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Патент USA US2406100

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Aug. 20, 1946.
"R. PLPE‘SCARA
I
2,406,100
CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION
‘Filed April 6, 1944
l
III
2
21
J76
- 2.5’ B0’ 5' v.
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INVENTOR
Raal'ikz‘emy?escara
av
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Patented Aug. 202 1946
,
.
2,406,100 - '
UNITED" STATES PATENT OFFICE’
Raul Pateras Pescara, Lisbon, Portugal
Application April 6, 1944, Serial No. 529,829
In France August 6, 1943
(01. 309—2)
14 Claims.
1
2
.
My invention relates to the cylinders of op
posed piston engines, i. e; of engines comprising
one or several pairs of pistons slidable in opposed
relation within one and the same cylinder for
each pair, and it refers more particularly to the 5
cylinders of free-piston engines, which have to
withstand very high pressures.
In such engines, it is known to make the cylin
der in three parts, viz. a central member forming
part of vthe combustion chamber of the engine
and made of a suitable material to withstand
high temperatures and pressures, and two lateral
members in co-axial relation with the said cen
formed by annular partitions II, I2, for instance
circular, supported by members I and 2, such
partitions being tightly jointed, as shown at I3
in'Fig. 2, with an outer tubular casing I4. Joints
tral member, such lateral members housing the
pistons and being so disposed as to ensure a satis
for this purpose; Member I may be made rela
tively thick to‘ withstand the high pressures
which take place within the combustion cham
ber, while members 2 and 3 are thinner inorder
to facilitate cooling. Ports ‘I are provided in
member 2 While ports are provided in member'3.
Cooling jackets 8 a d. 9 are preferably disposed,
as shown, at the outer ends of members 2 and 3,
corresponding to the outer dead points of pistons
4 and 5, while the intermediate jacket I0 is
15 I3 may be made of rubber, for instance.‘ Jacket
factory mechanical and thermic working (with
Iii, thus ‘formed, may be ?lled with cooling liquid
respect to friction and cooling) .,
and it may communicate with jackets 8 and 9‘for
liquid circulation purposes.
I
.
My invention has for its object :to" provide.
On the inlet side of cylinder I, 2, 3, partition
means whereby in such cylinders the lateral
members may be assembled with the central 20 II is disposed between inlet ports 5 and. the inner
end of member 2. On the outlet side, partition
member and it consists primarily in so arranging
I2 is also arranged between outlet ports ‘I and
such means that they give rise to a radial inward
the inner end of member ,3, but there is preferably
pressure on the inner ends of the lateral mem
provided another partition I5 on the other side
bers, thus acting on said ends as a shrunk ring,
' of ports ‘I, the space comprised between parti
at least when the cylinder parts are at their nor
tions I2 and I5 being closed at its periphery to
mal operative temperatures.
'
In the annexed drawing:
}
Fig.v 1 is a longitudinal diagrammatical section
of an engine provided with a, cylinder established
in accordance with my invention,‘ f
Figs. 2 to 4 are partialviews to an enlarged
scale showing in section three embodiments of
my invention.
‘
'
In Fig. l, the engine shown is a free-piston
engine of the opposed'piston type. It comprises i
a cylinder made of three parts I, 2 ‘and 3, and a
pair of pistons 4 and 5 operating therein. This
cylinder is provided .with inlet ports 6 and ex
haust ports ‘I, and with cooling-jackets 8, 9 and
I0. The engine also comprises means to ensure
the return stroke of the pistons, means to syn
chronise their motion and means to inject fuel
in the space comprised between them when they
are at their inner dead point or in in the-vicinity
thereof. Such arrangements are well-knownin
engines of this kind and need not be described
here, since they form no part of this invention.
The central member I of cylinder I, 2,3 is ring
shaped and is adapted to. form the combustion .
chamber of the engine, or at least the major part
thereof. It may be made of steel, for instance.
The lateral members 2 and 3 are disposed each
sideof member I and in co-axial relation there
with. They are adapted to receive the pistons
form an exhaust gas collector I6.
'
'
.
rIfhe outer contour of cylinder I, 2, 3 (i. e. the
outer diameter of partitions II, I2 and I5) is such
that the cylinder as a whole may be slid into cas-'
ing I4 wherein it is ?xed by any appropriate
means not shown.
'
Members I, 2 and 3 are assembled together by
means ensuring axial pressure of members 2 and
3 against member I, ‘such means being such that
they also ensure radial inward pressure on the
inner ends of members 2 and 3, at least when the
parts are at their normal operative temperature
corresponding to normal engine operation,
This may be obtained,.for instance, by means
‘of appropriate’ conical surfaces, as shown in Fig.
4, provided‘ on the ends of members I‘, 2 and 3,
suchisurfaces being so disposed that the‘ axial
pressure (obtained by'bolts, for instance) gives
rise to a radial inward pressure on the ends of
members 2 and 3.
’
In the construction shown in Fig. 2, members
2 and I abutlagainst each other through plane
surfaces transverse with respect to the cylinder
axis and they,‘ are assembled by means of a crown
I‘! which is pressed towards member I by means
of nuts I8, such crown acting on a shoulder 20a
of a collar 20 formed at theyend of member 2.
Crown I'I is'made of a material having alow
4 and 5 and are made of an appropriate metal 5"‘ coefficient of expansion audit is arranged'to' ?t
2,406,100
3
I
.
4
means to press said crowns towards said central
radially on member 2 on which it'thus acts as a
shrunk ring when the temperature rises. For
this purpose, it isv provided on its inner surface
member.
»
.
'
.4. A cylinder as claimed in claim 3, wherein
with recesses I9 forming passages for the cooling
v?uid between said ring and the outer surface of
said crowns are made of a material having ‘a lower
Ring 2| is cut into two halves; it is rectangu
lar in cross-section and ?ts without play in the
coefficient of thermal expansion than said lateral
members.
5. A cylinder for an opposed-piston engine,
comprising in combination a central annular
member adapted to form part of the engine com
bustion chamber, two tubular lateral members co~v
annular space provided on the one hand between I I _
axial with said central member and disposed each
member 2. And crown I‘! preferably acts on the
end collar 20 formed on member 2 through an
intermediate ring 2 I, as shown.
'
' ‘
.
side thereof, said lateral members having collars
formed at their inner ends; 'two split rings
respectively, and on the other hand between the
adaptedto be passed over said collars and to ?t
cylindrical surfaces Nb and 20b of said crown I‘!
and collar 20 respectively. Ring 2! thus trans 15 radially respectively on one end and the other of
said lateral members in the vicinity of the inner
' mits to collar 20 the axial pressure exerted by
ends thereof but behind said collars with respect
nuts I8 and also the radial inward pressure re--,
sulting from the lower expansion of crown I i
to said central member, and to abut axially
when the cylinder is hot. And when ring 2I is
against said collars, each of said split rings hav
removed after nuts I8 have been removed, crown = ing an’ outer diameter larger than the outer di
ameter of the corresponding collar; two crowns
I‘! can be withdrawn, since its inner diameter is
‘adapted to ?t radially on one and the other of
larger than the outer diameter of collar 20.
said split rings to press same radially against said
The outer diameter of crown I‘Ifis such that
it does not prevent the cylinder I, 2, 3 from being
lateral members, said crowns being shouldered in
slid into casing I4.
‘ ‘
wardly, the shoulder having an inner diameter
In the modi?ed construction shown in Fig. 3,
larger than vthe outer diameter of thecorrespond
the liquid passages I9 are provided in collar 23
ing collar, but smaller than the outer diameter of
shoulders Na and 20a of crown I‘! and collar 2!!
instead of being cut in crown I1.
.
the corresponding split ring and being so disposed ,
as to abut axially against said split ring .to press‘ '
a I
In the construction shown in Fig. 4, members
2 and I abut. against each other through a conical ~
same towards said central member; and means to
surface 22, the apex of the cone being disposed
towards member I." Ring ZI is wedge-shaped and
it bears against collar 20 through an oblique or
conical surface 23., the apex of the‘cone being
situated towards. the outer end of member 2. It
press said crowns towards‘ said centralmemberl
6. A cylinder as claimed in claim 5,, wherein
said crowns are made of a material having a lower
coefficient of thermal expansion than said lateral
members.
will readily be understood that the tightening of
‘
r
.
.
’
7. A cylinder as claimed in Claim 5, wherein re
nuts I8 gives rise to a radial inward pressure on
cesses are provided in said crowns to formcool
collar 2B,‘even in the cold state, such pressure in
creasing- when the cylinder reaches its operative
wing ?uid passages between said crowns and said
temperature.
8. A cylinder as claimed in claim 5, whereinvre
cesses are provided in said lateral members. to
form cooling ?uid passages between said split
With any of the above-described arrangements,
the inner ends of the lateral members 2 and 3
are ?rmly maintained against the action of high‘
pressures or of. thermal expansion.
'
I
claim:
split
_'
'
'
.i
r ' 1. A ‘ cylinder for an" opposed-piston engin
rings.
'
1'
rings and said lateral‘ members.
V
I
~
‘
.
.
9. A cylinder for an epposed~piston engine,
-' comprising in combination a central annular
member adapted to form part of the engine com
comprising in combination a central annular
member adapted to form part of the engine com
each side thereof; and means to. press axially said
bustion chamber, said central member having in
wardly conical end faces; two tubular lateral
members‘ co-axial with said central member and
disposed each side- thereof,; said‘lateral members
having collars formed at their inner’ ends,‘ and
lateral members against said central member and
each of. said collars having an inner end‘and an
bustion chamber; two- tubular lateral members
co-axial with said central member and disposed 50
to exert a radial inward pressure on the inner
ends of said lateral members under operative con
ditions'
'
‘
2. A cylinder forv an opposed-piston engine,
comprising in combination a central annular
member having inward conical end faces, said
central member being adapted to form part of
. the engine combustion chamber; two tubular lat
eral members co-axial with said central member
and disposed each side thereof,- said lateral mem
bers having outward conical end faces corre
sponding to and in'contact with said inward coni
outer outwardly conical end face, the outeronecf
said outwardly conical end faces being adapted to
?t into the correspondinginwardlyconical end
face‘ of said’ central member; two'split ‘rings
adapted to be passed‘ over said collars, each of said
7
split rings having an inwardly conical face
adapted to ?t on the ‘outer outwardly conical end
60 face of the corresponding collar, and each of said
split rings having an outer diameter larger'than
theouter diameter of the corresponding collar;
two crowns adapted to ?t radially on one and ‘the .
otherof said split rings to maintain same radially
cal faces; and means to press axially said lateral 65
against opening, said crowns being shouldered’ in
members against said central member.
wardly,
the shoulder having an inner diameter
3. A cylinder for, an opposed-piston engine,
larger than the outer diameter of the correspond‘
comprising in combination a central annular
ing collar, but smaller than ‘the outer diameter of
member adapted to form part of the engine com
bustion chamber-y two tubular lateral members 70 the ccrrespondine split ring and, being-.soidisnosed
as to abut axially against said split ring‘to‘press
co-axial with said central member and disposed
same towards said central member; and means to
each side thereof, ‘said lateral members having
press said crowns towards. said central member‘.
formed at their inner ends; crowns
l0- A cylinder- as claimed. in claim vv9.. wherein .
adapted to fit radially onlsaid lateral members
and to'abut axially, against. said collars; and 76 said crowns are made. of a material having a lower
. collars
2,406,100
5
6
coefficient of thermal expansion than said lateral
members.
cated on either side thereof respectively, two ring
shaped members adapted to ?t radially respec
11. A cylinder as claimed in claim 9, wherein
tively on one and the other of said lateral mem
recesses are provided in said crowns to form cool
bers in the vicinity of the inner ends thereof,
ing ?uid passages between said crowns and said 5 means for maintaining, underoperative condi
split rings.
12. A cylinder as claimed in claim 9, wherein
recesses are provided in said lateral members to
form cooling ?uid passages between said split
rings and said lateral members.
13. A cylinder for an opposed-piston engine
which comprises, in combination, a central annu
lar member adapted to form at least 'part of the
engine combustion chamber, two tubular lateral
members co-axial with said central member 10 15
tions, said ring-shaped members at a temperature
lower than that of the adjacent portions of said
lateral members, and means for axially pressing
said lateral members against said central member.
14. A cylinder according to claim 13 in which
said ring-shaped members are made of a material
having a lower coe?lcient of therma1 expansion
than said lateral members.
RAUL PATERAS PESCARA.
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