Патент USA US2406134код для вставки
Aug. 20, 1946. J. A. CAMERON TOOL GRINDING MACHINE Filed July 5, 1943 ‘J0 ‘ '15 5 15 2,406,134 ' ' I I 2 Sheets-Sheet. 1] g INVENTOR. warp/1A 674M590” Aug-20, 1946. J. A. CAMERON ~ ‘ 2,406,134 TOOL GRINDING MACHINE Filed July 5, 1943 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 '16 17' INVENTOR - wasp/r ,4. 62/192790” Patented Aug. 20, ‘1946 ' - - UNI TED ' 2,406,134 STATES r r 2,406,134 ' PAT'EN ' ‘ . i ' . 1 ' . "i‘bO’L GafNnING MACHINE . Application * Joseph A. Jilly Cameron, 5, 1943; Los‘Sea Angeles; No. ‘493,556 Calif. '- I; V " ‘raisin. (01. 51-161) - 1 This invention has to do with grinding Ina chines, and more particularly with grinding ma~ chines for grinding surfaces which depart from a circular cross section. 2 l . The various features and accomplishments as: my invention, as well as other f'objects and rea tur'es'wli'ich are preliminarily mentioned, will be set forth in the following detailed description at‘ a ‘present preferred illustrative embodiment‘ of, the invention, reference for this purpose being ; Grinding machines of various designs for grinding cylindrical surfaces are- in common use, while other‘ known grinding machines are de had to the accompanying drawings, in which: - V r signed to grind solids of speci?c generation such Fig. 1 is a fragmentary side elevational ‘View 'of my grinding machine showing the workpiece be as the surfaces of gear teeth or cam shapes. Such machines, however, are limited to the con?gura ing‘hel'd b'yaj'aw chuck; tion of, the surface which may be ground,’ or ‘ , . V; _ Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional Viewthéréof require major and time consuming changes to taken through 2-2 of Fig. l; _ ‘ adapt them to the grinding of a di?erent surface. Fig. 3 is a fragmentarysectional ‘View in plan. It is a general object of the present invention to provide a grinding machine which is capable 15 taken Fig. along 4 is an the 'enlarged‘sectionalview line 3—3 of Fig. 1; I H e through _ v of grinding not only cylindrical surfaces but to the workpiece and control cam receiving enjdgf. grind a wide variety of eccentric and irregular surfaces with a minimum of unproductive time and effort in changing from one job to another. It is another object of the invention to provide a grinding machine which is capable of grinding surfaces,’ the axes of which'are either parallel tool‘ at an angle with the axis of the grinding wheel. the headstock spindle, showing a collet chuck positioned thereon; angular relationship of workpiece cam andigrind wheel for grinding the clearance angle required for a tap, end mill, router or the like; a different position of the parts; ‘and A further-object of my invention is to pro ventional grinding machine, or as an independent > _ _ _ 30 vide a grinding machine which is capable of both internal and external grinding operations.’ A still further object of vmy invention is to provide a grinding machine which is simple of construction, economical of manufacture, durable and‘e?icient in its action. ‘ - _ The grinding machine of the present invention employs a control cam to effect a movement of the rotating workpiece toward and from the grinding wheel during the grinding operation. By thisymeans, contours of various kinds may easily be provided merely by choice or design of L _ ‘_ n e I‘ Fig. ‘7 is another diagrammatic view _"showing the angular relationship of the control _ camhca’m follower, workpiece and grind wheel for grind vide a grinding means which may be arranged either as an attachmentror addition to a con A still further object of my invention is to pro _ Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5,. but showing ‘ grinding machine. ' ‘Fig. 5 is a diagram'matical view showingthe mg va square‘ opening in the workpiece. The grinding machine ‘is mounted on a 'w'brk bed'or bed frame I which may be of conventional design and may be supported and arranged by means not shown, but which may beof any con ventional type, for movement both longitudinally and transversely or merely longitudinally with 35 respect to a ‘grinding wheel G, and also for piv otal movement on a vertical axis) with respect to thegri'nding wheel. The grinding wheel‘ is supported and driven in a suitable conventional manner, not shown. Thev grinding wheel_ nary be so mounted as to move lengthwise of they bed’ frame or transversely thereto or inboth direc"-'_ tions much in the manner of the cross feed of proper cams. Preferably, and in accordance a lathe." Since supporting arrangements fenne with a present illustrative embodiment of the indicated relative ‘movements of" the 'work bed ‘I invention; the control cam is secured to am 45 and grinding wheel G are well known in the ‘art, tatabl‘e headstock spindle and the workpiece to and may be of a conventional'n'aturel, no illust‘rae be ground is secured in a suitable chuck of con tion thereof is deemed necessary'in the‘ present ventional design such as a three or four jaw chuck or collet chuck of the type used in ‘engine A_ headstock; base structure 2 is mounted on the lathes. The control cam ‘and workpiece are then 60 work bed I. This base structure may be a mem rotated at a suitable speed and the workpiece is ber of inverted channel cross section and is se caused to move laterally to and from the grind cured nearione end to the midportion of the work drawings; ing wheel during the course of each revolution in accordance with the con?guration of the control cam. . ~ -> " . a . Me bed I by a pivot pin 3. The pivot pin may be in the form of a bolt adapted, when loosened,- to 55 permit angular adjustment of the base structure 2,406,134 ' ' 3 4 \. ried thereby are moved laterally to and from the grinding wheel G. jwith respect to the bed frame I about a verti ical axis; and, when tightened, to secure the base structure 2 in its adjusted position. While a bolt Sometimes it is desired to mount a relatively long workpiece between the headstock spindle lis-shown for simplicity,it is of course obvious ‘that more elaborate securing and adjusting and a tailstock spindle and to move such work, piece bodily to and from the grinding wheel. jmeans may be provided to facilitate accurate’ an ‘gular adjustment ‘of the base structure 2. The pivoted end of the base structure may be "rounded and bear scale markings 4 which co-act This is accomplished by means of an extension 29 of the rockable shaft 8 which is supported by bracket bearing 30. Normally the extension 29 is in coaxial relation with the rockable shaft 8; with a reference line'4a scribed on a contiguous however, topermit pivotal ‘movement of the base I complementary plate 5. Bracket bearings 6 and frame 2 about the pivot pin 3, a universal joint 3| ‘ ‘I extend upwardly from the base structure 2 and ‘connects the rockable shaft 8 and its extension : support a rockable shaft 8. ‘ ’ ‘. 29. . Ifdesired, the two shafts may be merely Journaled freely rotatable on the en d portion. 7 capable of disconnection ‘at this point for the tail of the rockable shaft remote from the pivot pin stock is not employed in conjunction with the ; 3 is a pulley unit 9 comprising aplurality of pul ' ‘headstockexcept when the two shafts 8 and 29 ; ley wheels of di?erentdiameters which may also _. , are coaxial. The extension 29 of the rockable shaft 8 has ‘1tatable connected on by said a belt shaft II to 8. aThe corresponding pulley .unitpulley 9 is; 20 secured thereon a tailstock arm 32 which care ries a tailstock spindle 33 or other conventional 3 unit Ill mounted on a headstock spindle l2. The work supporting tool or ?xture, ‘ 1 7 . headstock spindle _|2 is supported above and par Operation of my grinding machine isas fol 1 include a suitable drive pulley 9a also freely ro ‘ allel .to the rockable shaft 3 byra pair of head lows: . ' I'stock arms7 l3 and I4. The headstock arms are, 1. Grinding cylindrical objects.--The head' ?xedly secured at their lower ends to the rock 25' stock and tailstock spindles are disposed'in align i able'shaft 8 and their upper ends form coaxial ment; that is, the base structure 2. is in its “0” . bearings |3a and Ma which receive and support ' crneutral straight line position.‘ A plain circu ‘ rotatablyvthe headstock spindle l2. lar disc concentric with respect to the workpiece The end of the headstock spindle l2 above the is employed in place of the control cam It. The ‘ pivoted end of the base frame 2 is provided. with 30 workpiece is then rotated while the grinding .a control cam collar |5_ which is adapted to carry . wheel is moved into engagement with the work's l the control cam I6. The control cam is in the 1 piece and either the grinding wheel or work bed form of disc secured to collar I5 by screws |'|,'and is moved longitudinally within the region of the j the periphery of the cam is shaped to cause move work to be ground. If the workpiece be long, 5 ment of the workpiece to and from the. grinding 35 it is supported between both the headstock and , wheel during the course of revolution, as will be , tailstock spindles; otherwise it need be held only The cam . describedin more detail hereinafter. by the headstock spindle. 1 may have any outline, depending upon the char- ‘ 1 acteristics, desired to be given the workpiece. A tain cutting tools or workpieces with a'clear work holding devices such as a, jaw chuck 20 . ' mode of operation described above, with the ex- , ception that a cam |6 having a predetermined ance angle appears in Figs.,6 and '7. . the ?ange I5 is threaded as indicated at l9 (see i ‘ Figure 4) to accommodate various conventional v surface to be ground is parallel to the axis of rotation, the workpiece is mounted as in the ?rst ' cam outline speci?cally designed to grind cer The headstock spindle l2 is provided with‘ a‘ I bore [8 therethrough, and its end portion beyond _ 2. Grinding noncylindrical objects.-—If the variation in radius 'is substituted. For example,‘ in order to grind the lands 4| of a tap or an end » mill 42, indicated diagrammatically in Figs’. 5 and 6, a controlcam l6 having a periphery of the shown in Figdl, or a collet chuck2| as shown . in Fig. 4. In the latter caseLthe collet chuck receives collets 22 adapted to be tightened by a suitable tension tube 23. Other work holding de vices and jigs may of course be employed depend ing upon the nature of the workpiece W (see Fig general shape indicated at 43 'may be used. In such operation the object is to give therlands a, proper clearance angle. The portions 44- of the cam, subtended by the same central angles as the lands 4 I , are of gradually increasing radius in the direction of rotation, the difference in radii at the beginning and end points of said portions ures 1, 5,6and7). ' _ _ being of course equal to the depth to which the A cam roller 24 bears on the periphery of the 55 trailing edges of the lands are to be ground as‘ control cam It at a point substantially tangen compared with‘ the forward edges thereof topm tial to- an are having its center originating at vide the desired clearance angle. Figs. 5 and 6' the rockable shaft 8. The cam roller is mounted show the clearance angle of the lands 4| and at the upper endof a rigid post 25 which ex the corresponding shaping of the cam 43 with tends along the side of the headstock arm [4 and" some exaggeration for clarity of illustration. Inv is secured at its lower end to the base frame 2 Fig. 5, the parts are shown just before one of vthe so that the roller 24 occupies a ?xed position with lands 4| engages the grind wheel, and just be fore the cam' portion 44 engages the roller 24. respect‘to the base structure 2. A horizontal stem 26 is pivotally connected at 2'! to the head-. 15 At a position just beyond that of Fig. ,5, the leading portion of the land 4| engages the grind stock arm I4 and extends outwardly therefrom‘ wheel, and the cam portion 44 reaches the roller through an opening in the post. The extended 24. As the portion 44 of the cam then moves end of the stem is provided with a head and be-‘ across the roller 24, the entire working assem ’ tween the head and post 25 is a heavy spring 28‘ which, acting against the post 25, draws the en tire headstock assembly‘ comprisinghe'adstocki arms I3 and I4 and headstock 'spindleel2'towa'rdi the post and causes the’p‘eriphery of the semis; to bear against the roller: 24. h a consequence; the headstockspindle and'the workpiece W, ear-‘L 75 bly including headstock spindle l2, arms [3 and. > M, and ‘the workpiece moves gradually towards '_ the grind wheel, thus grinding the land_4| ‘with the clearance angler desired." Fig.6 shows the. parts with the trailing edge portions or heels * of the land being ground, and just about to sepa-; 2,406, 134: 5 rate from the grind wheel. The portions 45 of the cam between portions 44 merely connect the latter and serve to return the workpiece to the proper position for the beginning engagement of the next land with the wheel G. 3. Grinding a tapered surface.-+A tapered sur designed so that the Whole may constitute a com plete machine entity, as distinguished from an accessory or attachment. ' _ While I have now described a preferred spe face is ground in the manner of the ?rst or sec ci?c illustrative embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact illustrative machine as shown and ond mode of operation described above with the speci?cally described, but that various changes in exception that the base plate 2. is set horizontally design, structure and arrangement may be made at an angle. This may be at a slant in either one 10 , without departing from the spirit of the present direction or the other so that the workpiece may, invention or the scope of the appended claim. diverge or converge toward its extremity. Thus, I‘claim: , the end of a tap may be ground with a taper A grinding machine, comprising a headstock towards its extremity; whereas, an end mill or base structure pivotally mounted near one of its router may be ground so that it diverges towards 15 ends about a vertical axis, means for releasably its extremity. In such a mode of operation, the tailstock is not employed. If the workpiece is relatively long, however, it may be desired to sup port it by the tailstock. In this type of operation securing said base structure in its angularly ad justed positions about its pivotal axis, a rockable shaft carried by said base structure and projected whole to the necessary angle relative to the grind ing wheel on the previously-mentioned vertical whereby to be swung laterally of the axis of said rockable shaft upon a forced rocking movement of said shaft, a rotatable spindle iournaled on said headstock unit with its axis parallel to the axis at one end over said pivoted base structure end, the base plate 2 is placed on a centered position 20 a headstock unit swingably secured to said rock on the work bed I, and the latteris pivoted as a able shaft above said headstock base structure pivot 3 with which the work beds of‘ grinding ma~ . chines are conventionally provided. 4. Grinding internal surfaces-For such oper ations, the grinding machine may be set up as for any of the operations 1, 2 or 3 described above. In place of the grinding wheel G, an internal of said rockable shaft, a control cam carried by and rotated with said spindle, a roller abutment positioned peripherally opposite said control cam and ?xed stationarily with respect to the head stock base structure, spring means interposed be tween said roller abutment and said headstock unit for maintaining the control cam forcibly but grinding wheel or spindle I, represented diagram matically in Fig. 7 is employed. The internal grinding wheel or spindle is, of course, small in diameter to ?t Within the socket or bore to be ground and is supported by any suitable conven_ yieldably in engagement with said roller abut ment whereby said headstock unit is caused to tional means, not shown. In Fig. '7, for purposes of illustration, a control cam I6 having a special surface 5| is shown shaped to cause the grinding of a square opening 52 in a workpiece W. swing in accordance with the peripheral con?gu ‘ ration of said control cam, means on said head Other internal shapes may be as readily ground by proper shape of the control cam. By reason of the fact that the control cam It‘ is mounted coaxially with respect to the Work piece and is adjacent thereto and rotates there with, it is a simple matter to adjust the phase relation 0r angular position of the workpiece with 45 respect to the control cam. As indicated in the foregoing description, the Work bed proper and grinding Wheel G themselves together with their directly associated elements may be conventional, in which case my frame structure 2 and its associated parts are, in eifect, an attachment. However, it is of course obvious that the work bed and grinding wheel together with their associated elements may be specially stock spindle for supporting and rotating a work piece about the axis of said spindle, a grinding element cooperatively positioned and arranged and adapted for peripheral grinding engagement with the workpiece as supported on the spindle of said headstock unit in whatever angular posi tion the headstock base structure may be adjust ed about its pivotal axis, a laterally swingable tailstock unit, said tailstock unit being mounted on a rockable shaft supported and arranged as a continuation of the ?rst-mentioned rockable shaft and normally in axial alignment therewith, and a universal coupling between said ?rst-men tioned and said last-mentioned rockable shafts, said coupling having its center in alignment with the pivotal axis of the headstock base structure. JOSEPH A. CAMERON. '