
10
harmonic amplitudes, in“ contributing to ‘fre
, , _
a
'
These features; and'otherswiilbe better vun
‘Cl'erstood'from the following description, and‘with
reference to, the accompanying,’drawings.
quency-instabilityof the generated fundamental
I Referring to Fig. 1, at} 6, is 'a‘thermionic tube,
having ,a cathode, 4,. anode ‘3, control-grid ‘I,
Methods havelheretofore been employed to 15 screen~gridf2,and_ diode-anode 5. A tuned-grid
oscillator ‘is ‘provided ‘by, the, tuned circuit
secure a, substantial tangency or coincidence be
tween the lower portionsof the dynamic char
i5;l5a-'-l5b, having ‘the coil'il‘5 with resistance
lea shunted, by variable condenser i522, connected
acteristic. and the feed-back voltage character
from screen-grid ‘,2, to a positive potentialupon
istic, by increasing the negative bias upon the
grid used for feed-back voltage, thus moving‘one
the source I I‘ of continuous voltage-by connector
He,‘ and having a coil ‘IE5, connected between the
of these characteristicerelative to the other, to
anode 3 and ‘a positive potential upon source ll,
secure near coincidence of the lower portions. of
greater than the positive potential upon ilaithe
the characteristics,_through the use of recti?crs,
creating a substantially steady bias of unidirec
coil is having mutual inductance with l5, and
tional voltage responsive?tovoltage. Such a sys 25 the negative’ terminal of the source 5 i being ‘con
nected to'the cathode 4. At '8, isan inductance
tem has certain defects which operate against
coil,j coupledv with 15, one terminal of 8 being ‘'
frequency-stability, and which are overcome in
the means for determining the equilibrium cur
connected to the diode-anode 5, the oth’ertermi
rent, of this invention. Among the defects re
nal'll'being connected through. the variable con
ferred to, are the ‘resort to Variation of one of 30 tactor 8a to resistancev B.‘ _, One, terminal of re
the tube parameters. Thus, the grid upon which
chance, 9 is connected through the, variable
contactor l4 to the bia,s—voltage'source” 22, and so
feed-back voltage Visfapplied is biased more and
that ‘a negative‘ potential is'japp-lied to" I4, the
more negatively, modifying the e?ective amplie
?cation-factor for the grid. The dependence of
positive terminal of the biasevoltage source 22
being connected directly to the cathode 4. "An
effective, interelec'trode capacitance upon ampli
adjustable constant negative potential is thus ap»
?cation-factor is well known, and the system
above-referred to introduces undesired modi?ca
plied to the diode-anode '5. Coupled'with l5, is
tions of the tuned, circuit. Further, in order for
the compensating coil I'll, oneterrninalof which.
oscillations. to be. positively maintained, the dy
is connected to the control-grid l, the"other1
frequency.
l
V
‘a
A
namic characteristic must operate at some cur
terminal ‘being connected .to the terminal is.
Terminal .58, is connected .with terminal it,
through the variable-voltage 'so'urceZl, and ter
the same origin, as will be apparent from Fig.
minal [Bis connected with v'ariableecontactor 3i
upon resistance 9.1 The'lvariable-voltage source
‘6, Fig. >7, discussed inmfurther detail hereafter.
In such a system instantaneous voltages are not Bus indicated by El is .understoodto be formodifying
employed for degenerative feed-back above a
the resultant negative biasévoltage upon the con
threshold value, only ‘a unidirectional bias being
troli-grid !, and correspondingampli?cation face
used, and suchbias is only obtainable from rec
tor ,for. the control-grid; tocontrol the corre
sponding quadrature components of cathode
ti?ed currents passing impedance which is sub
stantially pure reactance at the fundamental and 60 anode alternating current; ‘it?‘vvill be’ understood
vature in such a system, to provide an equilib
:rium point, since both characteristics stem from
harmonic frequencies, since this latter is essen
tial to providing the time-constant of the im
that such variable'voltages can be provided by a
varietyof well knownjmea'nsafor example by the
output-‘connections of, a frequency demodulator
or discriminator, or by the output-connections of '
pedance su?icien-tlylarge tov smooth out instantai
neous current values to‘ yield a steady unidirec
tional bias Voltage. lio constant externally
applied bias voltage is employed to bias the
55 electro-acoustic devices. vAt vl2 and I3 are by-pass '
condensers, respectivelyfor by-p'assing the source
recti?er anode from the recti?er cathode, nor
for threshold-voltage determination, a variable
H, or the part of, source Hbetween I la and the
cathodes. ,The phase of instantaneous voltages .
unidirectional bias being created byrecti?cation,
as above noted, ‘in such-a system. 1,,
'
An important feature of ‘the present invention,
isthe utilization of instantaneous. voltages, of
one or both polarities, the complete ‘absence of
current-created bias voltage,..and theemploy
ment v of a constantv bias, for determining a
upon resistance 9, between "3| and I4, issuch as ~
00
to apply degenerative voltages upon control-grid
l, and also the phase of voltages set up in the
compensating coil H, is in quadrature with the
cathode-anode alternating currents through l6,
andithe magnitude and polarity ‘of alternating
c5 voltage, set up inrl'l and impressed upon lad
threshold-value beyond which, ‘instantaneous
justfedyto, compensate the resultant quadrature
values of degenerative voltage are impressed
upon the grid to which the self-sustaining feed
component of voltage of the cathode-anode cir
cuit at the natural resonant-frequency, and, rela
tive to the cathode-anode. alternating current.
back voltages are applied.
~
7
>
.Also, by means of the voltage-control device of 70 Operation of the ‘circuitfofTFig. 1, will be, dis—' Q
this invention, wave-form can be controlled in a
simple manner, also voltages can ,be limited, and
the voltageecontrol device‘ ‘can be employed to do
'jdoublej'duty,‘ for improvement of frequeneyesta
cussedfin, further detail after ‘other structures 3.
hereinhave been described,"
'
, i
.y _ v l
. Referring tO'Figi‘Z, the thermionic tube?d, has
4, ano e‘ 3, diod node‘5,_'control-grjid
b‘ility by harmonic’ suppression ‘ahd'for evening "7a ‘ liiscrecn-sfi'élyji; ‘and"supiiféssdies?d"l- “A
2,405,082
grid .2 and the positive potential upon sourceI I
resonant circuit, containing the inductance coil
byirconnector IIa._ A greater positive potential . 1
l?a'with resistance, IGb, in series with vinductan,ce ‘
coil I5 with resistance I5a, and the variable con
is connected upon the anode 3, through coil I6,
which coil is coupled with I5,» The negative ter
minal of source Ii vis connected to cathode 4, and
by-pass condensers I2 and "I3, respectively by
» denser I60 shunted ‘across these coils‘ ‘and re
sistances in series, is connected to the thermionic
tube to form a Hartley-type oscillator, The junc
, tion y of the inductance coils, is connected to the =
pass the source Ii and the part of source II from ' I
IIa'to'cathode 4; At' 22 is a bias-voltage source,
withvpositive terminal connected to the cathode
‘source VII through‘the high-reactance choke-coil
IIb, the coil IIb being‘ connected to .the positive
terminal of source llgand’thenegative terminal
4,1' and withv a negative vterminal connected by
contactor 35 to control-grid I, through terminals
l9ajand Isa. At 81? is an inductance coil, and at
of source II being connected to. the cathode 4.
The terminalh, of resistance I_6b,‘is connected to I
80 upon 8?) is a half-inductance point, the coil
8b being coupled inductively with I5; At 41 is
anode 3, and the ‘terminal a‘ of resistance 'I5a is
connected to the screen-grid 2, through voltage
a double-diode, having diode-cathodelar with
. reducing resistancer23 and by-pass condenser 24
l shunted across 23. ,The resistances I5a and I62)
diode-anode 5a, and diode-cathode lib, with diode
anode 5b. Cathodes 4a and 4b are each connected
each include resistance inherent in the respective
to a common junction 90 through connections
III) and'source II,'are'the inductance 25 and . r of negligible impedance. Connected to the junc
tion'9c,'is the positive terminal of bias-voltage
variable condenser 25, in series. At 9, 911, I0, Ilia,
I4,- 35,’ isfaitransfer-impedance having pure re- , ' source 22a, the resistance 32'being shunted across
source 22a to form a'potentiometer, Connected
sistances‘Q-and 9a, and stopping condensers 1c
to the half-inductance point 8clis the variable
and, Illa, the stopping, condensers being of'such
contactor‘ Ilia upon resistance 32, one terminal
capacitythat the reactance of these condensers
of coil 8b being connected to diode-anode 5a, and
for the fundamental generated frequency, and all I
the other terminal of 8b being- connected to the
harmonic frequencies, ‘is in?nitesimal in come
diode~anode 5b. Anodes 5a, and 5b, are nega
parison with the‘magnitude ‘of resistance of _9
or'9a. These condensers'serve to insulate :the " tively biassed by the adjustable constant bias
separatefbias voltages, employed, and otherwise} vcltage from 22¢t—:’~l2.~v When a selectablev magni
to permitthe impedance'between 8d and M to be I34) tude of. oscillation-sustaining feed-back voltage
upon?Z-A has'been reached, coil 86 carries alter;
' substantially . pure resistance, with negligible ‘
nating currents, ‘and the’ e?ective resistance of
phase-angle, The inductance ‘coil Bis coupled,
coils I5 and I6a, shunted across the ‘choke-coil
r
the circuit I5-—I5b-—I5a is increased, in. relation
with the resonant circuit, ‘one terminal of Bbeing 1
connected to diode-anode 5, and ‘the other termi- Y , to the threshold voltage determined by 22a’?
nal of 8 connected to“ the variable contactor 8a,‘ . 32-4-1411. The characteristic of oscillation-sus-iw
taining feed-back voltage in relation to cathode-'
upon resistance 9. At 22 is a bias-voltage source
having its positive terminal connected to cathode
anode alternating' currents?s thus modi?ed, after
4. Resistance 9a is/shunted'across resistance 9
a selectable feed-back‘ has been reached.
' Referring to Fig. 4, connections are similar to
' through the stopping condensers IE and Inc, the;
Fig. '3, control-grid I howevenifbeing employed '
condenser It! being connected to oneterminal of
9a and the condenser Iila'beingconnected to the l' . both’ 'for ' impressing compensating quadrature-'
phase voltages to supply fundamental frequency
other terminal of 9a. Resistance 9 is connected
phase-balancing, and for impressing degenerative " I
to a negative potential upon 22 by variable con
voltages derived from a transfer-impedance con
nected between the double-diode cathodes. Thus,
tactor I4, and resistance Sa'is connected to a '
negative potential upon 2'2'rby variable contactor‘
'35., Coupledwith coil‘- 25‘is compensating induc-l
tancecoil: [1. ,The variable contactor 3Ia upon
resistance. 9a is‘ connected toterminal I8,"W'hichi
connected between the diode-cathode 4a and .
junction 90, is the'resistance 9’, and likewise con- f' U .
nected between the diode-cathode 4b and‘the
junction 90, is the equalresistance 9",. ; Shunted
is connected'to'terminal I9, directly through con
ductor 20, and terminal I9 isfconnectedto'con- 5
trol-grid ‘I, through compensating coiljI'I. ., Forv
modulating the frequency of the stabilized-ire;
across the cathodes 4a and 4b, is the resistance
9a, spanning between 4a and 4b, one terminal of.
resistance 9a being connected to 4a through stop
quency oscillator, connection between, terminals‘,
ping/condenser I9, and the other terminal of 9a
I8 and I9 is through source 2| as in Fig. 1,- in-?
stead of through conductor 20. Degenerative I
55 ,Iiia, ' Control-grid I is connected from a negative
being connected to 41) through stopping condenser
voltages between 35 and 3Ia, which‘exist after‘
a threshold value ofalternatingvoltage deter-’,
mined by bias of I4 upon diode-anode 5,- has been
reachedyare impressed uponr'control-grid I. Also
3' voltages upon I‘! in quadrature phase with the
anode-cathode alternating currents, of proper
magnitude and polarity, are impressed upon con-;
60
terminal of bias 22 by contactor 35, contactor 35
being connected to a terminal of 9a, and 9a being ‘
connected by variable contactor 3 la through ter
minals I8 and I9,‘ and through “compensating
vcoil I1, to the control-grid I. Connection between
terminals I8 and.I9,-is through connection ZlL'or
, alternatively, through variable-voltage source2I
as previously described for Fig.1 for modulating
trol-grid ‘I, to vadjust the oscillation-sustaining
feed-back voltages to be in exact phase opposition". the stabilized frequency. In thisfus'age, the re-_ ~
to cathode-anode alternating currents, in order‘:
to compensate variations ,of thermionic tube re-‘ '
sistance, and variations of ~ network resistance,
- and, the effect, of these variations upon the gen-l ,
erated frequency, suppressor-gridy‘l‘, ismnormally
connected directly to cathode 4'.‘ . <
sistances 9', 9", and 9a, are high inv-relation to
"the diode resistance,’ per- se, between 4d and 5a;
orbetween 4b and 5b;?:the diodevcurr'ents are
thus very smaILtandZthe reactionjofi?t'he diode
circuit 'in'the resonant circuit I5'—I5b-—I5d is
negligible, only sufficient energybeingtakenirom
Referring to Fig. 3, at 6b,.ispa thermionic tube ‘ 70 'the resonant circuitto establish the degenerative , a
having a'cathode'll, anodeicontrol-grid I_,'.;andv . ' control voltages required.
‘ screen-grid 2., A'res'onant-circuit consisting of]
' coil I5.with resistance I5a is shunted by variable
.
. Referring to Fig. 5', a'Hartley-type oscillator
employing a. triode, is shown, employing ;;also
7 ' condenser?b, andconnected between the s‘cr'een- >75 f phaserbalancing, and a.sing1eadiode;;witntrans.‘ ’
r. 2,406,082
710
i9
fer-impedance’ connected-to diode, permitting
"In Fig. 11, a variant is sho'wnjwith reference to
different voltage-bias upon the diode and upon
' Fig. 1; Fig. 2‘or Fig. 4. In‘ these-?gures, the‘c’oiij
the grid. Tube to has the cathode 4, anode 3,
trol-gridi'is employed for vboth; phaseébalan’cing'
i‘control-grid l, and diode-anode 5. The resonant
icircu'it contains the coil .lliav with resistance l6b,
5in series with the coil l5d With resistance I5e,
fland the variable- condenser lEc shunted across
l'thege series~connected coils. The junction y’ of
"-coils Mia and 1511, is‘ connected through a high
-' reactah'ce choke-coil llb tothe positive terminal
1 of source ll, the negative terminal of source ll
being connected to cathode 4. The junction 72'
between condenser 16c and coil‘ lea is connected
"t'o anode 3, and the junction 7" between condenser
‘itc and coil l?d is connected through compen
1 sating inductance coil I1 and stopping condenser
.123 to control-grid l. Shunted across the source
i'll: and choke-coil lib in series, is the variable
(condenser 25 in series with the coil 25. the coil
1'25 being inductively coupled‘with coil l'l. At 22
is a bias-voltage source, with positive terminal‘
voltages-and for threshold-‘controlled‘degenerate
~connected to cathode ll.
. tive'voltages, Whereas in Fig. 1.1; the degenerative
voltages are impressed upon the same grid ernL
ployed for» oscillation-sustaining feed-‘back vvolt‘
ages, leaving the control-grid free ‘for ‘the sole
useof phase-balancing‘or phase-niodi?cation"for
frequency-modulation. ' Tube 6, has a cathode 4,
anode-3;‘ control-grid l, screen-grid 2, an‘d'diode‘e
the "coil-lha'vlithi resistance it?) having one tere
minal "connected to‘ the‘ anode 3,‘ ‘and the other
terminal ‘connectedto a ?rst'teri'ninal of the high
reactance' choke‘ lib," theise'cond'terminal of the
choke‘llb being co‘nn‘ected’to the‘ positive ter
minal‘of the source‘ II, the ‘negative terminal of
sourceil'ibeing connected v‘to cathodes. fBia's‘e
voltage 'sour'cef22'has its positive terminal con-'
nected to' ‘cathode it. The screen-‘grids "is“c‘on¢
necte'd through coil’ it to terminal k, and't'e‘r'mi’nal
7c is connected through high-reactance'choke-coil
At 8 is an inductance
coil coupled with Isa-Md‘, one terminal of 8
‘being connected to diode-anode 5, the other ter
l lc to a positive potential upon' I I,‘ through con
minal of 8 being connected to variable contactor
5a, upon resistance 9 of the transfer-impedance
i’i-l?-Qa-llla. Oneterminal of resistance 9. is
connected through the variable contactor M to
a'negative terminal. of.22; one terminal of re-’
sistance 5a is connected through variable con v30
tac'tor 35 to a negative terminal of 22, and the
nector- I la. ' Coil ‘8' is‘ couplédiwith the‘re'sonant
circuit l‘taéwb-e-liic, as‘ is also 'coil' l 5; one ter
-mina1-0f coil~8- is connected to diode-‘anodes, and
the other'terminal ‘of coil‘B is connected through
resistance Slab-and variable‘ conta'ctor' l4 to‘ a‘ nega
sistance 2"! to variable contactor Illa upon re
tive terminal of bias-‘voltage's'ource‘22. 'At‘3,'is
aground connection. 'At‘l‘?a is"aestoppin‘g' cori
denser of negligible reactanc'e, for ‘keeping’voltage
of sourcel l'fr'om the‘ ‘diode circuitjan'd ‘permitting
sistance
'?ow of'alternatin'g current‘ from terminal is to re
icontrolegrid l ‘is connected through leak-‘re
9a.
Degenerative
voltages
across
fs5_3la. serve to suppress the generation of dis- ~
'Yturbin‘Cr harmonic amplitudes, and’ phase-bah
'anci'ng of the fundamental generated frequency
is brought about through thevoltage introduced
sistance Gab, through-variable 'cont‘a‘ctor?lb upon
Siab. Degenerative voltages from ‘Q’ab ‘are thus
introduced upon sci‘een-gridZ; in series ‘with feed
back voltages from coil 1'5. “Coil 25 ‘and “con
denser ~26, in series, are ‘shunted across entrant
"into coil‘ ii, to provide .a high degree of fre
and source ll in ‘series-‘andcontrbllgrid 'l‘is'c‘on- V
quency-stability, over a range of frequencies, the
nected through coil '1, terminals ‘l9 ‘and it, to
‘condensers 28 and‘lsc being simultaneously tune
bias-voltageiofnegative polarity upon '22,'by 'va'ri
’able, as illustrated'for example by dotted-line G’
able contactor ‘35. The compensating ‘coil ‘l T‘is
indicating a mechanical connection of rotors.
.coupledvvithcoi1'25, and connections betweeh'ter
Referring to Fig. v10, a tuned-plate type oscil
lator employing a triodeis shown, and utilizingr a 45 minals -l 3 ~and -l 9 are‘ either'direct, through con
double-diode type voltage-control device, together
with phase-balancing means.
The voltage-con
trol device is the same as in Fig. 4, the coil 81)
nection '23 for frequency stabilization, or'thro'ugh'
the variable-voltage source ‘2| as in ‘Fig, 1. for I
modulation of stabilized‘irequency.
'
»
'
‘
Referring to Fig. 12, there is illustrated in ‘par
being coupled with-the resonant ‘circuit ‘I60,
i6'o—-l6d. The tube 16d has cathode 1!, anode 3, 50 tial block-diagram form a superheterodyne re- ,
ceiver, With‘one of the ‘generator’s‘o'f this inven
and control-grid l. One terminal of coil l5a is
tion supplying'a conventional form‘o'f ‘mixer, and
connected to the anode 3, the other terminal of
‘detail connections vfromaconventiohal‘frequency
coil lea being connected toichoke I lb which‘con
deniodulator and amplitude-demodulator to ‘the
nects with the positive terminal of source I l. The
negative terminal of source H is connected to 55 terminals l 8-! 9 of an oscillator of this invention,
' cathode fl, and the coil 25 and variable condenser
in series, are shunted across choke Hi) and
source ll in series. Control-grid l is connected
through coil lie, and through coil 1561, to an
output-terminal 28b of the low-pass ?lter 28. The
input-terminal 28a of ?lter 28 is connected by
variable cont-actor am to resistance 9a of the
for automatically tuning a difference-‘frequency,
commonly referred to as 'an intermediate ‘fre
quency, when the tuned u'embsuiacr is approki;
mately tuned to the ‘difference-frequency or inter
mediateefrequeircy. At 6 l, is an oscillator such as
previously described herein, for example Fig. 11;
1A1} 43 is a frequency-mixer, and at 44 is an am7
transfer-impedance 9a—-9'-—9"—lll—l€la, and
pli?er for amplifying voltages having a resultant
to common outputuinput terminal 230 of the
?lter 28. Coil‘ liid is coupled with resonant cir
cuit ltd-53?) led for providing self-sustaining
feed-hack voltages, coil lid is coupled with 25
monly referred to as the intermediate-frequency
ampli?er, and utilized for amplifying difference
frequencies resulting from the superposition of
for providing quadrature-component phase-bal
ancing voltages, and harmonic suppressing de
frequencies of Bi, combined in the frequency:
frequency different from the received frequencies
one terminal of resistance 9a is connected to a
negative terminal of biaswoltage source 22, and 65 upon antenna 42, the ‘ampli?erv '44 being 'com- >
generative voltages, are provided between termi
nals 23c—2i3a, and between 280-481). Condensers
25 and ltd can have a common rotor-shaft, for
simultaneous tuning.
the received frequencies at 42' and the generated
mixer 43. At'liii is a connection for coupling the
network of generator '6! with the ‘ ‘frequencyT
mixer, in a manner Well'under'stood. Within the
enclosure 4|,is shbvvn a‘ conventional form’ of
75 demodulator for frequency-demodulation and for
' 2,406,082
"12
amplitude-demodulation. ‘ Output-voltages ofine
3 . ~termediate-frequency from the ampli?er v44 are
13;"at6b' is a thermionic tube having cathodé 4?
anode 3, control-grid I ; and screen-grid 2, and
impressed upon tube 49, for example, between
having a continuous-voltage source vI I with nega
tive terminal connected to cathode 4, and a bias
1 , control-grid'SB'and ground 30.. An anodeLOutp'ut
3 , circuit 48 'is supplied withipositive potential i’romv
'voltage source 22 with positive terminal thereof ‘
_ a source such as I I, Fig. 11, through‘ conductor 5 I;
likewise a screen-grid of tube 49 is supplied with a
1 > lesser positive potential from said source I I, for
nected by conductor I la to a terminal of positive
connected to cathode‘ 4. Screen-grid 2' is’con
voltage upon source II. Connected between the
positive terminal 11 of the source I I and the anode
3 vis the resistance To, and coupled with To through
example through conductor 59.‘ At 46 is a tuneev
able'circuit, co‘uplediwithAB. At 41b isadouble-g'
Connected
the stopping condensersCr and C2, is the recur
across'the cathodes 55 and 56, are the equal re
sistancesZIa and ‘M17, in series, the mid-resist?
rent-section resistance-capacitance network be
‘ , diode-tube, with cathodes 55 and 56.
' tween the input terminals P-P' and output ter
‘ - ance point 2 I0 being connected through the high
minals Q-Q’.‘ Each section of this network con
reactance coil 52 to the mid-inductance point 15 sists of a resistance for the series element, desig
nated by 21', and a capacitance designated by 22
upon ‘the anode-output circuit 45, the mid-in
ductance point being also coupled capacitively
for the shunt element, ‘and connected to the mid
through condenser 52a to the, anode of tube 49.
In 'a ,manner' well understood, amplitudeede
. point of resistance e1, so that 'each section forms
between the extreme terminals I 8a and "Bare
,jspectivelyof resistances 2Ib and 21a in series,
responsive to deviations of the intermediate-fre
two-branch parallel circuit, one branch having
the tuneable circuit 46 is exactly tuned, and for
nected from the terminal 7Q, isthe control-gridl,
‘and connectedfrom a negative terminal 'upon ;
I a T, with 217 2 on either ‘side of the shunt element
modulation 'volt'ages'vare provided thereby, across 270 22; Connected ‘between- the output terminals
Q-Q' is an output-impedance consisting of a
resistance ZIb, or 2Ia, and diiferential voltages‘
the terminal resistance n, and the other branch
having the condenser Cr‘ in series with a compen
quency above or below a normal value, fOrWhiChi. 25 sating or phase-‘balancing resistance I'Ic. Con
which the diiferential voltage is zero. At 45 is a,
' connection from resistance Zlb to intermediate!
, frequency ampli?er “(for volume-control, and
bias-voltage source 22 through variable contactor ,
35, is the, junction e between condenser Cr and
whereby bias-voltage upon thermionic tubes of they 30,
intermediate-frequency ampli?er is modi?ed to‘
phase-balancing resistance I10;
[correct excessive volume, in a manner well under
the resistance ft and the phase-balancingresist
.
The resistances 21 of the sections, as well as
> stood; >The'anode-output‘circuit 48 is understood
ance I'Ic, are all variable,‘ for example bymeans
1 , to be inductively coupled with tuneable circuit 46,
of rotors such'as H, the rotors being mechani
i and each-of the two extremities of the tuneable' 35 cally connected together, for example by con
nector G, in a manner well understood. By this
' 1 ; circuit 46 to be connected to one of the diode
anodes of the double-diode 41b.
7
'
means, the required phase-shift for self-sustained
,
‘Such ‘a receiving system commonly involves a
oscillations can be produced, over a range of fre
quencies. The stopping condensers C1 and C2 are
considerable number of variable condensers, tuned‘
by-mechanical connection between them, with 40 understood to have large capacitance, and negli
difficulties of exact alignment, and particularly
gible reactance in'relation to 2i and 22'.
‘
in» view of modi?cation‘ of output-volume by the‘
The principles of operation of the compensat
ing or phase-balancing resistance I'IC, can best
volumeecontrol. By means of a generator of this
invention, terminals IB-IS can be employed to
apply a self-correcting voltage, which modi?es the‘
generated frequency in‘ proper direction, so that
the, intermediate-‘frequency or difference-fre
quency applied to the demodulator reduces the
differential voltage across I Ba—I 9a to substan-‘
> be understood by reference to certain well known
facts concerning such phase-shifting structures,
and to the vector-diagram, Fig. 14. The charac
teristic impedance of a line of an in?nite number
of such sections, and from the input terminals
,P—P',- is designated by Zk, and from the well
tially zero, ,at which intermediate-frequency the 50 known principles of such structures, ,
tuneable'circuit, 46 is exactly tuned. By means,‘
‘
zk=\/z_1z2(1'+_z1/4ZT>
‘of ,the'generators of this invention, this is ac-‘ .(1)
complished with’ a-single thermionic tube, without
a complex number, wherein Z1 is the resistance
the necessity of" a separate reactance-modulator
of element 21 and Z2 the reactance of element 22,
tube'and‘circuitp
'
'
that is Z2 =——i/wC, where
3
The generators heretofore described are best ,
adapted to use in“ the high or radio-frequency
range, as distinguished from an audible or super
audible range of'frequencies. The'principles of
thisinvention for securing a high degree of fre
,
,
and w=21rx-frequency. This complex number can
also be designated in the following manner: '
,60
quency-stability of generated frequencies, inde-,
pendent of thermionic tube variations, and com-.
bining the action‘ of phase-balancing and har
(2)
Zt=Rk—'J'Xk
wherein R3 and X1; are determined from (1), C
being the capacitance of element 22.
-
'The terminal impedance, between terminals
are also1 applicable in the important range of 65 Q-Q', is determined to be always equal to Zk,
by adjustment of ‘ft in relation to Ct; the line is
j audible and super-audible frequencies, as illus- ‘
thus non-re?ective at Q--Q', the terminal imped
'trated in 'Fig;‘13 and Fig. 15.‘ Fig. 13 illustrates
monic suppression by the voltage-‘control device,
; a resistance-capacitance type oscillator'having a ,
g novel phase-balancing means for the fundamen- ‘
tal generated frequency, and Fig; 15 illustrates
1 the sameoscillator of Fig“ 13 with both funda
, mental-frequency phase-balancing means and
‘ voltage-controldevice means for suppressing har- '
ance replacing the balance of an in?nite line.v
The initial current through the terminals P and
P’ is designated by I0, and the terminal current
through the terminals Q and Q’ by It; the rela
tion between terminal current and initial current‘
is then:
'
I
‘ It: I06— NP '
} monies; to secure a maximum, degree of effective
; ness of thephase-balancing. Referring to Fig. 175 where N is the number of T-sections referred to,
2,496,982
e
P the: propsaeatisiinv factorwf’per section, a. 002111219X
114
ofglfpPtt andlorp, and any, change. in magni.
tude. o-tqthetubge resistancechanging focal} have
number involvinathe phase-shift persectisn and
the, attenuation persection, ande is theNaperian
nce ect upontthe magnitudeof generatedjfre
base, 2;?183. the propagation factor being“ readily
due-hey,- so; long. as. a single, simple-harmonic '
determinable fromtheimpedances, by the well-V
generated frequency is concerned, _
knownyrelation;
,
.
'
It isltherefcfre evident, with thecompensation
'
crphase-balancing of this oscillator, as with’ the
(Inv
sinh P/2~=1/2\/z1/‘z2 I
other oscillators herein disclosed, that a maxi
mum effectiveness of the-phase-balancing can
The, initial current I0, thus leads the’ voltage
across Pie-Pf’ by the phase angle 61;, where 10 only be utilizedwhen the generated frequency is
tan"07¢=Xzc/Rzc, as indicated in Fig. 14, in which the , substantially limited to a singlefrequency con~
stitiientv inqthe. generated alternating currents.
direction of vector, rotation is counterclockwise
15 illustrates how this is accomplished for
about 9!. Without the presencefof any phase
thepscillator of Fig. 13, employing .thevoltagee
compensatmg-resistanceat Hc, it will be noted
that for a particularirequengay, and inrelation 15 control device of this invention. The vphase-v
shifting network is identical with Fig. 13,»,also
- the connections tov the‘ thermionic tube, however,
to Z1 and 22, an additional phase-shift per sec
tion~of~
’
‘
~
.
_
'>
5*‘
,n,_0k
._N,'ix
l.
_
Vtlie' connections fromQbia's-source 22K to control
grid 1, include connections with the resistance
.
,
.
,
‘20 to; of the‘ transfer-impedance. Coupledwith ‘the
can be obtained, that isa total phase shift
resistance 1.0,, are the equal resistances, 8d and
throughithe network. ofv 1r—.ak, so thatthev'oltage
tie connected in series, and having the common
junction 87', a terminal of 8d being connected
across Q.—Q' will’ be in exact phase-opposition
with the current It. It will also be noted, that
to‘ one terminal of To through condenser C3, and
the oscillator cannot operate in an equilibrium 25 a terminal of‘ 8c, being connected to the other
condition with the phase-shift indicated, and fur»
terminal r0 throughcondenser C4. The double
ther, that whatever phase-shift does exist at the
dicde 4'! has diode=~anode 51) connected to a termi
equilibrium condition of the oscillator, will be
nal of 3d opposite. common junctiontv} and
modified.
changes in. cathode-anode conduct
diode-ancdeI 5av connected to a terminalof 8e
ance of the thermionic. tube, giving rise‘to the ,
opposite common junction; 87". Cathodes 4d; and
undesired frequency-instability." This will be ap
parent from the following‘considerations. Iisrp
is the‘ resultant cathode-anode resistance, made
up of the actualthermionic cathode-anode re
422 areinterconnected by the transfer-impedance '
sistance inparallel with m, and p." the resultant
ampli?cation: factor, then for the equilibrium
condition of the oscillator, p/ET must be a vector
voltage equal in magnitude and opposite in phase
to, the vector- sum of voltages E5- and IoTp, where '
ET is the terminal voltage across Q-Q’, E0‘ the
voltage. across P-FP’, and 1073; the cathode-anode
voltage drop. This vector’
will be along a?
linasomewhere intermediate between Euand Io’rp,
and Eewill have to have an- upward component,
to. compensate the downward component IoXk
of E0. Also, when this particular equilibrium is
determined, and the oscillator runs at the requi
frequency. tor this equilibrium, it is apparent
that any change inv cathode-anode tube resistance
5,'_i-lj'~' l??r-e?ll-r-l?; previously. described, a pos
itive te minal ‘of biasrvoltage source zgdbeing
connected, to junction Sc between 9’and 9", and
negative terminahof 22:! being’ connected I
through variable contacto-r Ida to the junction
The} terminal e of the compensating re~
‘ sistancei tic, is connectedthrough variable con
tactor 35a; to'resistance 8a, and a terminal of
is connected to a negative terminal of bias
voltage source 22 through variable contactor 35,
to apply threshold-determined degenerative volt‘
ages upon control-grid l, in addition to quadra
ture-component compensating voltages from l-‘lc,
and oscillation-sustaining feed~back voltages
from Q-.-Q'. The thermionic tube illustrated for
Fig... 15, at to, has a ‘suppressor ‘element 1 con-
nected tolcathode 4; connections of other ele
ments are identical with Fig. .13. Condensers Cs
and C4, are large capacity stopping-condensers,
and have negligible reactance in relation to the
frequency.
To avoid this condition the compensating re.
resistanceslid‘v and.’ 86;
Referring to Fig. 16 and‘ Fig. 17, at 15 and ‘i5
sistance lie is provided‘ By this means a quad
input-terminals for applying alternating
rature-component of voltage
isprovided upon
the control-gridl it, in quadrature with ET, and 55 voltage to the input-impedance i5g‘—l5k. Cou
pled with the inductance coil |5§lc is the coil 8b,
in such magnitude and polarity as to compen
sate for the quadrature component of voltageof
one terminal of 8}) being connected: to terminal
‘ill, the’ other terminal of 322 being connected
E0, that is the reactive-component of voltage
to terminal ‘F22, and the mid-inductance point 80
occasioned’ by the. cathoderanode alternating cur—
rent flowing through the characteristic imped 60 of 8b, being connected to terminal ll. A double
diode ‘it, vwith transiermimpedance, and bias;
ance, and indicated by IpXk. The resistance em
voltage connection, as previously described, is
ployed at l'lc is small in relation to thereactance
connected to terminals t8, ‘ii-l‘, and ‘I2, terminal
of condenser Ct, so that the current, through {To
"5'5 being connected to diode-anode 5a, terminal
is determined in. magnitude and phase by the re
actance of Ct and the terminal voltage ET. It 65 "53 to. diode-anode 5b, terminal ll to a negative
terminal oi bias-voltage source 2204, and the posi
will be noted that the summation of voltages
tive terminal of 22a connected to the junction
upon the control-grid takes place in-the sequence
96 between 9’ and 8",‘ upon the transfer-im
€—HC—Q'—Tt-—Q—~l, and that resistance He
pedance iiK-Q' '—l llw—8q—~i l} interconnecting
can be adjusted
relation to the resultant amt
the cathodes Ala and 4b‘. Terminal “It is connected
pli?cation factor ,LL', to Ct, and to the parameters
Z1 and Z2 determining characteristic impedance,
connected
directly to. directly
the cathode
to cathode
do, and
4b, terminal
resistances
v‘l4. 9'
phase shift, and attenuation, so that IoXk will
and
9”
of
the
transfer-impedance
being
con
be separately compensated, for all operating fre
nected
in
series.
between
‘T3.
and
‘M.
The
dotted
quencies; under these conditions the voltage ET
line control-device enclosure designated by.» 90.,
when ampli?ed, need only sustain the arithmetic
will upset ’ this balance, and generate: a new
I 21,406,082
15
i6
’ Referring to Fig. 20, a device is illustrated‘ for
generating irregular-shape waves, such as rec
tangular and saw-tooth waves, from a generator,
of this invention, so as to have a high degree of
frequency-stability, and employing a voltage-con;
trol ‘device of this, invention for double-duty, as
,
‘ includes'th'e terminals ‘Ill, ‘II, 12', 13' and“, and .
the above-described connections thereto of dou
ble-diode 41, bias-Voltage source 722a, and re
sistances 9' and 9"; for simplicity of illustra
tion these connections are referred to in Fig. 17
andFig..20 as the control-device9U. Referring
in particular to Fig. 17, and ‘to Figxltl, the vari
ous relationships-of. resultant voltage at the ter
a harmonic suppressor for. the phase-balanced
oscillator employed, and as ,a wave-form control
.for’ a second thermionic tube supplied with sta
‘- minals 85'-—85’ obtainable ‘from impressed volt
10 bilized-frequency voltage from the oscillator. At
ages upon ‘I5—,'i6,.will be apparent. The rela
90 is shown part ofthe double-diode voltage
control device, previously described, and for ex
- .tive phase of the threshold-determined voltages
upon' 9a combined with the voltages from ‘IE-1,5,, ‘
is"contr'ollab1e by the variable-contactors em '
and 35‘upon 9a; the characteristic’indicatedat
A, Fig. 18, shows the?resultantsvoltage across‘
ample as connected ,to the oscillator of Fig. 4,
' with reference to the couplingvof coil8b with.
resonant circuit I5-I5a'-I5b, and the connec-,
85’—,66’ when they contactors em and 35 are
tions 35’ and :3Ia.
At-Sb' is a ‘thermionic tube V
with cathode 4’, anode 3', control-grid I’, screens
grid 72' and output-impedance Z’ in series-with
, , coincidentupon'the same point upon_,9a,'andno
voltage is combined 'from'9a. ' When voltages ,
are introduced at 9a, by separation of'3I a and
Z", connected between’ranode' 3' and the positive
201
' '35 so as to have phase-aiding or regenerative
components, the resultant characteristic is ro
terminal of continuous voltage source I I. - Acon
denserS'I is shunted across the terniihals'H-BB' -
tated in a direction indicatedby arrow 33, for _‘
example along a characteristic’such as B, and
with reference to the threshold’ voltage at q’;
of _Z',' the condenser being variable, and ‘I8 is‘a
terminal of Z" connected to the positive terminal
when the separation at 3Ia and 35 is’of opposite “
' order in reference to path traversed through
Screen-grid 2’ is connected, for example, di
rectly to terminalillt, Fig. 4, that is to'screen-grid
2, Fig. 4. Stabilized-frequency isimpressed upon
of
source
II.
,
_
'
.
'
9a, then the voltages introduced from 9a are
phase-[opposing or degenerative, and the result
ant characteristic, is rotated in a direction indi
screen-grid 2', and by means of the variable
contactor 3Id, upon 9a connection is made to con
cated» by arrow 84, for example along charae
teristics such ‘as C, D,‘ or'F, with‘ reference to
trol-grid l',for wave-form control. 'For exam
ple, when the variable-contactor 35d is adjusted
threshold voltage at q'." A high degree of wave- .
for ‘applying opposing voltages to I'_in excess
form“ control is thus provided, and in particular
of a threshold magnitude, rectangular current
when large magnitudes‘of opposing voltage are
employed in relation to the magnitude of im
waves are produced through the cathode-anode
circuit 4'—3'; if Z’ is aivariable resistance, and
. pressed voltage. For example, with the charac
Z” also a variable resistance, thena rectangular '
teristic D, after the threshold value of voltage (1’
is reached, increments of impressed voltage are
voltage? wave is produced across the terminals
_ 18-88’ of Z", and anisoceles-triangle' type saw
opposed by equal increments of voltage from
tooth wave is produced, across the terminals
9a, and the resultant voltage at 86’—85' is con 40 TI—88’. These‘waves are illustrated respectively
stant as to maximum value, independent of '
in Fig. 19, part (II), at BI and‘88. ' The total I
greater voltages impressed at 'I5—'I6. By this
voltage across,‘I‘I—-88 is a saw-tooth wave‘ indi
means, trapezoidal-type waves can be generated,
cated by 81', and the successive right-triangle
as: indicated at 8!, Fig. 19, and also rectangular
type saw-tooth wave can be produced from 81',
. type
waves, a by
employing
su?iciently
small
threshold-voltage in relation to maximum volt
age of the impressed signals at 15—‘I6. Modi-
as shown at 81", by inverting alternate waves
' through recti?er means, in a manner well under
,'
stood. It will be understood, that portions of
suchv saw-tooth waves are in fact portions of
?cation of harmonic constituents, is considered ,
in further detail hereinafter, and with reference
exponential transient changes, and that such
to certain quantitative relations. The device il 50 portions can be made to approach straight-line
changes with time, by employing a su?iciently
small’ portion of such transient characteristics.
Having described the principal structures of
this invention,'certain important features of op
lustrated'at 953, Fig. 17 and Fig. 20, is under,
stood to contain a double-diode 41, bias-voltage
- source 22a, and connections between terminals
'Iil,~lI, 72, ‘I3 and 14, identical with those de
scribed for Fig. 16.
‘
55 eration of the devices will be apparent from the
following considerations. Referring to Fig. 6
and Fig. '7, graphs are shown, illustrating equi
librium currents in the cathode-anode circuit of
conventional oscillators, and Fig. 7 illustrating
-In Fig, 1'7, a thermionic tube 611, having oath}
ode 4, anode 3, control-grid I, and output-im
pedance Z connected between anode 3 and posi
tive terminal of source I I is shown, the'resultant
voltage between terminals 86' and 35' being di
rectly applied to the control-grid I, from a nega
control of the equilibrium current by the devices
of this invention. Relative‘ to origin 0, ordinates
indicate the e?ective Value of cathode-anode al
tive terminal of the bias-voltage source 22, for
controlling thermionic currents through Z,
i
In Fig. 16, thermionictube 61) has cathode It,
anode 3, control-grid I, screen-grid 2, and out‘
put-impedance Z connected between anode 3 and
indicate e?ective value of a grid voltage, 6g, either
65 required to produce ip, or available upon‘ the
phase-shifting network when the current ip‘is
' a positive terminal of continuous voltage source
. produced ‘by separate excitation of the grid. ‘For
I I.
ternating current, designated by ip, and abscissas
Modi?cation of thermionic currents is ef
example, 36 illustrates a relationship between
fected by applying the impressed voltage of ter;
current 211 and grid voltage at for a separately
minals 15-16 directly to the screen-grid 2, 70. excited thermionic. tube with a phase-shifting
through a connection i la to source II, of positive
network connected between cathode and anode,
potential less than applied to the anode, and by
and 31 illustrates corresponding voltages avail
applying the voltage of 3Ia—35 to the control
able across the part of such network which would
‘grid I,>from a negative terminal of bias-voltage
normally-be connected to the grid when employed
source 22.v
,
.
_
75
as an oscillator, and for any particular current
2,406,082
1'8’
17
in.‘ At vbis an equilibrium point, at which the
voltage, required to produce the current ip is ex
actly equal to the voltage available for feed
back, at 2'1). For currents less than that indi
cated at p, the available voltagefor feed-back
is greater than required, and for currents greater
than indicated at p, the available voltage for
feed-back is less than reguired. Equilibrium attained in this manner in conventional types of
oscillators, commonly involves large voltage 1 o
swings, and operation employing the dottedpor
tions of the characteristic, upon which cathode
anode current is modi?ed'oy cut-off, for, portions
of a cyclerand substantial curvatures are trav
ersedupon the tube characteristics; the resultant
65 resulting from a single diode, and waves 65 and
66 resulting from double~diode recti?cation. At
ca’ is shown, an instantaneous value of such'irecti
?ed voltage.
In orderto aid in visualizing modi?cations in,
voltage effected by the voltage-control device,
with reference to employment ‘of the device as
disclosed in Figs, 16,17, and 18, and in particular
with reference to the oscillators of this invention,
wherein, a relatively vsmall percentage diode-bias
voltage can be i_employed,,-jand a relatively small
percentage of resultant recti?ed voltage can be
employed for degenerative iced-back, the follow
ing quantitative relations are noted, it being
understood that these relationsrrare notto ‘beacon
alternating currents thus containnurnerous hard
monic frequencies. Referring to Fig. 6,, there is
illustrated the eifectof certain methods hitherto
employed for constraining the equilibrium op
erating point to a' more favorable position upon 20
the'generated frequency, in‘
thercharacteristics, for example at p’, ‘by moving
previously described“
struedas any manner of limitation upon the’
employment of the, 'structuresjhe'rein described,
or‘ otherwise than to facilitate a betterunder
standing of the principles employed to stabilize
_
scillators such, as. ,
.
A.
_'
j
n
Designating the fractional part of the maxi
the- characteristics relatively away from each
other, as indicated by the arrows 36a and 37a. '
mum voltage Ea which is employed for constant
negative bias-voltage upon, the diode or diodes
For example, diodes have been used to establish
a current-created steady-voltage negative bias 25 of the voltage-controldevice by '1 /Y, then
upon a grid, increasing with increase in voltage
~
7
Eb=Ea/’YV
swings, and thus reducing the ampli?cation fac
The rectangular bias-voltage 163, Fig. 8, ‘opposing
tor of the tube, and decreasing the initial slope
the voltage ‘54, expressed in ‘terms of the well
of curve 36. Certain important disadvantages
of this method for use with frequency-stabiliza
known Fourier’s ‘series expansion ‘is:
a
'
‘
tion devices, have been previously noted herein.
It will also be noted that for positive operation,
in building up to the equilibrium current, the
available feed-back voltagemust be de?nitely
greater than the voltage required for any current
ip,» below the equilibriumcurrent; for example
in which‘t is elapsedtime, and on=2wic1?)i, n being
the order of odd harmonic, and Fn the frequency
' corresponding to ‘the with odd harmonic. The
impressed voltage-upon the diodes is:
as indicated by the marginal‘ amount u—v, at
the particular current indicated by the line 1).
' .l
Thus, some residual curvature must be retained
by this method, which is limited ,by the fact
that both‘ characteristics in the range desired,
40
i
w ‘7
~el1=Ea sinwrt
‘
4
.
'
4
1
.7
.
are substantially straight lines from ‘the same
origin, 0.
l
The resultant voltage,'<65,165 is-‘thus: '
‘
.
.
. 1 sin
n
i
'
.
andwhena fraction de?ned by 1/1) of this rc-v
Fig.‘ 7 illustrates the principles of this inven
sultant voltage is degeneratively.ccmbinedrwith
tion, applied to a thermionic oscillator, and shows .45. a vo1taee...such as 64.:the resultant voltage is:
the utilization of a virtual-origin for instantane
ous threshold-determined degenerative voltages,
for controlling the feed-back characteristic, with
out the ‘necessity of modifying ‘the dynamic char
acteristic, and without introducingthe disad
50
vantages attendant upon modification of tube
V
Sill ,wgi-I- . . . 1; Sin w‘nt>]
An estimate offt‘he ‘harmonic constituents, with
parameters. At q, is shown a virtual origin, de
particular reference to the {large "reduction in
harmonic content‘ of ‘the fcedLbac‘K voltage, when
the ratios ‘l/Y 'andl/pare small fractions, for
termined by the selective voltage of the constant
bias, negatively biassing the anode or anodes, of
the diode ‘of the voltage-control device. At 38 is
frequency stabilization "purposes, is readily ob-_
tained'bycOMPhti?on .oi the amplitude, of 'nth
harmoniclpresent ‘with the amplitude of the "'7
indicated the degenerative voltage. cg’ for any
current ia'the'resultant feed-back characteristic
being shown ‘by O—c——p’. , It will thus be seen
fundamental.‘ ‘Thus vthe ratio of amplitude of
thatby selective control of the constant negative
bias voltage upon the diodes 4-5, or 41, and by 60 with "odd ‘harmonic to fundamental amplitude is:
selective control of the amount of degenerative
feed-back voltage, the, equilibrium point p’ of the
l
n
oscillator .can be readily controlled, and the oscil
lator constrained to operate in the range of grid
voltages desired.
By ‘ this means an ordinary 65
‘feed-back characteristic, such as O-q—p, is
v
»
5
"
i1
‘
“l4
2 m/—~/+;)
‘As employed in its fullestscopa asdesc-zibed with
reference ‘to Fig. 18, for generation and control
of wave-form ofuirregular waves, the degenera
Referring to Fig. 8, and Fig. 9,’ at '64 is shown ~ tive voltage of the voltage-control device.'can be
a sinusoidal voltage .wave, the horizontal axis
equal to, or greater than, corresponding incre
modi?ed to.O-—.~q—p’—40.
'
'
being proportional to elapsed time; at .ea‘isjshown
70 ,ments .of impressed voltages, beyond. thethres
an instantaneous value of voltage, at, Ea the -
maximum value, and at 63 an opposing bias
hold value, as in characteristics D or F, respec
tively; Fig. 19, part (I) for example, illustratesat
voltage, of magnitude Eb. At 65 is shown voltage
82 degenerative voltages equal to the excess-10f
waves resulting from recti?cation of ‘a wave such
impressed voltages .80, aboveia negative bias
as ‘64, with negative bias such as ‘,63 ; the waves 7.5 voltage suchas 8!; :Itwill be evident that con.
2,406,082
19
l.
pressed‘ alternating voltages, for example between
, phase feed-back voltage means for vregulating.
coil‘8b and |57c-—l5g, Fig. 16 or Fig. 17, can be
such as to impress upon 8b greater voltages than
are present upon l5k-‘l5g.
V
1
‘
"
20'
providing oscillation-sustaining feed-back ivoltéi ,
ages,» and a fundamental-frequency quadrature‘
pling between the diode 4'! and source of im'-‘
phaseof “resultant voltage impressed upon said, I
anode-cathode circuit, of a frequency limiting
device, for limiting the wave form of the» gen
erated alternating currents to a sine-wave of said
fundamental frequency, said device having a
closed conductive circuit “comprising the series
1
V For simplicity of‘ illustration, bias-voltages
havein each instance been shown with reference‘
to a battery-‘source. It will be evident that other
, well-known source-means for negative bias can
, be- employed, for example utilization of voltage-‘ 10 connection of a constant-voltage bias means, a
drop caused by ?ow of steady-component of cath
ode-anode current through a resistance, 0on7‘
nected to a cathode,for‘ example to cathode 4.
‘thermionic-diode means having a diode-cathode }
and a diode-anoda'a coupling ,means coupled
with saidphase-shifting network, and'an impede‘
ance means capable of carrying the total current "
' Having described several‘ illustrative embodia
ments of my invention, it 'willlbe evident that 15 passing through said‘ vdiode means, comprising,
substantially pure resistance to said ‘fundamental
changes‘ can bemade in the form and arrange-_
frequency and. to harmonics of said fundamental ,
ment of parts, ‘and by ‘substitution in part of
frequency, for providing thereon synchronous
other well-known structures, without departing
fromthe spiritjof my invention, as set forth in > voltages of substantially equal phase to the oath
Q; the: appended claims,yand' I do not therefore 20 ode-anode alternating currents of saidjgenerator; ‘
and'a conductive connection from a‘gridof said
limit the'scope of the invention to such particular .
7
embodiments, or otherwise “than by the terms of , ‘thermionic tube to said cathode of saidthermé
the appended claims.
-
What is claimed is: ,7 ‘
'
'.
1
:
1. In a thermionic alternating current gener
ator, having a thermionic tube, and a phase
ionic tube including-a degenerative coupling with b
[said impedance means; a ?rst terminal‘ of said
25 coupling means being connected to said diode-‘q
anode, a second terminal ofsaidbcou'pling' means 7
shifting network with an alternating current in
‘being connected to a'negative terminal of said
put-circuit connected between a cathode of said
bias means, and the positive terminal of said bias
means being connected to saiddiode-‘cathode, for
output-circuit connected ‘to said'c‘athode through 30 negatively biasing said diode-anode from said
i , tube and an anode of said tube, and with an
a, connection of substantially zero impedance,
diode-cathode.
'
.
,
‘
V
-
"
'
back voltages, a harmonic suppressor vdevice for
4. The combination with a thermionicalter-i
‘ nating current generator, ‘having athermionic
vice comprising a constant-voltage bias means,
V and with ‘an outputecircuit connectedftoj said
, a thermionic diode means having a diode-anode
'cathode through a connection I‘ of {substantially
providingoscillation-sustaining alternating feed; '
tube, a phase-shifting, network with-an mama:
limitingthe wave form of the generated ‘alter
nating currents to, contain substantially only am 35 ing; ‘current input-circuit connected between ‘a
cathode of said tubefand an anode of said tube,
' , plitude variationspf ‘a; single, frequency, ‘said dc;
V
zero impedance, and a fundamental-frequency
and a diode-cathode; and a'coupling means cou- '
' pled with said phase-shifting network, said
' ‘means being ,seriallyconnected and _~._forming_a
feed-back means for compen
40 quadrature-voltage
sating undesired phase-shift of resultantlvoltage
.
coupling ;means being conne?zted ‘to'isaid diode
in said anode-cathode circuit, produced by-varia
tions of thermionic resistance between said cath
? anode, asecond'te'rminal of said coupling means
ode and said anode,’and by variations of resist-.
' Iclosed conductivev circuit; a ?rst terminal of said
' being connected to a-negative terminal of said 45 ance'of said network, of a frequency-limiting de
bias means, and the positive terminal of said bias
means being connected to gsaid diode-cathode,
vice for limiting wave-form of the generated al- '
ternating currents to a sine-wave of said funda
said voltage bias means negatively biasing said
mental ‘frequency, saidldevice having a" closed' '
conductive ‘circuit comprising theseries' connec-v
I diode-anode from diode-cathqde;
:7
In combination with the structure of 01am!‘
' 1,;impedance means connected in' series with said
serially connected means, carrying the total cur,-'
rentgpassing through said diode means, comprisi
tion of a constant-voltage» bias means, a1>therrn= '
' ionic diode-means having a diode-cathode and'a
ing substantially pure resistance to “said. single;
diode-anode, a coupling means coupled with said
phaseéshifting network, and an‘impedance means
carrying the total current through said ; diode
_ frequency, and to harmonic frequencies of said 55
means,’ comprising substantially pure resistance
- single frequency, for providing voltages thereon
synchronous with, and without substantial phase
monics of said frequency; a conductiveconnec
for saidfundamental frequency, and for, jhari- 3'
displacement'ifrom the‘ alternating voltages in .
said coupling, means, and’ a connectionrfromv a
tion from agrid of said thermionic tube tosaid
erative-coupling with said impedance means, for
nected to said diode-anodaa second terminal of
cathode of said thermionic tube including a def
grid-elementof said thermionic tube to said cathj 60 generative coupling with said impedance means, _
a ?rst terminal of said coupling means‘ being con
ode 'ofsaid thermionic tube, including a degen
said vcoupling means being;connected to a, nega
' tive terminal of said bias'means, and the positive
7 said oscillation-sustaining‘alternating feed-back 65 a terminal of said bias means being, connectedlto'
" voltages,,_ronly when a selectable limit of alter‘ ‘ said diode-cathode, for positively_biasing_said
natinglu current in said input-circuit hasbeen 7 diode-cathode from said diodeeanodeg‘ A}, ,
' impressing upon said grid-element said synchro
nous voltages in substantial phase opposition to
reached.
1 "
~
'
'
'
~ 3.1 Thea-combination withfa thermionic falter‘;
hating current'generator', having athermionic
tube, a phase-shifting network with an alternati
f
fcurrent input-circuit 'connectedbetween a
"cathodeljand' ananode of said tube, and‘ with an .
' "output-icirc'uit connected to said cathode'through j
a connection‘, of 1 substantially zero" impedance
l _5. 'The‘frequencycontrol system“, havin athen v'
mionic oscillator comprising a thermionic tube _ I
with 'a ‘cathodejan anode, a ?rst'controlsgri'd ad- "
jacent said cathode, and a, secondfcontrol-grid
between'said ?rst control-gridand said “an _'e
sired’ capacitive currents normally-inherent}with V
'changesof voltage between said?rst controlr-grid ' ,
2,406,082
2.1
i
and said anode, a tuned phase-shifting network
:22
V
8. In combination with the structure ofvclaim
7, a thermionic ‘tube having a cathode, an anode,
and grid meansfor controllingthermionic. cur
vrentssbetween .said cathode and said anode: av
third impedance connected between said anode
for determining the fundamental ‘frequencylof
said oscillator, having an alternating voltagein
put-circuitlconnected between said cathode and
anode, and‘an alternating voltage output-‘circuit
connected between said cathode and saids‘econd
‘and said cathode, a continuous voltage ‘source
control-grid impressing opposite-phase‘ voltages
connected with saidanode, .and the connections
upon said second control-grid relative to said ‘an
ode voltages, impedance means coupled with said
between said “grid vmeans and said cathodein
cludin'g a connectioniwithlsaid ?rst impedance
10 and a connection with v‘said second impedance,
network for conveying "therefrom quadrature
phase voltagesya conductive connection'between
controlling said thermionic currents di?erentially,
~by~alternating voltage- from said ?rst impedance
including connections with said impedance means . V and by said bias-limited alternating voltage: from
and with a bias-voltage controlmeans for con
said second impedance, [for limiting thermionic
trolling negative bias of’ said ?rst control-grid, 15 alternating currents through said third"imped—
said ?rst control-‘grid and said: cathode serially
and ‘a source of unidirectional supply voltage with
a positive terminal ‘connected to said second con?
trol-grid and to said anode, whereby undesired
extraneous detuning of said phase-shifting net
,
work‘throughcbias-voltage variation of said vca 20
pacitive currents is eliminated, and whereby de
sired-control of said frequency is effected entirely
by said quadrature-phase voltages without pre~
ampli?cation of ‘said quadrature-phase voltages.
6. In combination with the structure of claim
5, a harmonic-amplitude eliminating device ‘for
substantially eliminating amplitudes of. harmonic
‘frequencies of‘ said fundamental frequency, said
device having a closed conductive circuit compris
ing'the series connection of a constant-voltage
bias means, a thermionic diode means including
said cathode witha diode-anode, a 1 coupling»
ance.
-
l
-
-
-
,
9. A resistance-capacitance thermionic alter
nating current generator having a thermionic
tube with a cathode, an anode, and grid-control
means for controlling thermionic currents be
tween said cathode and said anode, an input-‘re
sistance connected between-said cathode and an
ode, a continuous voltage source connected to said
anode, a recurrent-section resistance-capacitance
phase-shifting network connected to said input
resistance, having :a characteristic input-imped
ance, and having the capability’ of producing a
total phase-shift ofv output alternating voltage
relative to input alternating current of 180 de
grees,'an output-impedance connected to the'out
put-end of said phase-shifting network, equal at
each vfrequency to said characteristic impedance
at said frequency, a thermionic current-limiting
means limiting alternating Icurrents in said cath
ode-anode circuit, a compensating-impedance
means coupled with said-phase-shifting network
for providing voltages of like phase with currents
through vsaid anode, and a- second impedance 35
means carrying the total current from said diode
coupled with said output-impedance, for provid
means‘, comprising substantially pure resistance
ing a component‘of alternating voltage in ‘quadran
‘for saidlfundamental and harmonic frequencies; v
tore-phase ‘with the alternating output-voltage
said circuit between said ?rst ‘control-grid and
across said output-impedance, to compensate? the
said cathode including a, coupling-with said sec 40 quadrature-‘phase component ‘of alternating volt
ond impedance means transferring to said ?rst
age in' ‘said cathode-anode circuit established by ,
control-grid oscillation opposing voltages, and
cathode-anode alternating currents through said
characteristic: impedance, and connections from
said closed conductive circuit having a ?rst ter
minal of said coupling-means connected to said
diode-anode, a second terminal of said coupling
said, grid-control means to said cathode including
4,5
means connected to a negative terminal of said
constant-voltage biasJ-means, and the positive
10. In combination ‘with the structure of claim
‘9, means for selectively controlling the generated
0 frequency of said generator, including the simul»
terminal of said constant-‘voltage bias ‘means con
nected to said cathode,>positively biasing said di
ode-cathodefrom said'diode-anode and providing
a threshold-control of said. transferred voltages.
5
nating voltages to a selectable magnitude, saidde
said alternating voltages, a thermionic regulator >
with a second diode-cathode and second diode
anode, a ,constant-voltagebias limiting means, a
taneous modi?cation of resistances ‘of said recur
connection ‘of ‘rotor-‘members’ controlling said re
vice . comprising a ?rst ‘impedance for applying
a’?rstg-diode-cathode andv ?rst diode-anode, and
V
rent-sections, said output-impedance, and said
compensating-impedance, and the mechanical
, I '7.~A, voltage limitingidevice for limiting alter
means comprising a thermionic :double-diode with
connections withsaid output-impedance and with
i said ‘compensating-impedance.
‘sistancespwl‘nereby a selective‘frequency genera
tor is provided;fhaving a high degree of frequency
stability substantially independent of variations
of thermionic resistance‘of said tube, and free
from’ substantial harmonic amplitudes of said se
lected frequency.
‘
_
" r
couplingmeans coupled with2 said ?rst impedance, 80
11. An‘electrom'c wave-form'control device, for
having a ?rst terminalconnected to said ?rst ~di
controlling-wave-form ‘of ‘alternating voltages,
ode-anodaa secondlltérminal connected to said
said device comprising an input-impedance for
second diode~anode, and a third terminal con
applying alternating voltages, a coupling-imped
nected to a negative terminal of said bias means,
ance coupled with said input-impedance, having
a second impedance connected between said first 65 a ?rst terminal, a second terminal, and a half
diode-cathode and said second diode-cathode,
impedance terminal, . a constant-voltage bias
comprising substantially pure resistance at the
means, a thermionic double-diode having a ?rst
fundamental and harmonic frequencies of said
diode-cathode and a ?rst diode-anode, and a sec
alternating voltages, and a connection from the
ond diode-cathode and second diode-anode, a’
positive terminal of said bias means to said sec 70 transfer-impedance connected between said di
ond impedance, and'a second coupling means be
ode-cathodes, comprising a ?rst resistance con
tween said ?rst and second impedances for joint
nected between said diode-cathodes, with a sec
ly applying alternating voltage from said ?rst im
ond resistance having one terminal thereof con
pedance and bias-limited alternating voltage from
nected to said ?rst diode-cathode through a ?rst
said second impedance.
75 condenser, and having the other terminal ‘there
24
'
combining means including a commonconductive
V 1' ofyiicon'nected to ' ‘said; vsecond»;diode-cathodeI
through a'second condenser,‘said ?rst and sec
connection gebetween' said inputeimpedance and
ond condensers havingiin?nitesimal impedance in 1 -
said-transfer-impedance.
V.
,
,
;
i
t
-
;
, 15. In combination with theistructurefof claim
relation to said ?rst and-second resistances; said‘1
?rst terminal of, said coupling-impedance being 5' »5, a diode-modulator device-for modulating‘the
amplitudes of, the cathode-‘anode alternating, cur
3 connected to said ?rst diode-anode, said-second
‘ terminal'of saidcoupling-impedance beingcon-w , rents, said device havinga ‘closed conductivecir-r
cuit'serially including aisecond bias-voltage con
' nected to-said second di0de-anode,,a connection
trol means,..a transfereimpedance, a thermionic
l0 diode with‘ a diode-cathode and a diode-anode;
‘and a coupling means coupling said closed circuit
nal, a connection'from thetpositive terminal of ,
with said phase-shifting network, said- second bias
saidiconstanto-voltage bias. means to the half-re
, ,sistance point upon said ?rst resistance, and cir,-, ' control means controlling the amount of negative
from a negative terminal “upon said constant
voltage bias means to said half-impedancetermi
cuit connections, including-a connection between
saidsecond resistance. and said input-impedance,
bias of said diode-anode from saiddiode-cathode,
(l5 and saidconductive connection including a'ieir- ,
jointly applying voltages from said second resist-v
ance and from said input-impedance.‘
> 12. In combination with the structure of claim;
11, a ; thermionic f alternating, current generator
having a thermionic tube with a grid-control ele
cuit through said transfer-impedance, for thresh
‘~ old control of feedback-voltages of oppositeiphase .7
tosaid cathode-anode alternating currents.
16;,‘The :combination with a thermionic ,ampli- 7,
20 ?er of a current-limiting device for limitingithe ‘
amplitudes of ‘cathode-anode alternating ,cur
ment, and having a phase-shifting network ,.in-‘
rents, .' said ampli?er having a thermionic tube
with alicathode, an anode, and a grid for con
cluding said input-impedance, said'circuit con
nections including a connection: with said 'grid-‘
control element.
1
13. In combination with the structure of claim‘
trolling thermionic currents between said anode
25, and said; cathode, a conductiveinputeimpedance
connected between said gridand said cathode, and
an outputrimpedance connected betweensaid an
ode and said cathode, ‘said, current-limiting de
11, a thermionic alternating current generator
having a ?rst thermionic tube'withgrid-control
means, and with a phase-shifting network," and a
second thermionic tube with, grid-control means,
vice comprising, a closed conductive circuit se
said phase-shifting network including said'input 50 rially including a diodeéanode with said cathode,
a constant bias-voltage. source, a transfer-imped
impedance, said circuit connections including con;
-
,nections with the grid-control means of said ?rst
thermionic tube ;, and‘. connections ‘with the grid
ance, and a coupling meanscoupledwith said out- 7
put-impedance, said bias-voltage negatively bias; 7
ing means having a ?rst diode-anode, a-second
transferdmpedance, and a‘- coupling' means for,
said diode-anode'fromtsaid ‘cathode, and a
control means, of said second thermionic tube, in-, 35 ing
second coupling means coupled with said trans
cluding connections with said phase-shifting net
fer-impedance, connected in series with‘said in
work and with said second resistance, whereby
put-impedance between said grid and said cathj
stabilized-frequency , voltages are ' produced, and
ode,
for transferring alternating voltages from '
thewave-form of said'voltages controlled. : _
“said transfer-impedance, to .saidgrid.
,
v <
14. A control-device for controlling the magni
1 tudeand form of electrical impulses, said device 40 17. A, control-device for controlling the magni- I. '
tude and shape, of cathode-anode current im
having an input-impedance for applying said im-‘
pulses, in a thermionic tube having a cathode, an
pulses, a thermionic regulator means, and anim-j
anode, and, a grid for controlling thermionic cur
,pulse combining means, said regulator meansin
rents between saidanode and» said cathode, said '
eluding a transfer-impedance having a ?rst 'tere
' minal, ahsecond terminaLja resistance ' intercon ‘45' control-device having a conductive input-imped
ance for applying Voltageimpulses, a-thermionic'
necting said terminals, and a third terminal at
voltage-regulator comprising a closed conductive the half-resistance point upon'said resistance,.'a
series‘ circuit ‘every part of which is, conductive,
voltage bias means having one» terminal connected
said; circuit having the series, connection ofacon
to said third terminal, a‘ ?rst conductive circuit
from the other terminal of said bias means‘ to "5o'stant bias-voltage means” :a- thermionic diode,
means with a diode-anodeand'jdiode-cathode, a
said ?rst terminal including a ?rst diode- rectify+
coupling said diode means ‘with saidinput-imped-J:
conductivecircuit from saidiother terminal of said
ance,said<bias-voltage means beingconnected to
bias means .to said second terminalrincludinga
second diode rectifying means havinga second di; 5.5 negatively biassaid diode-anode from saididiode
,ode-anodef'said ?rst conductive circuit'including a V cathode;
said grid and
to said
conductivecircuit
cathode including
connections,
a conductivev
from’
?rst coupling-impedance coupled withsaidinput
impedance, saidsecond conductive-circuit includ
ing a second coupling-impedancecoupled with
' said input-impedance, and said bias means apply
ing negative potential-to said diode-anodes» for
biasing said rectifying means,;andsaid impulse
circuit through/said inputeimp'edanceiand" said
, transfer-impedance in series, for jointlyapplying
60 to said grid the impulse-voltagesupon saidiinput;
impedance and upo'nsaid transfer-impedance;
P
T
'
I
: ‘ EDWARD H. LANGE.
'
V
,
‘
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