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Патент USA US2406120

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Aug., zû, §94@y
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Filed. July 17, 1945
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Patented Aug. 20, 1946
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» dix'- Aviation Corporation, South Bend, Ind., a
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¿corporation~ of Delaware
Application July 17, 1943, Serial No. 495,123
3. -Claims. (Cl. 277-50)
This invention relates to venting means and
particularly Yto automatic pressure relief means
for_use in connection with fuel tanks or reser
voirs of fuel supply systems.
The invention is particularly useful as a vent
Vfor the tanks of fuel systems, such for example
seat having an opening adapted to be closed 'by
said ball, said other member being supported by
-the diaphragm, the valve being adapted to ac
commodate considerable misalignment ,ofA said
A further object of the invention is to provide
as are used in aircraft, wherein the fuel is taken
from the tanks by a fuel pump and delivered to
the carburetor or other fuel proportioning device
a device of this character having an auxiliary
loss of fuel.
of fuel therethrough when inverted.
valve adapted to permit air to enter the tanks to
compensate for the removal of fuel and/or yto
preparatory to delivery to the engine cylinder. 10 compensate for the contraction of fuel which may
occur under certain well known conditions.Y v
Since‘fuel, such as gasoline, is volatile, a portion
A still further object of the invention is to
of the fuel tends to vaporize and escape out of
provide a device of this character having a check
the tank vent, particularly at4 high` temperatures
valve arrangement adapted to prevent the escape
or low barometric pressures, with the resultant
Also, this tendency to vaporize
causes the formation of vapor bubbles which to
some extent remain entrained in the fuel and are
notl released until agitated or subjected to a sud
f ,
The invention is further characterized by its
simplicity, effectiveness and reliability, and by
the means adapted to support the check valve
when in its normal open position.
denly decreased pressure as may occur at the in
A further object of the invention is to provide
let' of the fuel pump. The vapor bubbles so 20
formed 'tend to vapor-lock the pump, and if
passed to the carburetor, tend yto interfere with
a device of this character wherein novel improve
its operation.
and arrangements and Acombinations of the parts '
The above mentioned difliculties may be at least
_ partially overcome by the use of any pressure
type of relief or vent valve, whereby the fuel
vapor pressure is utilized to maintain the tank
under superatmospheric pressure whenever the
fuel tends to volatilize. As the fuel may be of a
ments reside in certain details o-f construction
The characteristics and advantages of the in
vention are further sufficiently referred to> in
connection with the following detailed descrip# `
tion of the accompanying drawing, which repre
sents a preferred embodiment thereof. After
>highly volatile nature,'it is possible under vari '30 considering this example, skilled persons will un
derstand that many variations may be‘ made
ous -well known conditions such as high tempera
without departing from the principles disclosed;
ture and/ or high altitude, to develop a high vapor
and I contemplate the employmentof any struc
pressure within the tank which may reach such
tures, arrangements, or modes-of operationthat
a high value that there is danger of bursting the
are properly within the scope of the appended
tanks. The vapor ventïvalve must therefore be
reliable in operation, and function to release
vapor whenever the pressure 'in the tank exceeds
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is an elevational view of the fuel res'
ervoirs of a fuel delivery system having the pres
tion to provide a device for maintaining the fuel 40 ent venting device attached to the venting pipe;
Y Figure 2 is a vertical section through vsaid vent
in a fuel tank under moderate superatmospheric
ing device which embodies the invention; and
Figure 3 is a plan view of the retainer ring for"
It is >another object of the invention to'pro
avsafe value. ,
" -It is therefore an object of the present inven
the check valve.
Referring more particularly to Figure 1 the'
fuel tanks or reservoirs are indicated generallyÍ
ticularly of the pressure in the fuel reservoirs or
a't I0. Fuel may be taken from the tanks through
tanks thereof.
' Y
conduits I2, I4 and I6, conduits I4 and I6 pref
It is still'another object of the invention to
erably being provided with valves 20 and 22 re
provide a device of this character that is adapted
vto relieve the pressure of one or more such ytanks 50 spectively. The upper portions of the tanks are
connected together by a vent pipe 24 to which a
venting device, indicated generally at 26 is at
Still another object o-f theV invention is to pro~ '
tached. The venting device comprises a casing
vide a device of this> character wherein one of
including a pair of casing members 28 and 29
the valve members comprises a fixed ball; and
the other valve' member comprisesA a» movable 55 between which a ñexible diaphragm 30, which
vide a device for the relief of excess vaporV pres
sure in a fuel system of this character and par
may beV of any well known type, is clamped, the
radius of the ring 18 but of sufficient length to
engage and support the ball 14,
casing members 28 and 29 being secured together
by screws 32. A check valve, indicated generally
at 34 is screwed into a large opening in the upper
In operation vapor pressure from the tanks
I0 is conducted through the vent pipe 24 and
casing member 29, and the lower casing member
28 is provided with a depending, threaded nipple
36 adapted to be screwed into a suitable fixture
passes into the pressure chamber 39 through a
of the vent pipe `24. There is a main venting
passage through the casing which includes an
enlarged portion divided by the diaphragm into. '
passage 86 in the nippley 36, The spring 56 is
`so calibrated that when'the pressure in the lower
portion of the chamber 38 reaches a predeter
an atmospheric chamber 38 and a pressure champ» '.f '.mined value of, vfor example one or two pounds,
.or any other desired value, the pressure on the
' diaphragm V3l) forces said diaphragm upwardly
ber 39, the latter being a chamber from which
ï Y _ vapor under pressure may at times escapethrough ,
'thereby' raising the vvalve member 40 from en
a pressure outlet relief valve, `comprisii'ig amdv-Á '
able valve seat member supported by 1thedia-- if -, .gagemeniitvith the ball 50 and allowing vapor to
phragm and comprising a body 4B having a cen-
‘escape throughjthe opening 42 into the atmos
tral opening 42 therein throughiwhichfsaid vapor
wpheric chamber 38 from ~which it escapes to at
mosphere through the vent passage 72. When
.thepressure in the tanks drops below the value
for which the spring 56 is calibrated said spring
returns the valve seat member 40 to seating en
may pass when the valve is open. The valve seat
is secured in a central opening in the diaphragmV
by clamping the latter between the -upper surface
‘of the body 40, which isr of substantial area,l a-nd
Ya; thin» metal washer 44, secured in 'place' by tur-n
gagement with the balll50 vthereby Aclosing the
ing over the free end of a tubular ñange‘46.. In
order to vprevent the dia-phragm from >being 'cut
and injured by the peripheral edge of saidy washer .
and the» adjacent edge of the. valve body-40 said
washer edge-is turned outwardly-from the 'dia
phragm 'at' 48 and the 'edge of the- valve body 43
`is rounded.
The ñXed valvememberfof the »pres- .
vent, itbeing noted that the area of the .surface
of ball 50 available to close the opening 4~2 of the
valve seat is .suiñcientto- eiîect closing' of said '
opening l42- though the valve seat may be tilted
or considerably out of alignment relative to the
axis of themain vent passage.
The by-pass is provided in the device to per
sure outlet valve comprisesA a ball 50; adapted to 30 mit air to-y enter the tanks and compensatev for
the withdrawal of vfuel under certain well known
close the >opening 42 1in thel valve member 4t,
said ball 55 being received in a cup-like member
conditions, orto permit air to enter the tanks
52 supported within the chamber 3`9'by Iintegralwhen the fuel cools down and contracts suf
ficiently to cause a partial vacuum in said tanks.
a-r-ms 54--whic-h extend between the cup 52» andthe
interior wall of the casing :member 2-8; _Thefree
I_nasmuch as it is undesirable for any substantial
edgefportion` of the cup' 52 is pressed inwardly at
vacuumy to bebuilt up in the tanks the spring l0, _
closing the ley-pass valve 68, is- extremely llight,
53 to engage the ball 50 andA secure same .in> the
' e cup.` A spring v56», which reacts between the wash
being> onlyr of such strengthas to retain the valve
er 44 and body 35er the check valve 34,'urgesthe
in the closed position when the pressures .on
¿valve member 46 into »seating relation with the 40 »opposite sides- thereof arelsubstantially equal'so '
' 132.11.50.
'Thecasing‘ members 28' and 29 have a laterally
extending portion within which: there isf-provided
an auxiliary passage or by-pass connecting; the
chambers .38' and >3'9- and including the passages
56, 60, `6-2- and 64- which are *controlled` byA a ¿pres
sure inlet relief valve'which lcomprises >a-.plug 66
screwed into :an enlarged portion of the passage
EllY and having a bore 61 controlled by a valve
member 68 urged to. the closed position on a seat
69» by a relatively >light spring 1U whichxgreacts
Y between said valveg member 68- and' a spring re
tainer »'H» disposed within an enlargement ofthe
f bore16l of plug66.
lThe check valve 34, which ‘prevents escape of
fuel through the venting device when inverted,
includes a vent passage 'I2 in the body 35,.4 said
passage taperingY inwardly towardv the atmos
pheric endv'and' having a valve seat 73' adjacent
said end on which a ball va-1ve`14`is adapted to
’ seat when the device is inverted', at which` time
the ball- -74 assu-mes the dotted line position 14a.
` -ï' However, whenthe device is in `its normali up
that as soon as a slight vacuum occurs in said
tanks the by-pass valve opens and relieves the
When the venting device is in its normal up
right position the Yball 'I4 »is supported by the
radial arms~84 of ring 18 in such a position that
vapor may pass »sa-id ball and escape through
the vent -passage l2, but should the device be
»inverted they ball ‘I4 will drop by -gravity tothe
seat 13 and close the atmospheric vent passage
y'l2 thereby »preventing the loss of fuel there
through should the weight of saidA fuel be suf
ñcient* to open the pressure outlet valve.
’While the invention has been shownrembodied
in a fuel system having two tanks it is thought
»to Ybe obvious that said device may also b'eaused
in a system having only one tank or in Aa system
having three or more tanks. It is also thought
that the invention and many of its attendant
60 advantagesV will be understood» from ~the fore
going description, Yand though said invention has
been illustrated and described in connection-„with
a single'embodiment thereof it will be apparent
that various changes may bemade inv the form,
construction and arrangement of thepart-s'with
out'departing from the spirit andY scope vofthe
right position the ball 'I4 is in thev full-line posi
tion in the lower portion of thevent passage 'lf2
and is supported in- said position by a, retaining
memberfbest' shown in Figure 3, comprising `an
invention or sacriñcing all of its material ad‘
annular ring portion 1:8 which is spl-it` at Sil-„the
vantages, the form hereinbefcre described being
free endsY of the ringY T8 being vspaced apart. to
_merely açpreferred embodiment.
Ypermit contraction of said ring for insertion in 70
a groove provided therefor in a depending .an
1. In a pressure control device for venting-'fuel
nular flange V82 formed integral withL the -body 35
tanks and the like: a casing comprising-a pair of
ofîvalve 1314;. Integral' with said ring are va, îplu
{casing members,v said casing having Aajmain vent
ralîty of radiallyextending valvesupporting arms
passage therethrough including an enlarged por"
84„ the length of said arfms'beingV less than the 75 -tion.; a. diaphragm clamped between the casing
members and separating the enlarged portion o
tween the pressure chamber and atmospheric
the main passage into a pressure chamber and
chamber; a vacuum valve controlling the by
pass; relatively light yielding means normally
an atmospheric chamber; a ñxed valve member
in the pressure chamber including a spherical
urging the vacuum valve to the closed position;
segment portion; a valve seat secured to the dia Ul a. vent passage between the atmospheric cham
phragm and having a valve passage therethrough
ber and atmosphere; and a valve adapted to close
adapted to be closed by the fixed valve member;
said passage upon inversion of the control de
a spring in the atmospheric chamber adapted to
vice, said valve being disposed on the atmos
urge the valve seat to the closed position, said
pheric side of said ñrst and second mentioned
spring being so calibrated :that a predetermined 10 valves, and when closed, shutting off communi
pressure in the pressure chamber will eiïect open
cation between the inlet passage :and atmosphere.
ing of the pressure outlet valve; a check valve
3. In a pressure control device for venting fuel
including a body portion having a vent passage
therein tapering inwardly toward the atmos
tanks and the like: a casing having a main pas
sage therethrough including an enlarged por
15 tion; a diaphragm separating the enlarged por
pheric end; Vand a ball valve adapted to seat ad
jacent the smaller end of said vent passage when
the device1 is inverted; an annular groove adja
cent the larger end of the vent passage; a split
retainer ring received in said groove; inwardly
extending radial arms integral with said ring 20
spherical segment portion; a valve seat secured
to the diaphragm and having a ypassage there
sure chamber, of generally spherical shape adapt
trolling same; ’ and relatively light yielding
tion of said passage into a pressure chamber
and an atmospheric chamber; a ñxed valve
member in the pressure chamber including a
and adapted to support the ball member when
through adapted to be closed by the fixed valve
the device is in its normal upright position and
member; yielding means adapted to urge the
permit the passage of fluid past said ball mem
valve seat to the closed position; a vent passage
ber; a by-pass connecting the pressure chamber
connecting the atmospheric chamber with at
and the atmospheric chamber; a vacuum valve 25 mosphere, said passage> tapering inwardly to
in the by-pass for controllingr sameçsand rela
ward the atmospheric end; and a ball valve
tively light yielding means urging the by-pass
adapted to seat adjacent the smaller end of said
valve to the closed position.
vent passage when the device is inverted; a re
`2. In a, fuel supply system including a fuel
taining member within the passage adjacent the
tank: a pressure control device comprising a hol 30 larger end thereof; inwardly extending arms in
low casing; a diaphragm separating the interior
tegral with the retaining member and adapted
of the casing into a pressure chamber and an at
to support the ball when the device is in its nor
mospheric chamber; an inlet passage communi
mal upright position and permit the passage o1'
cating with the pressure chamber; a valve seat
fluid past said ball member; a by-pass connect
carried by the diaphragm‘and having an orifice 35 ing the pressure chamber and thé atmospheric
therethrough; a fixed valve member in the pres
chamber; a vacuum valve in the by-pass for con
ed to close the oriiice in the valve seat; yielding
means urging the by-pass valve to the closed
means urging the valve seat to the closed posi
tion withv a predetermined force; a by-pass be 40
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