Патент USA US2406100код для вставки
Aug. 20, 1946. "R. PLPE‘SCARA I 2,406,100 CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION ‘Filed April 6, 1944 l III 2 21 J76 - 2.5’ B0’ 5' v. . INVENTOR Raal'ikz‘emy?escara av - _ - . Patented Aug. 202 1946 , . 2,406,100 - ' UNITED" STATES PATENT OFFICE’ Raul Pateras Pescara, Lisbon, Portugal Application April 6, 1944, Serial No. 529,829 In France August 6, 1943 (01. 309—2) 14 Claims. 1 2 . My invention relates to the cylinders of op posed piston engines, i. e; of engines comprising one or several pairs of pistons slidable in opposed relation within one and the same cylinder for each pair, and it refers more particularly to the 5 cylinders of free-piston engines, which have to withstand very high pressures. In such engines, it is known to make the cylin der in three parts, viz. a central member forming part of vthe combustion chamber of the engine and made of a suitable material to withstand high temperatures and pressures, and two lateral members in co-axial relation with the said cen formed by annular partitions II, I2, for instance circular, supported by members I and 2, such partitions being tightly jointed, as shown at I3 in'Fig. 2, with an outer tubular casing I4. Joints tral member, such lateral members housing the pistons and being so disposed as to ensure a satis for this purpose; Member I may be made rela tively thick to‘ withstand the high pressures which take place within the combustion cham ber, while members 2 and 3 are thinner inorder to facilitate cooling. Ports ‘I are provided in member 2 While ports are provided in member'3. Cooling jackets 8 a d. 9 are preferably disposed, as shown, at the outer ends of members 2 and 3, corresponding to the outer dead points of pistons 4 and 5, while the intermediate jacket I0 is 15 I3 may be made of rubber, for instance.‘ Jacket factory mechanical and thermic working (with Iii, thus ‘formed, may be ?lled with cooling liquid respect to friction and cooling) ., and it may communicate with jackets 8 and 9‘for liquid circulation purposes. I . My invention has for its object :to" provide. On the inlet side of cylinder I, 2, 3, partition means whereby in such cylinders the lateral members may be assembled with the central 20 II is disposed between inlet ports 5 and. the inner end of member 2. On the outlet side, partition member and it consists primarily in so arranging I2 is also arranged between outlet ports ‘I and such means that they give rise to a radial inward the inner end of member ,3, but there is preferably pressure on the inner ends of the lateral mem provided another partition I5 on the other side bers, thus acting on said ends as a shrunk ring, ' of ports ‘I, the space comprised between parti at least when the cylinder parts are at their nor tions I2 and I5 being closed at its periphery to mal operative temperatures. ' In the annexed drawing: } Fig.v 1 is a longitudinal diagrammatical section of an engine provided with a, cylinder established in accordance with my invention,‘ f Figs. 2 to 4 are partialviews to an enlarged scale showing in section three embodiments of my invention. ‘ ' In Fig. l, the engine shown is a free-piston engine of the opposed'piston type. It comprises i a cylinder made of three parts I, 2 ‘and 3, and a pair of pistons 4 and 5 operating therein. This cylinder is provided .with inlet ports 6 and ex haust ports ‘I, and with cooling-jackets 8, 9 and I0. The engine also comprises means to ensure the return stroke of the pistons, means to syn chronise their motion and means to inject fuel in the space comprised between them when they are at their inner dead point or in in the-vicinity thereof. Such arrangements are well-knownin engines of this kind and need not be described here, since they form no part of this invention. The central member I of cylinder I, 2,3 is ring shaped and is adapted to. form the combustion . chamber of the engine, or at least the major part thereof. It may be made of steel, for instance. The lateral members 2 and 3 are disposed each sideof member I and in co-axial relation there with. They are adapted to receive the pistons form an exhaust gas collector I6. ' ' . rIfhe outer contour of cylinder I, 2, 3 (i. e. the outer diameter of partitions II, I2 and I5) is such that the cylinder as a whole may be slid into cas-' ing I4 wherein it is ?xed by any appropriate means not shown. ' Members I, 2 and 3 are assembled together by means ensuring axial pressure of members 2 and 3 against member I, ‘such means being such that they also ensure radial inward pressure on the inner ends of members 2 and 3, at least when the parts are at their normal operative temperature corresponding to normal engine operation, This may be obtained,.for instance, by means ‘of appropriate’ conical surfaces, as shown in Fig. 4, provided‘ on the ends of members I‘, 2 and 3, suchisurfaces being so disposed that the‘ axial pressure (obtained by'bolts, for instance) gives rise to a radial inward pressure on the ends of members 2 and 3. ’ In the construction shown in Fig. 2, members 2 and I abutlagainst each other through plane surfaces transverse with respect to the cylinder axis and they,‘ are assembled by means of a crown I‘! which is pressed towards member I by means of nuts I8, such crown acting on a shoulder 20a of a collar 20 formed at theyend of member 2. Crown I'I is'made of a material having alow 4 and 5 and are made of an appropriate metal 5"‘ coefficient of expansion audit is arranged'to' ?t 2,406,100 3 I . 4 means to press said crowns towards said central radially on member 2 on which it'thus acts as a shrunk ring when the temperature rises. For this purpose, it isv provided on its inner surface member. » . ' .4. A cylinder as claimed in claim 3, wherein with recesses I9 forming passages for the cooling v?uid between said ring and the outer surface of said crowns are made of a material having ‘a lower Ring 2| is cut into two halves; it is rectangu lar in cross-section and ?ts without play in the coefficient of thermal expansion than said lateral members. 5. A cylinder for an opposed-piston engine, comprising in combination a central annular member adapted to form part of the engine com bustion chamber, two tubular lateral members co~v annular space provided on the one hand between I I _ axial with said central member and disposed each member 2. And crown I‘! preferably acts on the end collar 20 formed on member 2 through an intermediate ring 2 I, as shown. ' ' ‘ . side thereof, said lateral members having collars formed at their inner ends; 'two split rings respectively, and on the other hand between the adaptedto be passed over said collars and to ?t cylindrical surfaces Nb and 20b of said crown I‘! and collar 20 respectively. Ring 2! thus trans 15 radially respectively on one end and the other of said lateral members in the vicinity of the inner ' mits to collar 20 the axial pressure exerted by ends thereof but behind said collars with respect nuts I8 and also the radial inward pressure re--, sulting from the lower expansion of crown I i to said central member, and to abut axially when the cylinder is hot. And when ring 2I is against said collars, each of said split rings hav removed after nuts I8 have been removed, crown = ing an’ outer diameter larger than the outer di ameter of the corresponding collar; two crowns I‘! can be withdrawn, since its inner diameter is ‘adapted to ?t radially on one and the other of larger than the outer diameter of collar 20. said split rings to press same radially against said The outer diameter of crown I‘Ifis such that it does not prevent the cylinder I, 2, 3 from being lateral members, said crowns being shouldered in slid into casing I4. ‘ ‘ wardly, the shoulder having an inner diameter In the modi?ed construction shown in Fig. 3, larger than vthe outer diameter of thecorrespond the liquid passages I9 are provided in collar 23 ing collar, but smaller than the outer diameter of shoulders Na and 20a of crown I‘! and collar 2!! instead of being cut in crown I1. . the corresponding split ring and being so disposed , as to abut axially against said split ring .to press‘ ' a I In the construction shown in Fig. 4, members 2 and I abut. against each other through a conical ~ same towards said central member; and means to surface 22, the apex of the cone being disposed towards member I." Ring ZI is wedge-shaped and it bears against collar 20 through an oblique or conical surface 23., the apex of the‘cone being situated towards. the outer end of member 2. It press said crowns towards‘ said centralmemberl 6. A cylinder as claimed in claim 5,, wherein said crowns are made of a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than said lateral members. will readily be understood that the tightening of ‘ r . . ’ 7. A cylinder as claimed in Claim 5, wherein re nuts I8 gives rise to a radial inward pressure on cesses are provided in said crowns to formcool collar 2B,‘even in the cold state, such pressure in creasing- when the cylinder reaches its operative wing ?uid passages between said crowns and said temperature. 8. A cylinder as claimed in claim 5, whereinvre cesses are provided in said lateral members. to form cooling ?uid passages between said split With any of the above-described arrangements, the inner ends of the lateral members 2 and 3 are ?rmly maintained against the action of high‘ pressures or of. thermal expansion. ' I claim: split _' ' ' .i r ' 1. A ‘ cylinder for an" opposed-piston engin rings. ' 1' rings and said lateral‘ members. V I ~ ‘ . . 9. A cylinder for an epposed~piston engine, -' comprising in combination a central annular member adapted to form part of the engine com comprising in combination a central annular member adapted to form part of the engine com each side thereof; and means to. press axially said bustion chamber, said central member having in wardly conical end faces; two tubular lateral members‘ co-axial with said central member and disposed each side- thereof,; said‘lateral members having collars formed at their inner’ ends,‘ and lateral members against said central member and each of. said collars having an inner end‘and an bustion chamber; two- tubular lateral members co-axial with said central member and disposed 50 to exert a radial inward pressure on the inner ends of said lateral members under operative con ditions' ' ‘ 2. A cylinder forv an opposed-piston engine, comprising in combination a central annular member having inward conical end faces, said central member being adapted to form part of . the engine combustion chamber; two tubular lat eral members co-axial with said central member and disposed each side thereof,- said lateral mem bers having outward conical end faces corre sponding to and in'contact with said inward coni outer outwardly conical end face, the outeronecf said outwardly conical end faces being adapted to ?t into the correspondinginwardlyconical end face‘ of said’ central member; two'split ‘rings adapted to be passed‘ over said collars, each of said 7 split rings having an inwardly conical face adapted to ?t on the ‘outer outwardly conical end 60 face of the corresponding collar, and each of said split rings having an outer diameter larger'than theouter diameter of the corresponding collar; two crowns adapted to ?t radially on one and ‘the . otherof said split rings to maintain same radially cal faces; and means to press axially said lateral 65 against opening, said crowns being shouldered’ in members against said central member. wardly, the shoulder having an inner diameter 3. A cylinder for, an opposed-piston engine, larger than the outer diameter of the correspond‘ comprising in combination a central annular ing collar, but smaller than ‘the outer diameter of member adapted to form part of the engine com bustion chamber-y two tubular lateral members 70 the ccrrespondine split ring and, being-.soidisnosed as to abut axially against said split ring‘to‘press co-axial with said central member and disposed same towards said central member; and means to each side thereof, ‘said lateral members having press said crowns towards. said central member‘. formed at their inner ends; crowns l0- A cylinder- as claimed. in claim vv9.. wherein . adapted to fit radially onlsaid lateral members and to'abut axially, against. said collars; and 76 said crowns are made. of a material having a lower . collars 2,406,100 5 6 coefficient of thermal expansion than said lateral members. cated on either side thereof respectively, two ring shaped members adapted to ?t radially respec 11. A cylinder as claimed in claim 9, wherein tively on one and the other of said lateral mem recesses are provided in said crowns to form cool bers in the vicinity of the inner ends thereof, ing ?uid passages between said crowns and said 5 means for maintaining, underoperative condi split rings. 12. A cylinder as claimed in claim 9, wherein recesses are provided in said lateral members to form cooling ?uid passages between said split rings and said lateral members. 13. A cylinder for an opposed-piston engine which comprises, in combination, a central annu lar member adapted to form at least 'part of the engine combustion chamber, two tubular lateral members co-axial with said central member 10 15 tions, said ring-shaped members at a temperature lower than that of the adjacent portions of said lateral members, and means for axially pressing said lateral members against said central member. 14. A cylinder according to claim 13 in which said ring-shaped members are made of a material having a lower coe?lcient of therma1 expansion than said lateral members. RAUL PATERAS PESCARA.