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Патент USA US2406083

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Aug.V 20, 1946.
' 2,406,083
Original Filed July` 10,- 1943
2 lSheets-Sheet l l
Aug. 20,1946.
2,406,083 >
original Filed July 1o, »1943
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Patented Aug.2o,1946 `
2,406,083 f
[a ` _UNITED f STAT-Es PATENT l-orricl-:f
_, `fraANsMission
Y’ Robert Lap'sl'ey,Berrien Springs, Michi., assignor
Clark- Equipment Company, Buchanan,
Mich., a corporation of Michigan
'original'applimitimi` July ro, '1943,'seria1 No.
e ‘l Ãi_,94,_439. Divided and this application February
23, 1944, SerialNo. 523,773
5 Claims;
íngpre-selection of vforward or reverse drive with
out possibility ofY gear clashing or the necessity of
overcoming the idling torque imposed on the gear
This invention relates to transmissions, and
more particularly is concerned with a fluid torque
converter for anv automatically controlled trans
mission arranged to be operated as a fluid'cou
pling under certain conditions. ‘
The present application. is a 'division` of my
copending application Seriali No; 494,439, filed
July 10, 1943;
, ’
The `present invention is directed particularly
` *Other objects and advantages of the present
invention Will appear more fully from the follow
ing' 4detail Vvdescription Which, taken Ain ycon
`junction with the accompanying drawings,V will
-disclose to those skilled in the art the particular
to a'transmission employing the combination of a 10 construction and operation of a'v’pre'ferred form "
of the present invention.
fluid torque convertor and a change speed gear
arrangement,-the torque convertor> providing in
finitely variable torque multiplication in the vary
ing gear ratios provided by the change‘speed gear
ning. In addition the >torquevconvertor itself >is
v capable of beingshifted into position t'o 'function
as a fluid coupling under certain conditions, this
shifti'being effected automatically in accordance
with speed and` power requirements of the engine.
One of the primary objects ofr the present in
vention is to provide a powertransmitting«device
consisting of a fluidY driver which lWill operateY as
vIn the drawings: y
Figure 1 is a sectional View through one form of
the transmission showing in detail the ñuid unit
and shift brake mechanism; and
~ Figure¿2"is 'a sectional View corresponding to
' Figure- lîo'f‘afïr'nodiiied form of construction. ’
vReferringY >'now in detail to Figure lythe crank
‘shaft 40 of the engine is connected through studs
4|Íto`a`fly-wheel spider 42 carrying the starting
ring gear 43 and alsojhaving bolted thereto as by
va iluid torque multiplier or fluid clutch in -accord
ance With the> control of the shiftmeanswvhich
shift means is automatically controlledat' 'any
‘means-’of studs 44 the driving or impeller 'meme
ber 45'» of the fluid torque'converter. The impeller
45'7is provided with aY series of fluid inlets 46
through'which oil is forced under pressure into
the" interior` of the impeller; lThe hub-‘portion
In addition to . this the fluid drive
. construction
r 41 of the- impeller is provided With the seal means
is provided with means operative when the en`
gine is idling for braking the drive shaft either
,tov a stop
'so asorto
in a reversethereby
V'allowing gear changes to beveífecte'd without re
striction or clash.
, Another object of'the present invention ,is to. »_
>provide a fluid unit control which isautomatically :
. operable infaccordance with power requirements
_of the engine forlocllzin'g-,thel fluid? turbine and
reaction membersf _together'ïrtol prevent `torque
»multiplication andto produce in effect ra' twf‘ifele“-`
i `ment fluidl clutch Whichupon movemeritï of the
«automatic control means'intheopporsite "direction,`
Will- operate> a shift brake’ so as'to stop rotation of
the. drive _shaft .and rotate it rearwardly to allow
--change speedshifts _to be lmade without 'restric- n
In a preferrediorm off-'theîjinvention there `is
providedza Vfluid `torque convertor which ¿ hasA
means ‘ for` changing `Vthe torque; convertor.. to> a
ñuid coupling and Alocking the turbine and reac
tion members for conjoint-rç'itation.V ‘ Thismeans
_is automatically controlled through ‘a remotely
vdisposed control unit.’> In addition the transmis-`
sion is'- provided with shift brake -means which
hcontrols the driven shaftfto hold it against -en- i
gìnetorque when the convertor is idling for. allow'- ’
48 sealing‘against the flar’igev 49v of a bushing', 50
bolted or otherwise suitably securedas at 52, to
a partition Wall 53 of the fluid housing 6. The con;
trol "unit for the'fluid housing‘is'carried in the
housing member l,- and there is provided a pas
sageway or iluid duct 54 connected by any suit
able?means to a source of fluid pressure,y whereby
' oil'llows through the duct 54 and thence through
passageways 55 intermediate the studs 52 into
the rspace 56 disposed within the hub portion of
the impeller 45.
' `
The turbine or driven member 5l of the torque
converter has sealing engagement with the an»
nularrshoulder ` 5B ofthe spider 42, and? also
is" provided Vwith theV hubportion 59 rivetèd‘as
'at‘EO toia sleeve member 62 splined on> the driven "
ïshaft 63 ofthe fluidV unit; The shaft'63 isrpref
erably hollow for at least a' portion of its length,
and has the reduced end 64 journalled by the
Abearings 65 in la suitable’ pilot recess inthe hub
portion of the spider 42.
The turbine 51`is pref . ,
vented from movement to the left onv the Asplines
E3 b'y means of the lock nut'66 »threaded on vthe
shaft.v The oppositeeend of the sleeve 62 forms a
stop for the bearing4 assembly 61 upon which
‘is mounted the stator or reactionv member 68v of
the -iluidftorque converter, this stator member `
`having bolted thereto as by' meansiof studs 69
a sleeve member “HJ having’an extended inwardly
gears in the transmission to-select either forward
speed or reverse drive by manual selection from
flanged Vhub portion 12 provided with ratchet
the steering wheel. It will be noted that there
is a resilient lost-motion connection between the
brake lill and sleeve `93, which provides a semi-V
The teeth 13 are adapted to engage correspond
ing ratchet teeth 14 splined on housing 50 as by
means of helical splines. Oil holes 15 provide for
Aself-energizing action for the'braliefsoA that once '
now of lubricating oil to‘this portion of the unit.
it engages, Vthe tendency is tothread the sleeve '
The Vmember carrying the teeth 14 is provided
, 93 outwardly'therefrom, but since the pedal'is
with a tapered yexternal ,surfaceV 16 adapted tc;-` ‘,_îbeing depressed, the sleevev will actuallyîfe?fectV
be engaged .by a plurality of spring pressedballs Y
4slight reverse vrotationv of the shaft 6,3. This par
- 19 carried by circumferentially spaced arm'sfßllVH ticular-brake construction >is shown more clearlyl
carried by a ring member 82 bolted to the statorV
¿and- described in .more detailin my copending
`68. Whenever the stator ,tends-"to rotate >'rear ’ gapplication;
Serial "No, 480,714, ñled March 26,
_-wardly, the pressure of the balls on thegtapered ` '
surface feeds the splined memberr14 inwardly ,
to engage the ratchet teeth with ’teeth` 13, lock-.
ing the sta-tor against reverse rotation. ’However
rotation of the stator 68 conjointly with the turV
bine 51 causes a reverse action, tending .to-move' `
the teeth 14v out of engagement with the teeth
13 to allow free forward rotation with the stator.
The housing 1is piloted in‘and securely bolted
to the fluid unit housing 6 as by means »of the
_studs 83, there being a suitable inspection open
ing 84 provided in the bottom of this housing: '
Theinwardly directed> flange 53 _of thehousing
,1 has bolted thereto- _thenmember ¿5| which car
ries the brake'drum 85 having a suitable-oil‘re
Ytaining flange 86 pressedv thereover.H A suitable
sealv 81 isV provided between-the" -hub- 88 _ofthe
n1943,'-and need 'notbe described in detail herein.
The pin 95 carried'by the sleeve 93 has free
" movement within'the'slot 94 Vof shaft 63 to facili
f-tatebperation' of the brake., This movement is
"alson provided in order tov facilitate operation of
the'cIutching means'by which the torque con
verter is changed to a fluid coupling, withoutin
terferingv with the brake operation.
y p y
j :`
- In. converting Vthe torque multiplier to affluid
couplinggshifting ofthe sleeve 1S13-¿to the-’right
causes' the ~pin 95 to' moveu to thefright; :thereby
exerting a pull. on ,rod ~91’within vshaftl53.Y ¿The-op
Y -posite end of rod 91j is provided with detentm'em
bers ||0`er1gaging infsuitable recesses-'in the hub
portion of a clutch gear Hlcnsplined Íon-sh’aftí613.
lThe clutch gear I_ll- 'is provided with‘external '
clutch ‘teeth’ ||2 -adaptedfto have'clutchin‘g en
member 5I and the shouldered portion l8_9' of Y
with the teeth l|3 carried bythe'fhub` Y
the shaft 63 to prevent the escape of fluid _from ' of the member
the torque converter Vunit into the-housing, 1.
Y Consequently, upon being pulledfto'the fright,
'I'he annular sea-l ring 90 forming ïapartof this
seal also functions Vas a stop for Ythehelically 35 `theçrod V_93causes the clutch memberE H l :to'emove
coiled spring 92,;which is biased _between'jthe
»into clutchingengagement with tlieîmemberi’lûgp.
locking the stator 68 to' the Yshaft 63 ‘for conjoint -
ring 90 and the/recessed part of a sleeve 93 splined '
rotation‘therewith.-- Since` thev turbine 51 vis `also
for axial sliding movement 0n theV shaft 63.' «The
tothe shaft~ E3, it'will'bei’obviouslth‘atfthe
shaft 63 adjacent this point is provided with an
elongated slot 94 through which extends a pin.95, " Ytwo, elements of the converter»will"be> coupled `for j
this pin being-secured in the sleeve 93fand¿en1-"
gaging ina suitable slotV 96'formed ina sliding
conjoint rotation, thereby changingfithe A:torque
converter to a fluid coupling.- The' shaft 63 lis'ï'prœ`
Y pull rod `91 disposed within-the borerof- the shaft Y Y» vided withV an elongated. sl‘otîljldtto accommodate
this movement of 'the clutch îmleînber. Thejslot I96
63. » The pull rodV |51> is arranged to normally
be Ypressed t0 the leftbythe spring 98 bearing at 45 `in'pullrodlll allowsoperation of the brakeïme'ch
anismv I 9| without in «any wayaffecting the/'clutch
one end Yagainst the >hase of the -bore'in the shaftv
member, since this movement is in the opposite`
63, and -at the opposite end against the head end
portion 9,9 of 'the'pull rod. , The sleeve V93 is pro.
vided with a helicallysplined external portion |90
direction or to the left, and clearance Vis'provided Y
for this purpose._`rPreferably, a suitahlèoil> seal ~
upon' which is ¿- mounted the . 'correspondingly 50 to
H5 is leakage'of
interposed oil>
in rearwardly'through
the'bore of th'eïsh'aftfBB
this ¿
splined hub portion of a brake member 10| adapt;
ed to engage the-*brake surface85. 'I‘his Ymem-V
bore'.M ‘The spring 98, as will be noted; urges >the
pull 4rodl'91 tothe left, .and normally
ïtbf- f
maintain the clutch disengaged!
ï’shìftin'g 'Y
means of the spring |04, which spring is biased-f" 'Y forceis applied to the yoke |68. f `unless
f , Y.
ber is normally pressed against aY stop ringV |93 by '
at its opposite end against the‘ring M15-‘car 55.
„ j Consideringnow the‘disclosureV ofßlï‘igure~ 2, it ‘
ried onthe- sleeve 93 and» forming onestop/„for
a bearing assembly» |06,` the oppositeside of I_the Y ‘will be noted that inmany respects the construc'- ’l '
bearing being held against axial movementrby
tion shown is ‘similar
reference ,numerals
in Figurel,
are Y «. '
thegring _101. ., TheV bearing |06 is providedewithV
._ applied*to‘corresponding'parts. >In this-¿construc- anannular yoke or lcollar lllßadapted to been 60
gaged by a suitable shift mechanismroperated . and
tionY which
is the' showing óf the tbrque converterV
shifting l.'
Vby theY foot brake. Depression of the brake'pedal f while'ithe'en'g'ine is’idling,'-it 'willj’be'no'tedi that '
(not shown). moves the Ybearing assembly, and
'l several modifications ‘are made `over¿the` ‘construc
consequently Vthe ¿sleeve 93 to theleft, as viewed
in -Fîigulie
11. causing .the brake IDI îto ìengagefv 65 -tion shown yin'li‘igure i1 in providing’a slightly,I
' the bij-alge _drum v8_5. „ Initial engagement therebe
tween; providesrafthreading action, rtending Yto
rotate-_ the `sleeve‘93jn adirection opposite to .-the
normalrotation_,ofr'shaft 63 so that .the applica
tionï-ofg'thisbrake will stop the 'rotation of >fthe
shaft when-the :torque converter,` is idling,. and,
, V_upon-furtlçier'jactuation ofthe pedal,_will.cause
. ¿the sleeve v_9_3 ¿to'effeçt throughftheY ¿threading
.10E Q1? theshaft ta facilitate s_hiftinspof .the -
Y 'modified form of brake-constructionforïchanging`4 '
the torque Íconverter` to a fluid. Coup-ling Y v „;
. In this connection ic'çshcum Vbe'raced-[that .the
Vteeth H3? on the clutch‘member 12V arédispò'sed
adjacent che bearings s1, while »the teeth' cli-rnc
'shifting' pinion | I I’ are disposed in’` the -space-:bé
tween the teeth |l| 3»’»and the ratchet teetl`1l13-L1ll,Y
which latter teeth act-as a one-way' clutch‘forïthef
Vstator or reaction member. These teeth >are indi-v
V»cated at ||2’ and, upon movement of tha-shifting
mechanism to; theleftas. shown in .¿Fig;f:2;~,1;arîe Í Y
i ~
adapted to mesh with the teeth ||3’ to lock the
stator 68 for conjoint rotation with shaft 63 and
consequently with the turbine or -driven member
51. It will be noted that the pinion I I I’ is‘splined
on the shaft 63 for »conjoint rotation therewith,
and -is »controlled by the pin HD' car-ried in the
sleeve |86, which in turnfis -pressed `into the slidn
ing plunger |-82 mounted in the counterbored por- _
tion of the shaft |63. A suitable spring |83 Anor
mally urges the plunger |82 to the right, holding "
the teeth H2’ and ~|*|-3' out of engagement. A
suitable pin |84 holds the lock pin H0' in posi
tion, and is threaded into the outer end of the
plunger |82. 'I‘he plunger |82 has bearing against
a spacer member |85 which in turn seats at the
lower end of the bore of the shaft 63 against a
stop member |86.
for `changing the torque «converter to a fluid
It is therefore believed apparent that I have
provided a novel `type .of mechanism .for auto
matically coupling> the -rotor and `driven* `elements
of the torque :converter for conjoint .rotation
underY certain conditions to produce a fluid cou
pling mechanism operating as ya torque converter
when these »two elements are not clutched to'
I am aware that -v-arious changes may be .made
in certain details of design disclosed in the in
stant application, and I therefore do not intend
to be limited except as defined by the scope and
spirit of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a transmission, a housingY containing a
When the plunger |82 is moved to the left, the
fluid unit and a transmission, said unit including '
pin | I0’ carries the clutch teeth into engagement.
an impeller', ay stator free to turn in a forward
This movement is eifected by the rod |81 located 20 direction, and a turbine, a shaft driven by said
within the shaft 63 and carrying a radially ex
turbine, a sliding hub adjacent said stator and
tending pin |88, which in turn engages a sleeve
having ratchet teeth, said hub having helically
|89 carried on the splines |98 formed on a shoul
splined engagement in said housing, means car
dered portion of the shaft 63. The sleeve |39 is
ried by said stator including ratchet teeth, and
shiftable to the left by means of a suitable shift
means carried by said stator engaging said hub
member engaging the collar |92 carried by the
and operable upon reverse rotation of said stator
bearing assembly |93. Movement of this shift , -for engaging said ratchet teeth to prevent said
mechanism results in clutching of the teeth H2’
and H3’ together. Upon movement of the> shift
2. Means for clutching the stator of a torque
mechanism in the opposite direction, the spring 30 Aconverter to the driven shaft of said converter,
|83 produces disengagement of the clutch teeth7
. comprising a first clutch member secured to the
releasing the stator 68 so that it can become
hub of said stator, a Vsecond clutch member
locked against the sleeve carried on the splined
splined to and slidable axially on said shaft with
portion of the flange member 49 secured to the
inthe hub of said stator, an actuator including
housing, thereby locking the stator against re 35 a first plunger slidable axially within said shaft,
verse rotation.
f a longitudinal slot in said shaft adjacent the hub
'I‘he ñuid for the torque converter is introduced
of said stator, a second plunger in said shaft in
through the passageway 51| and thence through
endwise abutment with said ñrst plunger and
passageways |94, which alternate with the bolts
having radially projecting means movable in said
or studs 52 to introduce the fluid into the cham 40 slot for shifting said second clutch member into
ber 56 from whence it ñows into the interior of
and out of engagement with said ñrst clutch
the converter.
The sleeve |89 is provided externally with the
helically splined portion |95 upon which is mount
ed the Ibrake spider |96. This spider has a brake
surface |91 adapted to engage the internal brak
ing surface of the drum |98, which is secured to
the end wall of the converter housing as by means
of studs |99. A suitable oil retaining member 209
is pressed over the drum |98 to retain oil on the
braking surfaces,« as described previously. The
brake member |96 is normally urged against the
stop 20| carried by the splines |95 by means of a
spring '292, and when the brake drum is engaged
and the spider |96 tends to stop rotating, further
movement of the shifting mechanism causes the
sleeve to be threaded through the hub of the
spider on the helical splines, thereby causing
slight reverse rotation of shaft 63 to facilitate
shifting of the gears in the transmission,
It is to be understood that any suitable type of
change speed transmission employing two or more
gear ratios may be driven by the shaft 63 or the
shaft |21, it being understood that normally a
pinion on the outer end of this shaft will be em
ployed for transmitting the driving torque of the
shaft into the transmission gears.>
In the normal use of the construction shown
in Figures-l and 2 there is provided a control
unit which is responsive jointly to the speed and
engine load conditions of the vehicle. This unit
is preferably of the type disclosed in my copend
ing parent application referred to above, al
though any similar control mechanism may be
employed to provide the shifting effects required
y member, spring means normally holding said sec
ond plunger in inoperative position and means
at the remote end of said first plunger for mov
ing it against said spring means to shift said
second plunger into operative position.
" 3. Means for controlling the stator of a torque
converter to v.lock it against reverse rotation rela
tive to an impeller member comprising a station
ary element having an axially shiftable member
in helically splined engagement therewith, a ta
pered surface on said member and a ratchet tooth
portion on the end face thereof, said statorrhav
ing a coacting ratchet tooth surface and having
an extension overlying said tapered surface, and
ball means carried by said extension and bearing
on said tapered surface whereby upon rotation
of said stator in reverse direction said axially
shiftable member is moved axially on its splines
into position to provide locking engagement be
tween said ratchet tooth portions for locking said
stator to said stationary element.
4. Means for controlling the stator of a torque
converter to lock it against reverse rotation rela?
tive to an impeller comprising a stationaryV ele
ment having an axially shiftable member in heli
cally splined engagement therewith, and located
adjacent the hub of said stator, c__oactingone
way clutch means on said member and on the
hub of said stator,‘an annular tapered surface
on said member, and an extension on said hub
stator overlying said surface and having Y ball
means in pressure engagement with said surface
whereby upon rotation of said stator in -a reverse
direction said ball means threads said kshiftable
member axially. toward said hub to engage said
clutch means for locking said stator to said sta
5. Means forclutching thestator of a torque
converter to the driven shaft thereof comprising
a first clutch element secured to the hub of said
' stator, a second clutch element splined for axial
able in the other of said bores and having means
limiting its movement .in one direction, spring _
means normally urging said-'second plunger in
said one direction„and radial means carried luy>
said second plunger engaging said second clutch
element for shifting said second clutch element
into 'clutching engagement upon movement of
first plunger against the end of said second ,
movement on said shaft, said shaft having axiallyv Y said
plunger in a direction to compress said'spring '
'extending bores of different diameters, 'a ñrst
,plunger shiftable in one of said bores from a 10 means.
remotely disposed point, a second plunger shift-`
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