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Патент USA US2406121

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Aug- 20, 1946, "
. . A.'_J'.“‘YvOUNG,
7 HEAT‘ TRANSFERRING MEANS SUITABLE
'
2,406,121
.THERMIONIC. DISCHARGE APPARATUS ’
Filed-‘Jan? 22,1943
"
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
h
,
v
,
2,406,121
UNITED- STATES? PATENT orrl-ic
HEAT ‘TRANSFERRING MEANS SUITABLE
FOR THERMIONIC DISCHARGE
APPARATUS"
Arthur James: Young, ,Danbury; England; ,assignor .
to-Radio Corporation oi America; a. corporationv '
ofDelaware .
Application January'22, 1943', SerialNo: 473,1721
8 Claims.
(Cl. 25.0-27.5) <
.
The’ present inventiomrelatesz'to:heattransw
2“
if“therearemore;thanronerbarriersmnone-‘side ‘
ferring; apparatus wherein. it :is :required. to. e?ectT
of “all the barriers)i is~ constrained to passwbetweem
transference. otheat>betweena stream: of ?uid;
the?ns in order‘toreach the othersideof'thea
and a metallicbody;
barrler- (or barriers) and‘ so to reach thevoutl‘et?
An objector the invention is toprovide 'a.:sim-= 5‘ atat‘h‘e other end'iof the ‘duct.
'
ple-and e?icient cooling; IIIGaIISlfOT'aIL electroni
discharge device.
‘Though the invention is nottstrictly limited
tothe transferenceof heat‘: from acylindrical
When-a1 single-barrier is usled'itm'ayftakel the=
form.v of an=elliptica1= annulus extending from;
the top to the‘bottomdisc. With this formfthelj
?uid inlet passages at the‘ successive discsvw-ilL?
anode of a tube to'a cooling. ?uid. such as air‘; 10! vary in size and in certain cases-this might-leach
cross section.. The. invention‘ is, however, to be’ 15-.
considered. as‘v applied to heat transferring ar-v
rangements: in which ?nsnareidisposed‘co-axially’
about and. inheat exchangingcontact. with the:
‘
The coaxial cooling ?ns may ‘consist. of‘a hum-.
her‘ ofmetaldiscs having acentral aperture in:
which the metallicibody, or anode of the tube;
body» and in/which: the ?ns: are‘. mutually spacedii ‘ ?ts tightlyso that it» may bevsoldered" thereto
apart.
20”‘ with'the minimum amount‘ of solder. The ‘discs?
Accordingtatheinvention; alheatitransferring-
device for effecting‘transferenc'ezof'heat‘between?
a: stream of ?uid: and a: metallic body,‘ of the
are'spacedapartlby distance ‘piecesvih the‘form\
ofJ washers, which may be circular, ?tting the
body-‘or anode.
-
kind" in which ?ns. arei‘disposed.‘coeaxially about;
In place‘ of? using‘avseries of discs‘ to'form ai
and in heat‘vexchanging contactwitlr the body, 25" built uprunit the device may be made-by milling“
the ?ns I being. mutually spaced! apart, and? in
slots-kinwal-solidibody'or'cylinder‘of brass‘ or‘other"
which the. body and' its ?ns-area accommodated’
suitable *goodlconductingl metal.
'
in a duct of larger diameter (or of? larger cross:
Theeapplicant'has,‘ inv connection with the-cool;
sectional area) than the outside diameter (or
ing of the anodes of the thermionic devices; with»)
cross sectional area) of- the ?nsIand"v through- 30*’ which he is‘ principally‘ concerned‘; commonly
which duct the rstrea-miof. ?uid ?ows; is‘»charac-~
used axial-“air ‘?ow radiators» with‘ both coaxiali
terized in that there is provided? between the*and: radial cooling ?ns.‘ For hig‘li'speci?c load-"e
wall of the ductand' the' outer‘. edges’ of“ all of’
ings,» the-coaxial cooling‘?ns (i. e; those in-w-hich"
the=?ns at least one continuous barrier'wherebyr
the stream’ of? cooling‘ ?uidi moves radially in‘-v
reach the other slde of the barrier (or barriers)
radial length of radiator, and further the Inlet
and so to reach the outlet‘ at thev other end of" 40'.‘ and‘. outlet ori?ces of" the‘ radiator itself?" cam
the duct‘
usually be of such dimensions that the speed" of ‘
According toa feature of the. invention, a‘cool--
?ow: of the?uid' will be suitable‘to the'case irrv
ing device for the (substantially cylindrical)
which.._ax=sma1L radiator is‘ required; Where‘ the*
anode of an electronic device, or vacuum tube,-
‘ primary. requirement is“ small‘ size‘ then high“
iuct of larger diameter than'the outs1de d1a-m-the latter case, axial flow with a radial ?n 1s
zter of the ?ns and through which cooling ?uid 50 preferable.
such‘ as air)‘ flows- is characterized: in that there;
s-providedr'between. the walliofrthel duct1andlthe=
ruter‘edgesof. all- the?nsat‘leastone continu-'-~
Di'?icultieswith devices providing radial‘ ?ow
(to which devices the» present; invention is‘di-L
rected). haveib‘een that'the addition of-‘suitabl'er :
|us barrier.v whereby ?uidentering-f the; duct1at¢
means'for.admitting?and'exhaustingth-e'airrh'avw“
>ne: end: thereof: on. one:.sidei>.ofi thel barrierrtorr 551led. to1 large. increases in’ the diameter‘ of} these
‘ 2,406,121
'Many of the advan
radiator. and its holder.
radial
?ow have there;
tages of devices providing
fore been lost.
7
a
4
in which two members B’,
or curved barriers are employed, a further im
provement may be made by which these differ
ences between the effective inlet and outlet ori
?ces which in certain circumstances may be dis
V companying drawing,
V.
The present invention provides, therefore, a
method of mounting’ a radial flow radiator in an
air duct so that the overall diameter is very little
advantageous, may be reduced. ‘In this arrange
stance an overall diameter v(that is over the
ment, the two barriers maybe so constructed
as, together, to constitute a continuous member
bent so'asto extend from an edge of the upper
, ballle) of 90 mm., and a diameter for the radiator
most ?n at one end (1’ of a diameter thereof to
greater thanithat of the radiator itself, for ine
of 80 mm. have been found suitable for an air
a point d" von the edge of the lowermost?n,
back to the edge of the uppermost ?n atthe
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
opposite end of said diameter, down again to
ing drawing in which:
'
3
' a‘point-on the edge of the lowermost ?n, and
Fig. 1 is an elevational view, partly in section,
thence to the uppermost ?n to join the upper
showing cooling ?ns provided‘ with a single bar 15 most ?n at the same one end (1’ of the diameter,
the two points d"_on the lowermost ?n being
rier;
Fig.and
2 is a fragmentary perspective view'of _, V‘ at? the two ends of a diameter thereof displaced
cooling ?ns provided with a double barrier.’
v’ by 90° from the ?rst/mentioned diameter. The
cooled tube.
‘
'
.
.
A particular embodiment of the invention,: in - 20 shape of the barrier about the bends at d’ and
air-cooled tube, is illus
its application ltoof an
the accompanymg drawing.v
trated in .Fig.
In thisembodiment the metallic anode A, which
d” will determine whether there is any di?er-l
ence between size of, inlet and’ outlet. In the
limiting case, if the shape of the barrier at the
forms part of the envelope of the tube, is pro
“bends” were rectangular, the cross section could
vided with tubular member AI, circular, washer 25 be made exactly equal, but in practice the cor
like radiator ?ns F, spaced apart from each
ners might become almost “dead”. owing to ed-'
other and in close heat exchanging relationship
dies, and therefore the most suitable shape would,
with the anode. Fitted about the edges of, all
be found by experiment.
7
The barrier, or barriers, as the case maybe,
the washers is a continuous'barrier Bfwhich, as
illustrated, consists ‘of an elliptical annulus ex 30 may be attached eith’erto the inner wall of the;
tending from the lower edge of the uppermost
duct L, or to the outer edges of all or some of _
washer WI, past the edges of all the succeeding
the washers.
'
,
7 Although, in the speci?c description, washers
washers, to the upper edge (not visible in the ?g
ure) of the lowermost washer W2. The upper
have been referred to, inlwhich case the several
end of the annulus is in contact with the upper 35 washers would be separated by spacing or dis
most washer at oneend of a diameter of itand
tance rings, or washers of smaller diameter than‘
those constituting the ?ns; the radiator may be"
of the duct, and the lower end of the annulus is
produced from a solid cylinder of brass, or other
in' contact with the'lowermost washer at the
7 other end of the same diameter ,of the duct.‘
suitable metal, in which circular col-axial slots‘
'
have been cut. In either case, the anode should
Thus the duct is divided into two parts, between 40
which the only‘communication for, the cooling
7 ?uid ‘is by way. of the spaces separating the sev
eral washers from each other. The assembly of
preferably be a close ?t in the central ori?ce of
the radiator so that it may be soldered to the
inner wall of the ori?ce with a' minimum of‘,
tube and ?ns may be held, by means of a clamp,
solder and a minimum risk of having air pockets
in a cylindrical fluid airduct K of larger in 45 or gaps between the anode and radiator.
It is not necessary that the tube and its ra
ternal diameter than the diameter of the wash
ers, so that a space exists between the wall of
diator be ?xed in the duct L, it may merely be]
the duct and the washers. The barrier is ?tted
slipped therein.
'
between the wall of this duct and the edgesof
What I claim is:
l. A heat transferring device for effecting
50
the ?ns.»
'
'
Suitably’ in such a heat transferring device
transference of [heat between a stream of ?uid
‘applied to such a tube, wherein the overall diam- *
and ,a cylindrical metallic body, of the kind in "
eter of the ?ns is 80 m. m.,‘in which there are
which a plurality of circular cooling ?ns are dis
posed coaxially about and in heat exchanging
contact with the body, the ?ns being mutually
spaced apart, and in Which the body and‘ its ?ns
are accommodated in a cylindrical duct of larger
thirteen washers of brass 1.5 m. m. thick,‘ hav
ing a root diameter of 42 m. m. and spaced apart
'
1.5‘ m. m., and in ‘which the overall diameter
of the duct is 90 m. m.,‘the dissipation of heat
may be equivalent to 400 W for a current ‘of air
and cross sectional area than the out
' diameter
side diameter and cross sectional area of the ?ns ‘
at a temperature, at the inlet, of 30° C. ?owing
at the rate of 25 cubic feet/minuter-(equivalent
,and through which duct the stream of fluid flows, '
to a speed of approximately 1'7 metres/second), 60 characterized in that there is provided between
or to 800 W for a current of air at the same
the wall of the duct and secured to different
temperature ?owing at the rate of 50 cubic
positions on the outer edges of all of the circu- i
lar’cooling ?ns at least‘ one continuous barrier
feet/minute (equivalent to a speed of approxi
the duct at one end there- ‘
65 whereby fluid entering
of on one side of the barrier is constrained to "
pass between the ?ns in order to reach the other
If copper were used for the washers, the heat
mately 35 metres/second). The maximum tem
- perature attained is 150° C.
transferring device could be made smaller, but
usually its not desired to make it smaller since
the noise'due to the higher speed of the air
side of said barrier and so to- reach the outlet
_
at the other end of said duct.
7
'
2. A cooling device for the anode of an elec-'
70 tron discharge device in which circular cooling
might be objectionable.
.
'
?ns are disposed coaxially about and in heat ex
It will be appreciated that with a barrier as
above described, the effective inlet and outlet
changing contact with the anode,v the circular,
ori?ces at the top and bottom of the device are
cooling ?ns being mutually spaced apart, and in
widely different from each other. By means of >.75 which the anode and its cooling'?ns are con;
a modification illustrated by Figure 2 of the ac
2,406,121
centrically located in a cylindrical duct of larger
diameter than the outside diameter of the ?ns
and through which cooling ?uid ?ows, character
ized in that there is provided between the wall
of the duct and the outer edges of all the ?ns
at least one continuous barrier whereby ?uid en
tering the duct at one end thereof on one side
?n, and thence to the uppermost ?n to join the
uppermost ?n at the said one end of the diam
eter, the two points on the lowermost ?n being
at the two ends of a diameter thereof displaced
by 90° from the ?rst mentioned diameter.
6. A device as claimed in the preceding claim
wherein the barriers are attached to the inner
wall of the duct.
of said barrier is constrained to pass between the
?ns in order to reach the other side of the barrier
7. A cooling device for an electron discharge
and so to reach an outlet at the other end of the 10
device having at least a cathode and an anode,
duct.
comprising a plurality of mutually spaced circu
3. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein a
lar metallic ?ns coaxially arranged to surround
single barrier is used which is in the form of an
the anode of said electron discharge device, a
elliptical annulus extending from the topmost to
cylindrical
duct surrounding said circular ?ns
the bottommost of said ?ns.
15
4. A device as claimed in claim 2 wherein a
and a continuous barrier‘ surrounding and at
tached to a different position on each one of
plurality of ba?les are used so that equal inlet
said ?ns, and so arranged as to divert the ?ow
and outlet ?uid passages can be obtained.
of a cooling ?uid for said anode along different
5. A heat transferring device for an air-cooled
portions of said ?ns.
vacuum tube having an anode, said device hav 20
8. A cooling device for an electron discharge
ing a plurality of coaxially spaced metallic ?ns
device having at least a cathode and an anode,
surrounding said anode, comprising a ?uid duct
comprising a plurality of mutually spaced cir
surrounding said ?ns, and two barriers which
cular metallic ?ns coaxially arranged to sur
are so constructed as, together, to constitute a
round the anode of said electron discharge de
continuous member bent so as to extend from 25 vice, a cylindrical duct surrounding said circular
an edge of the uppermost ?n at one end of a
?ns and an elliptical barrier surrounding said
‘diameter thereof to a point on the edge of the
?ns and arranged to divert the ?ow of a cooling
lowermost ?n, back to the edge of the uppermost
?uid along di?erent portions of said ?ns.
?n at the opposite end of said diameter, down
again to a point on the edge of the lowermost 30
ARTHUR JAMES YOUNG.
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