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Патент USA US2406102

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Aug. 20, 1946.
G. w. PONTIUS, 30.. ET AL
2,406,102
TRIGGER SYSTEM ‘FOR GUN TURRETS
Filed April 20, 1942
6 Sheets-Sheet l
'M’VEIVTOIPS'
BY
ATTORNEY
Aug. 20, 1946.
s. w. PONTIUS, V3D., ETAL
2@4@»i0Z
TRIGGER SYSTEM FOR GUN TURRETS
Filed April 20, 1942
6 sheets-Sheet 2
Aug“ 2% 19%“
G. w. PONTIUS, 30.,‘ ET AL
ZAGSJZQZ
TRIGGER SYSTEM FOR GUN TURRETS
Filed April 20, 1942
BY
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
Aug. 2, mg.
a. w; PONTEUS, 30.’, ET AL
294%,w2
TRIGGER SYSTEM FOR GUN TURRETS
Filed April 20, 1942
200
e Sheets-Sheet 4
:0: 1946.
G.
. PONTIUS, an, arm.
g?wgmg
TRIGGER SYSTEM FOR GUN TURRETS
Filed April 20, 1,942
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
GEORGE wpom?asm
ARTHUR H w/waw
BY -
FA’ANA’ v. KUZM/T
Aug. 29, 14.
G. w. PoN'nus, an, ETAL
2,406,12
TRIGGER SYSTEM FOR GUN TURRETS
Filed April 20, 1942
~
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3/124,
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6 sheets-Sheet‘G
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,406,102
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,102
TRIGGER SYSTEM FOR GUN TURRETS
George W. Pontius, ‘III, Arthur P. Wilson, and
Frank V. Kuzmitz, South Bend, Ind., assignors
to Bendix Aviation Corporation, South Bend,
Ind., a corporation of Delaware
1
Application April 20, 1942, Serial No. 439,622
2 Claims. (01. 89--27)
This invention relates to gun turrets and more
particularly to an electrical system for ?ring the
guns‘ of a turret mounted on an airplane.
The ?ring of airplane guns must be rapidly
2
me 6 showing a gunner operating the upper tur
ret with the guns pointed toward the rear of
the airplane;
Figure 8 is a schematic isometric projection of
the mechanical parts and movements of the up
per turret; and
power control of the trigger mechanism, since
Figure 9 is a phantom View of the upper tur
the slightest amount of resistance to manual ef
ret which is shown in broken lines with the elec
fort will slow up the ?ring. A simple push but
tric trigger circuit superimposed thereon.
ton electrical switch is therefore used, and to 10
The placement of the lower turret in an air
decrease the size of this switch, it is connected
plane is shown in Figure 1. Airplane I00 re~
to operate a relay which in turn applies the elec
tains a turret I02 in a retracted position in the
trical current to the power devices for ?ring the
bottom of the fuselage. When thus retracted
guns.
the bottom of the turret is substantially ?ush
In turrets mounted in airplanes, means must 15 with the surface of the fuselage, giving no sub
be provided to keep the guns from shooting at
stantial interference to the slipstream.
parts of the airplane and thus injuring it. This
The turret I02 is shown on an enlarged scale
cut-out means must be automatic and must not
in an extended position in Figure 2. A gunner
interfere with the movement of the turret.
I04 kneels on a cushion I06, his chest supported
The invention will be described as applied to 20
on a rest I08 attached to the turret. The gun
turrets‘ for the bottom and upper surfaces of air
ner looks through a periscope in the turret to
planes respectively. The lower turret is shown in
sight the guns I I0, and with his right hand op
more detail in application Serial No. 391,911,
erates the electrical power controls for the move
?led May 5, 1941, on behalf of Pontius.
ments of the turret and the gun, while with his
It is an object of the invention to provide power 25 left
hand he operates a trigger control. Guns
means for ?ring the guns of a turret.
wells II2 are provided in the airplane I00 at the
It is a further object to provide automatic cut
rear of the turret as a housing for the guns when
out means for the ?ring control of a gun.
the turret is retracted, at which times the guns
Other objects and advantages of the invention
IIO will be horizontal.
will be apparent in the following description and 30 The mechanical parts relating to the move
claims.
ment of the turret are shown in diagrammatic
In the drawings forming a part of this speci
form in Figure 3 wherein the turret is shown in
?cation,
an extended position. The turret I02 is support
Figure 1 is substantially a side view of an air
performed since the sights are on the targets for
fractions of a second only. ‘This necessitates
plane having a lower turret with a trigger sys 35 ed on a four-armed spider II 4 which is secured
to structural members such as N5 of the air
tem made in accordance with the invention;
plane I00, and which has a central collar II6.
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectionalview of the
Ball bearings such as II 8 rotatably support an
airplane of Figure 1 in the region of the turrets,
internally threaded sleeve I20 within collar IIB,
showing the turret in an operative position and
which sleeve has an upper ring gear portion I22.
being at the instant controlled and ?red by a 40 A threaded column I24 is threaded into sleeve
gunner;
I20 and is thereby supported within spider IN.
Figure 3 is an isometric partly schematic view
A head unit I26 rotatably rides on the upper end
of the turret in an extended position, parts
of column I24 and is itself restrained from rota
thereof being in isometric section to show the
tion by a telescoping yoke member I 28 secured
mechanical parts and movements;
,
45 to the outer end of one arm of spider II 4.
Figure 4 is a phantom view of the lower turret
A single power source is used to rotate the
which is shown in broken lines with the electric
sleeve I20 in order to rotate the turret in azi
trigger circuit superimposed thereon;
muth or optionally to retract and extend the
Figure 5 is a wiring diagram of the trigger cir
turret. This power source is an electric motor
cuit of Figure 4;
50 I30 suitably secured to the spider H4. The mo
Figure 6 is a perspective view of an airplane
having an upper turret with a trigger system
made in accordance with the invention;
Figure 7 is a vertical section through the air
plane and the canopy of the turret shown in Fig~
tor I30 drives a motor shaft I34 to which is se
cured a worm I36.
Worm I 36 engages a worm
wheel I 38 which is secured to a drive shaft I40
having suitable bearings which will be later de
scribed.
A worm I42 on shaft I40 engages ring
12,408, 102
3
gear I22, causing the sleeve I26 to rotate within
spider collar H6.
Through the gear train thus
described, electric motor I38 is made to rotate
sleeve I26.
The motor I30 can be reversed by
reversing its ?eld current, thus reversing the di
rection of rotation of sleeve I26; The gear train
4
I60 and shaft 6l2 rotates approximately three
times faster than gun shaft I56.
This is per
missible since the greatest movement of the guns
in elevation (or zenith) is about 95°, and the
increased movement of shaft 6I2 gives greater
sensitivity.v
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I.
The elevating: gear train‘ and its actuating mo
provides a large reduction in rotation allowing
tor are adapted to elevate or depress the guns,
the use of a very high speed motor, to provide
depending upon the direction of rotation of mo
a high power to weight ratio.
tor I72, which is reversed by reversing its ?eld.
10
Also shown in Figure 3 is a shaft Ill-9 driven
Theguns I‘I'Il- can» be elevated above horizontal
by motor worm wheel I38 and having a ‘worm
as far as’ is permitted by the shape of the air
end
thereof.
Worm
>I5ldrives»
I5l on the outer
plane in which the turret is mounted, and can
a worm wheel 6% which in turn drives a com—‘
be depressed 'to' point straight down. The ele
pensator shaft 662 havinga rotarytrigger earn
vation: (or zenith): are as will be described for
408 secured thereto. The gear reduction at worm}
purposes of illustration, will be limited to a 90°
I5I is similar to that of drivingworm M2 at the
are ‘from horizontal‘ to straight down.
column resulting in compensator shaft 662’ mak
The trigger circuit for the turret is shown in
ing a complete rotation for every rotation of col- ,
Figure 4 as applied to the turret and is shown
umn I24. In other words, the azimuth trigger
in diagrammatic form in inset Figure 5.. Provi
cam AEEBis synchronized with the azimuth move 20 sion must be ‘made for a cut-out mechanism‘ to
prevent the guns from shooting at variousv parts
of the airplane. When the guns are horizontal
andpointing forward they might shoot into the
ment of the turret. ,
The column I24, and thereby theturTret also.
may be rotated in azimuthor- retracted‘ and/or
extended, by selectively connectingvcolumn I251
‘revolving propellers and they might‘ shoot into
with sleeve I28 or with non-rotatableh‘ead I25;
This selective connection is performed by an. L
the fuselage directly in front ofithe turret. 7 Also,
when the turret is designed to shoot'above hori
zontal at the rear, the guns might shoot at the
tail wheel. Thus the circuits and mechanism
which will now be described provide cut-out
means for the trigger fire at these danger points.
As explained above, the trigger cut-out is nec
shaped key I'M. held.in a hole' through column
I24 and selectively engaging an internal notch
I58 insleeve I26, .or an external notch I52 in
non-rotatable. head I26.v
The mechanism .for
moving key. I44 hasbeen described inPontius
application Serial No. 391,911, and has been de
scribed fully and claimed in Pontius et al. appli
cation Serial .No. 407,468, ?led August 19, 1941,
essary only when the guns are elevated'to' a‘ sub
stantially horizontal position, and then only for
certain forward positions. The azimuth trigger
now Patent No. 2,389,997, dated November 27, .
1945.
cam 408 has been previously referred‘ to in con
nection with Figure 3 and is shown in Figure 4
>
When key I44 engagesnotch I52 in non-rotat
near the upper. part of the ?gure.
able head I26, column I24 is restrained‘ from ro
tation. If motor I30. now rotates ring gear I22,
As shown in
Figure 4 the cam 468'is notched for those'forward
positions in which the gun should notshoot. The
and thereby sleeve I26, thefcolumn I24 will be 40 elevation trigger cam'illlll .has been previously
raised or lowered according to the direction of
referred to in connection with Figure 3 and is
rotation of sleeve I22.
The head I26'is lowered
shown in Figure 4 near the‘ lower right corner
or-r-aised with column I24, and .the yoke member
of that ?gure. As shown in Figure-4 the eleva
I28 will telescope and extend and will" act atiall
tion cam Mn is notched for the horizontal posi
4.5
times to keep head I26 fromirotating. InHthis
tion at which the guns. should not shoot. As
waytheextension and retraction of turret IE2
explained with reference to Figure. 3 vthe azimuth
is accomplished.‘ ,When the turret I62‘ is ex
cam 468 and the elevation cam 4H] are geared
tended the key “34 may be moved to engage notch
1553 in sleeve I26 and the column I24 will
rotate ,
.1 to move in synchr‘onism with the azimuth and
elevation movements of the turret respectively;
as sleeve I29 rotates, and thus, provide the op 50
Referring‘ to Figure 5, currentfrom battery
erativemovement of rotation‘in azimuth. It will
BI flows through wires 2, 8 and 32‘t'o an armature
be noted that in such case the key IMI‘will be
S1 of a relay L'I», which when energized passes
out of notch I52 and there is no restriction on
current through wires .33 Sand. 34 to two identical
the movement in azimuth. The column, I24 can .. _
solenoids. FS one for each gun H0. 'The
be rotated continuously in either direction, for 55 ?ring
relay L1 is energized by current ?owing through
any given number of rotations.
a wire 35 which current is regulated by‘ three
Certain parts of the turret are fastened onthe
switches, a ?ring switchSl I-, an azimuth switch
lower end; of column I2t.. These parts include
a rotatable shaft I56 to which the guns I-III are ,.
secured. A worm wheel sector I60 is secured
to shaft I56 and is engaged by a worm I82 fas
tened to a drive shaft. I613. 'Drive' shaft I64 in
turn is driven by a worm wheel I66 secured there
to, which is drivenbya worm [68 secured to .a
SI3 and an elevation switch SM. Branching
from a wire 8 is a wire 36 which leads to azimuth
switch‘ SI3,.which is normally closed by cam’ 468
and is opened only. when one of the. notches in
the cam 4B8 come opposite the switch. . The other
end of switch SI3 is connected to a wire 31. which
leads to a wire 38 which leadsto'?-ring switch
motor shaft- I'Ii] of an electric elevation motor 65
SII referred to above.
I'I2.
Branch wire 26 leads from wire. alto elevation
Alsoshown in Figure 3 is a gearing system for
switch SM which is normally closed by elevation
any elevation trigger cam. Connected to motor
cam 4H), and is opened only when the notch in
worm wheel I66 vis a shaft» I'I‘I having’ a worm
the cam is opposite the switch. A wire 39 is
I‘I‘Iatsecured to one end thereof. Worm Illa
connected to the other sideof elevation switch
drives a compensator worm wheel 6I2 which in
SM and leads to wire 38 also... Wire 38 is con
turn drives an elevation compensator shaft 6M.
nected as stated above to ?ring switch SII the
Fastened to the end of shaft GM is an'elevation
other side of which-is connected to relay wire 35.
trigger cam. 416. _The gearreduction at worm
From the above description of Figure 5, it is
I'I'Ia is not the same as at worm wheel sector 75
5
2,406,102
apparent that the guns can be ?red through ?r
ing solenoids FS at nearly all times. If the guns
areelevated to a horizontal position the switch
S14 will be broken but current might nevertheless
flow through switch Sl3 to trigger switch Sll.
When azimuth switch SL3 is open current might
likewise flow through elevation. switch Sl4. It is
With both switch Sl3 and switch SM open no
current will ?ow to ?ring switch SI I and the guns
cannot be ?red. Thus through the means of the
two dimensions of elevation and azimuth, danger
areas can be de?nitely plotted, and through the
use of cams synchronized with movement in azi
muth and elevation, cut-out means for the trig
onlywhen both switch Sl3 and switch Sl4 are
ger circuit can be provided for these danger
open that the guns cannot be ?red. The switches
areas.
Sl3 and SM will both be opened only when the 10
The mounting of the upper turret is illustrated
guns are pointed at some part of the ship corre
in Figure 6. An airplane 200 has mounted on
sponding to the combination of notches on azi
the rear part of the fuselage a turret 202. The
muth cam 508 and elevation cam 4| 0.
turret is adapted to rotate 360° for a given num
This trigger circuit will now be applied to
ber of rotations.
Figure 4, and the corresponding circuit can be
The mounting of the upper turret is shown in
traced also on Figure 5. Current is derived from
detail in Figure 7. 7 Secured to’ longitudinal
battery Bi and'?owsthrough wire l,"through '
members 204 of the airplane 200, is a base mem
relay Ll (which is energized by closing a shunt
ber 206 which rotatably supports a column 208.
circuit through a wire II], a switch SI in a con
Secured to the top of rotatable column 208 is a
trolhandle 504, and the Winding of the relay 20 frame member 2| 0 to which the guns 212 are
LI), and through wire 2 to wire 8. The branch
mounted for rotation in elevation. Also secured
32;from wire 8 leads to the ?ring relay L1 and
to frame 2| 0 is a periscope 300 and an ammuni
suppliescurrent for ?ring the guns when relay
tion can 2I6. A transparent canopy 2|8 covers
L1 is energized. Another branch from wire 8,
the top of the turret and is secured to frame 2 l0.
wire 26, leads to theelevation compensator box_ 25 The turret is operated by a gunner 220 sitting
which retains cam 4 i 0, and is connected to switch
on a seat 222 secured to the column 208 and
S14. The wire 39 leads from the other side of
placing his feet on a rest 224 also secured to the
switch S44 back up the central column to join
column 208. With his right hand the gunner 220
wire 31 at its junction with wire 38.
grips a control handle 402 which he manipulates
The other branch of the parallel circuit to wire 30 to rotate the turret in azimuth in either direc
38 is shown at the top of Figure 4. Wire 35
tion or elevate or depress the guns. The gunner
branches from wire 8 to lead to switch SE3 which
sights the guns by looking through periscope 300,
is connected by wire 31 to wire 38. Firing switch
moving the turret and guns in alignment with
SI l is placed in a trigger grip 404 and is actuated
the target. All the mechanism mounted on the
by trigger button 405 which the gunner presses 35 column 208 rotates in azimuth, and the guns 2l2
with his left thumb. A wire 40 leads from ?ring
and the movable part of the periscope rotate in
switch SH to a. safety switch SI2, the other end
elevation as well as azimuth.
of which is connected to the relay wire 35 leading
The mechanical parts and movements of the
to‘relay L1. The switch S14 and wires 8, 26 and
turret are shown schematically in Figure 8. At
39 of the elevation cam circuit form a parallel 40 the bottom of the ?gure a high speed electrical
circuit with respect to the switch SH! and wires
8, 36, and 31 of the azimuth cam circuit. The
motor 228 drives a motor shaft 230 to which is
secured a worm 232.
Worm 232 drives a worm
parallel circuit formed by the azimuth and eleva
wheel 234 secured to a drive shaft 236 to which
tion circuits is in series with the ?ring switch SH
is secured at the other end a driving worm 238.
and the relay L1.
45 Drive worm 238 engages a worm wheel 240 se
' The operation of the trigger circuit for the
cured to rotatable column 208, and drives column
lower turret as shown in Figure 4, and traceable
208 in rotation in either direction depending upon
on Figure 5, is as follows. Safety switch SIZ is
the direction of rotation of azimuth motor 228.
usually open, at which times the guns cannot be
Also secured to worm wheel 234, is a compen
?red. After the turret is extended and ready for 50 sator drive shaft 242 to which is secured a com
combat, the gunner will manually close safety
pensator worm 243. Worm 243 drives compen
switch Sl2. The gunner will now be gripping the
sator worm wheel 246 to which is connected Com
control handle 504 with his right hand, closing
pensator shaft 248. Mounted on compensator
switch SI to energize relay LI and pass current
shaft 248 is a trigger cam 508.
to the electrical system of the turret shown in 55 . The gear reduction between compensator worm
Figure 4. When the gunner desires to ?re the
wheel 24B and worm 243 is the same as that be
guns, he places his left hand on the trigger grip
tween column worm wheel 240 and driving worm
404 and presses button 405 closing switch SH.
23B, resulting in compensator shaft 248 rotating
Current will usually ?ow from either wire 31 or
one revolution for every revolution of column 208
39 through wire 38 and switch SH through wire 60 and rotating in synchronism.
40 and safety switch S|2 and through wire 35,
Rotatable column 208 is preferably made of
down the central column to relay L7. When re
lay .L1 is energized current ?ows to the ?ring
solenoids BS in housings 406 and these in turn
cause the guns I H] to ?re.
65
' If the guns are pointing forward at an angle
in line with the lower parts of the airplane, the
azimuth cam 408 will rotate in synchronism and
aluminum or .magnesium to reduce weight. The
frame 2l0 secured to the top of column is also
preferably magnesium or aluminum and may be
made by casting. An opening 2“ in the frame
2“) provides a place in which the gunner may
place his body for operating the turret. The
guns 2 I2 are secured to a rotatable gun shaft 244
one of its notches will allow switch Sl3 to open.
supported near each gun by frame brackets 2l3.
Current can nevertheless ?ow to ?ring switch SI I 70
Gun shaft 244 is driven in elevation by a. high
from wire 39 and the guns can still be ?red. If
speed electrical motor 241 positioned within a
the guns should now be elevated to a position in
well 209 in frame 2l0. Motor 241 drives a motor
line with the lower parts of the airplane, the
shaft 248 to which is secured worm 250 engaging
elevation cam 4|0 would rotate in synchronism
driving worm wheel 252 mounted on a drive shaft
and its notch wouldallow switch S|4 to open. 75 254. Secured on the other end of drive shaft 254
7
is a» driving-1 worm‘ >256? engaging l a worm" wheel
sector'258T-secured to-gun shaft 244. The. gun
shaft is rotatecll in. either direction by reversing
elevation motor 247-, elevating or depressing the
guns according to direction of rotation of motor
241.-
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The elevation compensator drive is alsoshown
in'Figure 8 and is obtained through: a- bevel gear
262 secured to shaft 244, and driving a matching
Alsol’branching from wire-52 is :a. wire 51ylead~
ingto'two wires 58 and 59;. Wire" SB-Jleads toza
switch S23 actuated byele'vation cam.5l.0.~ Cam
5l01is notched in. a portion; corresponding to the
elevation: positioniof "the; guns at: which they
would ?re upon thexairplane.~ When'the guns
move in elevation to this position then'otch'open's
switchS23 and no current can pass. at thatpoint
to supplya’trigger-switc-h,
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The otherv branch wire59 connectedtoiwire
bevelgear 264 which drives‘ elevation compen 10
5'!" leads down the column- and throughlthe‘ brush
sator shaft 266. li'astenedv to compensator shaft
boxv told,v switch S24 actuated: by azimuthtrigger
I66’ is an elevation trigger Cam 5"]. Since the
cam 508. Cam 508 is notched ina portion-or
elevation movement of the gun's'is about 90°, the
portions corresponding to theazimuth position
rotation of compensator shaft 2651s multiplied
about three times to increase sensitivity of the 15 of the turret at which the guns would ?re-upon
cam control.
the airplane.
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When cam. 508’ rotates so‘ that-the
notched. portion is opposite the switch S24¢=no
The trigger circuit and charging circuit for the
current will ?ow to- the trigger switch at that
guns of ‘the upper turret areshown' in Figure 9
and it will be noted. that the circuit is similar to
Connected to switch S24 is a: wire 53 leading
that of the lower turret. Parts of the turret 20
through the brush box up: the centrar'column;
already identi?ed are shown in broken outline
to-join a wire 6| leading from switch S23.‘ Wires
including the center postv2ll8, the ring gear 245,
Giland 6| are connected'to a wire~62 leadingito
the-driving worm 238 andthe azimuth motor 228.
a trigger switch S25 in the control handle 402.
Als' shown is the-azimuth compensator drive in
When the gunner desires tol?re he‘ closes trigger
cluding Worm wheel 245and the driven azimuth
switch S25 with‘ his ?nger, passing current the
trigger cam 503. On the upper end of the turret
point.
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wire 63 leading to relay L2. If ‘current passes
the guns 2 i2 are mounted on shaft 244 and driven
through wire 63 the relay will‘ be energized'closé
in ‘elevation ‘by elevation. motor 241. Also shown
ing the circuit to the ?ring" solen'oid's‘F3’ and F4
in dotted‘ outline is the elevation compensator
’
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drive including shaft 266: on which is mounted 30 causing the guns‘ to' ?re}
In operating the charger circuit of Figure 9,
elevation trigger-cam 5| 0.- -
the gunnerwill be seated- in the‘ turret gripping
Theelectrical trigger circuit and electrical and
hydraulic charging circuit is superimposed in
control handle 402
shown in Figure 7. Grip
ping control handle 40-2 closes p'owerswitclr S2l
solid lines on'the dotted outline of the turret.
permitting current toe?owiromjbatte'ry B2up‘
A battery'BZ supplies Current to a'wire 5| leading
wirev 5! to the switch S2I and‘ through wire‘ 52.
through'the brush box,rup the column, and to
Branch wire 55 is now hot, and if the guns should
the control handle 462' where it connects, to a
now jam, ‘or if for ‘other reasons the gunner
switch S21. Switch- S21 is the main power switch
should ‘desire tovciharge' the guns, he merely
for passing all current to the turret and when
the gunner grips-control handle ‘45?. he closes 40 closes charger switch S22 with his left hand while
gripping handle 402 in his right hand.v Current
switch S2! by the act of grasping the control
then. passes through wire 56“ down column 208
handle. Because of» this type of gripfcontrol the
power will’ automatically be cutoff if the gunner
to .the solenoid valve 590. Valve‘ 590opensto
permit hydraulic ?uid‘ under pressure to" enter
is shot thus preventing injury to the turret or
the airplane in which it is mounted.
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45
conduit 554, pass throughgland 580,111)‘ column
conduit 586 and out vof?tting 594 to the hydraulic
Referringto‘Figure 9 when switch ‘S2 I is closed
chargers 5 I 4, The chargers then retract the bolt
current flows toia wire 52";vi'rhichvv is connected to
of. guns 2l2' charging them;
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both'?ngers of a double relay L2. Energizing re
After the charging is completed the gunner‘erej
lay L2 causes current to ?ow through Wires 54 and
53-to ?ring solenoids=F3 and F4 in housings 5l2 50 leases switch S22"Whi_ch' opens, deenergizing'qth'e”
secured to the guns, causing the guns 2|2 to ?re.
solenoid H of valvef590. The valvethen returns
Branching from- wire'52 near the center'post
to normal connecting tube 584‘v with the- exhaust
line‘ 596; A quantityof. liquid will then ?ow out
is a wire 55 leading'to» a switch S22~the other end
of theycharg‘ers and connected conduits s'u?‘icient
of which is connected‘ to awire 56' leading down
the column 268 and‘wou't' theibrush box to a sole; 65 to. allow the chargers to return to'their‘ starting
position.
.
noid H of an hydraulic valve 590'. Switch S22
islmanually' operated by the gunner ‘whenever
eithergu'n 2I2 jams; Closing switch S22 passes
shown in‘, Figure 9 the gunner grasps control
current to valve 59li"causing it to open to pass
handle‘ ‘402 andiinido'i'ng so closes-powerswitch
' In operating‘. the upper turret trigger system
hydraulic ?uid from aninlet'pipe- 5925 to a gland oo S21. ‘ This permits now of current through wire
52 to wire 5'! .from there to the wires 58 and 59
conduit 584 through an hydraulic- gland 580' to a
forming part of a parallel" circuit tof?r'ing' switch
conduit 586.‘ A- ?tting 594' is- connected tov a
S25. Current in wire~ ss'm'ay be interrupted by
conduit 585which passesi?uid thereto, at which
point ?exible tubing 59'! is connected leading to
a switch S23 actuated byigcamf 5H1‘ synchronized
switch'S22 is opened'deenergizing valve 555 and
The otherlbranch'of the'p‘arall'el circuit, wire‘ 59
allowing it to return‘ to" normal at which time
the hydraulic‘ fluid in the charger will flow
leads down the'column andcurrent flow isint'er
ru‘p’t'ed by switch S24‘actuate’d by cam sas syri
c'hronized with the’ azimuth‘ .movements of the
turret. vVlfheni elther'carh' 5H1 ortua rotates to
a point corresponding" t‘o'th‘e~ point at‘ which bul
chargers 5H5. " After the charging is completed 65 with the elevation movement of the‘ guns'2il2.
through the valve‘to exhaustconduit 596.
Still referring to Figure‘9, in certain positions
of the turret, the guns 2l2‘ will‘ be pointing at a
part of the airplane and if ?ring: were'possible,
injury to the airplan'e'iwould' result. For this
purpose a cut—out mechanism‘ for’ the'trigger sys-'
téin'is provided, which 'will now‘ be" described;
lots would hit the“ airplanejthe. respective cir
cuit is broken.
When" the azimuth and elevation
positions both _.c‘orrespond‘to a position where
the‘ bullets‘ will‘ strike‘ part ‘of the airplane,‘ no
2,406,102
current will flow through either branch of the
parallel circuit and closing the trigger switch S25
10
in the second circuit connected in parallel with
said ?rst means, said second means arranged to
cooperate with the notched portions of said sec
ond cam for opening the second circuit, whereby
the ?ring devices are disconnected from the ?ring
will have no effect.
When the position of the turret and guns is
other than the cut-out position, current will ?ow 5
through one or both branches of the parallel
circuit only if said ?rst and second means are
circuit wires 58, BI, 59 and 60 respectively to wire
cooperating with the notched portions of said
52 passing current to ?ring switch S25. When
?rst-named cam and said second cam respec
the gunner desires to ?re he merely presses switch
tively.
S25 with his ?nger, passing current through wire 10
2. In combination, a turret movable in azimuth,
53 to relay L2 and actuating it. Current then
guns mounted on said turret for movement there
flows from wire 52 to wires 53 and 54 to the ?ring
with in azimuth and relative thereto in elevation,
solenoids F3 and F4 causing the guns to ?re.
an electrical system comprising a source of cur
Release of switch S25 breaks the circuit to relay
rent, a ?ring circuit including a firing solenoid
L2, the power circuit to the ?ring solenoid is 15 for each gun, a series parallel circuit including a
broken and the guns cease to ?re. A relay con
manually controlled switch arranged in the series
trol of ?ring is used to reduce the size of the
portion of said last-named circuit, a normally
manual switch to a minimum and increasing ease
open switch in the ?ring circuit, a relay coil in
of operation.
the series portion of the series parallel circuit
Although this invention has been described with 20 and constructed and arranged to close said nor
reference to particular embodiments thereof, it
mally open switch in response to energization of
is not limited to these embodiments or otherwise
the relay coil when the manually controlled
except by the terms of the following claims.
switch is closed, a pair of cams one of which is
What is claimed is:
constructed and arranged to follow the move—
1. In combination, a turret movable in azimuth, 25 ment of the guns in azimuth and the other of
guns mounted on said turret for movement there
which is constructed and arranged to follow the
with in azimuth and relative thereto in elevation,
movement of the guns in elevation, said cam
an electrical system comprising a source of cur
which follows the movement of the guns in azi
rent, a ?ring circuit including a ?ring device for
muth having notches therein corresponding to
each gun, a ?rst circuit normally open and in 30 positions of the guns in azimuth where it is de
cluding a manually operated switch for closing
sirable to disconnect said solenoids, said cam
the aforesaid ?rst circuit, means controlling the
which follows the movement of the gun in eleva
?ring circuit and including a relay coil in the ?rst
tion having notches therein corresponding to po
circuit, said means being responsive to closing the
sitions of the guns in elevation where it is desir
?rst circuit to thereby close the firing circuit, a 35 able to disconnect said solenoids, and means in
cam constructed and arranged to follow the guns
the parallel branches of said series parallel cir
in azimuth, said cam having notches therein cor
cuit which concurrently cooperate with the
responding to positions of the guns in azimuth
notched portions of said azimuth and elevation
where it is desirable to disconnect said devices,
cams at times for causing deenergization of said
relay coil to permit the normally open switch to
open to disconnect said solenoids, said means be
ing constituted to cause energization of said relay
coil when the means of either parallel branch‘
ceases to cooperate with the notched portions of
therein corresponding to positions of the guns in 45 its corresponding cam.
elevation where it is desirable to disconnect said
devices, a second circuit normally open and in
GEORGE W. PONTIUS, III.
cluding said relay coil and said manually operated
ARTHUR P. WILSON.
switch for closing said circuit, and a second means
FRANK V. KUZMITZ.
a ?rst means in said ?rst circuit arranged to co
operate with the notched portions of the cam for
opening the ?rst circuit, a second cam constructed
and arranged to follow the movement of the guns
in elevation, said second cam having notches
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