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Патент USA US2406138

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Aug- 20, 1946'
W. VFERRIS ‘ET AL
v
HYQDRQDYN‘AMIC~
2,406,138
MACHINE
‘
' Filed Jan. 14, ‘i942
'
>
‘ 76 Sheets-‘Sheet 2
'INVEAIITOR‘S;
WALTER‘ FE'RRIS
v
‘.ADULF R. BRAD
‘AT TDRNEY.
Aug. .20, l9_46.- ‘
V w. FE‘IRRIIS ET AL
v
2,406,138
, HXDRODYNAMIC MACHINE
Filed Jan.|14, 1942 '
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
I3
' '42
‘WALTER
.
Juiszvr'oasé
'F'ERRIS
.ADDLF H. GRADv
AT TDRNEYZ ‘
'
Aug. 20,1946.
w. FERRIS ETAL
'
HYDRODYNAMIC
2,406,138
MACHINE
_
. Filed Jan. 14, 1942
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
-
mvtmoxsg
WALTER Fenms
ADDILF F1‘. GRAD
ATTORNEY.
‘
‘
‘2,406,138
Patented Aug. 20, ‘194-6
UNITED " STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE. ~
2,406,138
_
HYDRODYNAMIC MACHINE
Walter Ferris, Milwaukeepand' Adolf R. Grad,
Wauwatosa, Wis., assignors:
The-oilg'ear
Company, Milwaukee, Wis.,;a‘ corporation of‘
Wisconsin
Application January 14, 1942, Serial No. 426,702‘
22‘ Claims.
(Cl. £03--161l)‘
This‘ invention relates to ‘hydrodynamic ma
chines of the type which has cylinders arranged
in a rotary cylinder barrel, a stationary valve
having inlet and ‘outlet ports with which each
machine“ ‘in which the'invention ‘is em‘
bodied.
'
l
.
'
Since ‘the same hydrodynamic machine will‘
function either as’ a‘ pumphor as a motor and since
cylinder-communicates- alternately as the cylin
the function of a motor is- the reverse-of the
der rotates, a piston ?tted in each cylinder, and
a reaction member arranged around the cylin
der barrel in contact with the outer ends of the
pistons and having its axis o?set from the axis
of the cylinder barrel when the machine is per
forming useful work. "Such a machine will func
plained as applied to'a pump in order to‘ simplify‘
the ‘description but. it is to v‘he understood that the"
invention *is- equally applicable’ to a- motor and
that the invention is ‘in no way limited by des
function of a pump, the invention will be ex‘
ignating' the machine asia pump.
'
V
The invention is ‘exempli?ed by the hydrodyi'
nanric machine shown partlyv in detail and in
tion as a pump when driven from a source of
power or- it will function as a motor when sup
plied with motive liquid.- I
A part‘ diagrammatically in- the accompanying
1-6'
drawings in ‘which the views are as follows:
vOne object of the invention is to provide a
, Fig‘; l is alongitudinal section through- a'pum'p~
machine which i'sv very small in size relative to
its'power capacity.
inv which the invention» is embodied, the view‘ bee
ingi takengon the irregular line |'—-l- of Fig; 2.
'
Another objecti's to- greatly increase the num
ber of pistons and cylinders without materially
increasing the size of the cylinder barrel.
, » “ Fig». "2- is a transverse section taken" on the ir
Fig. ‘dis an elevation partly in section of the
' Another object is to» provide a hydrodynamic
machine of the'rolling piston ‘type with a cylin- ,
tier-barrel in which the pistons and cylinders are
so arranged as to neutralize‘t‘h‘e ‘axial components
of‘ the forces transmitted-through the pistons. ‘
cylinder barrel of the-pump.
'
Fig.f4~ isarsection taken substantially on the
‘ _ irregular line 4-1 of'FFi-g.~3~. ~'
25
Another object is to provide a hydrodynamic
machine with 5a ?at va-l‘vdmember having the
passages so arranged therein that the bearing
‘Fig. 5- is- a perspective view of the valve ‘mem
berofthe-pump.
>
‘
Figs. 6" and '7 are sectional plan views taken
through the valve member and a part of'the‘end
head of ‘the pump'casing as indicated, respec
area of the valve member may" be reduced to a
36- tively by'lines ‘6-4 and- 1-4 of Fig. 53.
Fig. 8 is a section taken onthe'line 81-8 of
Another object is toprovide means for pre
Fig. 1."
.
'
venting‘ the» high pressure liquid from lifting‘ the‘
Fig. 9 is a sectional view showing a part of‘ the
flat valve member of a hydrodynamic-machine
fromits seat particularly when the cylinder bar' r pump control mechanism, the view being ‘taken
substantially-on the line 9-9 of Fig. 2. '
_ '
rel is rotating at a low speed.
minimum.
‘
.
Fig. 110 isa sectional view showing another part,
' Another ‘object is‘ to provide a hydrodynamic"
machine with a control which in response to the
application thereto- of an-external ‘force will vary
the displacement of the machine and which will
automatically reduce the displacement of ‘the
of the pump control mechanism, the view‘ being
taken substantially on the‘li-ne I0-—l0 of Fig. 2.
}
Fig. l1 is a view showing-a detail vof a cam for
40" varying pump-displacement. ,
machine to zero upon the external force“ ‘being
Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic view showing the
hydraulic circuit‘ of the pump and, illustrating
eliminated.
the'method- of‘ controlling pump displacement.
-
Another object is to provide a hydrodynamic
~ Figs._l3aand 14 are face ‘views, respectively, of}
machine in. which the reaction member is, con. 4'5" the‘ valve seat and?‘ valve} member of a ‘hydrody
stantly urged againstv a. cam which is shiftable, to
namic machine of‘ larger capacity than the ma
permit or to cause the reaction member to move.
in one direction or the. other and the; path of the
cam is positively determined by a. roller bearing."
chine shown in Fig. l.
A.v hydrodynamic machine constructed‘ accord
ing. to. the invention has the advantage. 'of' being.
positive and precise in, operation and susceptible‘
‘Fig. 16 i'sa section taken on the line lie-4R6 of
Fig.14: f I‘
>
1
of extremely close adjustment and control,
ing mechanism: arranged‘ within a casing‘ I which
is’ closed at its’, rear; end by a rear head 2" and
{Qt'her objects and advantages-will appear from i
'
V
Fig. 715 is a section taken on the line l5—l5 of
Fig: 14..
p
,
.
,
‘The, pumpchosen for illustration has its pump
the description hereinafter‘ given of a hydrody~ 55 at its front end by‘ a front head’ v3 having attached
{2,406,133
thereto a gland ‘4 through which adrive shaft
ID are inclined to the ‘cylinder barrel ax'isyand
5 ‘extends for connection to a source of power.
I Shaft'l5 has its front part journaled in a bear-1
ing 6 carried’ by front head 3 and its rear part
?xed to a cylinder barrel 1 which is rotatably .
supported by a bearing 8 carried by casing I.‘
For convenience in manufacturing, the rear part
of shaft .5 may. be enlarged and ‘?rmly pressed
1 into cylinder barrel ‘I to form'in e?ect a part
‘
thereof as shown but cylinder barrel 1 and the ‘
rear part of shaft 5 may be formed integral with ..
I each other and the front part of shaft 5 either 1
the outer end of each piston 9 is so shaped that
it engages ring I 6 upon a single spot which is
offset at such a, distance from the piston axis,
that the variation in the linear speed of the
outerend of each piston relative to the speed
of-‘_ring>|6 causes thepistonv to‘rotate in its cyl
inder as it-reciprocates therein.
’
V
In order to provide the maximum number of
cylinders in a cylinder barrel of a-given size,
alternate cylinders are inclined in opposite di
rections in respect to the cylinder barrel axis.
, formed integral therewith or connected thereto. .
If all of the cylinders in a cylinder barrel were in
A piston 9 is ?tted in each of a plurality of
the same plane, the inner ends could be arranged
3 cylinders In which are formed-in cylinder barrel "
close together with only a wall of the necessary
l and communicate with a plurality of passages
7 thickness between adjacent cylinders but the
II formed in shaft 5 and extending through its 7 outer ends of the cylinders would be spaced far
‘ rear'end which forms a seat I2 for a‘?at faced ‘
enough apart to provide su?icient space for an
, valve I3 having two arcuate grooves or'ports I4
other cylinder between each two adjacent cylin
3 and I5 formed therein._ '_Passages II constitute 20 ders. Therefore, by inclining alternate cylinders
, ‘cylinder ports each of which registers with valve
in opposite directions, approximatelyv twice as
ports I4 and I5 alternately as cylinder barrel 1’ > many cylinderscan be formed in the cylinder
1 rotates and, in order that one cylinder port may
barrel.
that another cylinder port opensto the. other
'
ring , I 6 is eccentric thereto, the-outer end of
g with two adjacent cylinders I0 whose axes slope ‘
‘ in opposite directions.
The‘ outer ends of» pistons 9 engage the inner
f faceof a, thrust ring"; which, since the pump '
chosen for illustration is‘very small, has been
shown as constituting. the inner racevof a roller.
1 bearing ‘If! ‘the outer race of whichis formed by
the annular inner surface‘ of a slide block I8,
1 thereby savingthe‘spaee that the inner and outer
each. piston 9 has a small movement axially of
ring I6 and, when pumping forces are being
transmitted from ring I6 to the pistons, this
movement causes cylinder barrel 1 to be subjected
to a horizontal force which tends to move it axis,
ally and which may be designated as a horizontal
frictional component of the pumping force. How-,
ever, by inclining alternate pistons in opposite
directions, the horizontal forces or components
neutralize each other and consequently cannot
1 races of the roller bearing would ordinarily oc-_
,cupy.v ‘Ring I6: is restrainedfrom axial _move
cause axial movement of cylinder barrel ‘I.
‘
When the machineis functioning as’ a pump,
I ment by suitable ?angescarriedlby cylinder bar
liquid under pressure will .be discharged from
rel-1. Thrust ring It, roller-ibearing I1 and slide
cylinders I0 through one port I4 or I5’ and liq
uid at a lowv pressure will be returned to cylin
ders I0 through the other port I4 orl5 and, when
I block I8 constitute a reaction memberfor effect»
‘ ingv reciprocation of pistons 8» when cylinder bar
rel ‘I is rotated and the-axis .of thrust ring I 6,
7
'
each piston 9 and the axis of cylinder barrel 1
varying when cylinder barrel 1 is rotated and
valve port, an odd number of passages are pro
, videdL '- As shown, shaft 5. has seven-passages II
‘ formed, therein and each passage communicates‘
» is offset fromthe'axislof cylinder barrel 1. t
'
Due to the distance ‘between the outer end of
' ‘ not open to one valve port at thesame instant
45
Slide block l_8 may be supported upon ‘slide,
the machine is functioning'as a motor, liquid un
der pressure will be delivered 'tocylinders IIli
through one port I4 or 'I5‘and‘liquidfat a'low
plates according to the usual practice but it has
beenjshown supported upon fourrollers I9 which
‘are.’ arranged at its four corners and permit it
pressure will be discharged from cylinders. I0
through the other port I4 or I5.
’Regardless of whether the machine functions‘,
to be moved transversely of they cylinder barrel 50. as a pump or as a motor, the liquid in one of the
‘axis ~to varypump displacement but restrainrit
valve ports is under a/high pressure, theliquid
1from vertical movement, axial movement of, slide,
in the other valve port is under a low, zeroor
7 block ISIWbeing prevented bycasing I and front
negative pressure, minute quantities of liquid will
3head 3.. Slide block, I8 constitutes one vrace for
escape from uthe'high pressure port and spread
each roller I9 and thereby saves valuable space. 55 over valve seat I2 andrthe face of valve. I3 to
3 whenxcylinderbarrel ‘I is rotated,._the friction
form a lubricating ?lm therebetween, the pres
‘between the outer ends’ of pistons 9 and ring I6
sure prevailingin the high pressure port will‘
jcauses ring I67 to rotate substantially in syn
extend into the lubricating ?lm, and the pres
chronism with cylinder barrel 1. When slide
sure prevailing in one or both of, the ports and
block I8 is shifted from its neutral position so 60
‘
der barrel axis, each piston 97 will move progres
s'ivelywoutward an'dldraw liquid into its cylinder
I0} during one half'of each revolution of cylinder
barrel 'I-‘pand?it will move progressively inward 65
and expel liquid from its ‘cylinder during the
other'half of each revolutionof cylinder bar-l ‘
. that the axis ofring I6 is offset fromthe cylin
rel
7.
.
s
,
>
\
I
I" The distance‘between the outer end of _; each
in the ?lm will tend to move the valve away from
its seat.
'
Due to the pressure being very high in one valve
port and very low or absent in the other valve
port, the ?lm pressure varies from a high pres
sure'at the edge of the high pressure portto a
low or zero pressure at the edge of the other
portand to zero at the edge of thevalve seat.
Consequently, the center of pressure is not on
the 'c'enter'of the valve but, if‘ thepressure in the
piston and the cylinderbarrel axis thus con
70 low pressure port is zero or'negative,v the center
of- pressure is near .the center of a high pressure‘
ative to‘the substantially constant speedlof ring
' area whichextends around the high pressure
stantly varies“ with a resultant variation in the
linear speed of the outer end of ‘each, pistonrel
IB.. 'Inorder to avoid sliding friction'betweeni
port or, if-vthere, is pressure in the low pressure.
port, there will be one center of pressure near
ri?e!” and the germs bf. Pistons 9,..cy1indersf 75. the center of a_ high pressure area which extends,
61
force which‘ is .proportional'to the c'om‘binedre;
around (the "high pressure put and ‘another-‘ween! '
ter of pressure near the center of a low pressure
area whichextends around the low pressure port.
However, the force exerted by the liquid in‘
the low pressure'area is ordinarily so small that
it may be disregarded in the present explana
sis'tances of ‘springs-28 and :34.
.
.
v I;
- The ‘pressure vin bore 24- ' u the same as the?
pressure in vport l4 and this pressure acts upon
1 the end ‘of piston ‘21 and causes it to. urge valve"
l3 against its seat "with a ‘force which isrpropor
tional to and‘varies inv accordance with varia-v
tionsv in the pressure in port 114'. "The pressure
tion and'only the high pressure area considered,
‘it being understood that the center of high pres,
ineach 10f ‘bores 30 is the same as the pressure.‘
sure is on one side of the cylinder'barrel ax-is
when one port is the high pressure port and on 10' in ‘port'il‘i' and ‘this pressure acts upon the-end
of‘ piston 33 and causes it to urge valve r 13
the other side of the cylinder barrel axis when
against its seat with a force which is properthe other port is the high pressure port.
I
tional to and varies in accordance with varia
In order to limit the area of the ?lm into
tions'in'thepressureinport l5.
‘
which pressure may extend, a recess 20 is formed
Each hold-up piston and the bore in which it
in-the'frace of valve 13 at the center thereof, a v15
is ?tted constitutes? a hold-up motor and- the"
limit groove 2| ‘is for-medi-n the 'face of valve-“l3
several hold-up motors are so proportionedt-hat,
between the periphery thereof and the outer
regardless of ‘which of ports l4 and I5 is the.
edges of ports [4 and -l5,~and drain ducts- 20‘
high pressure- port, the hold-up force applied to.v
and 2|" extend, respectively, from recess 2ll~and
grooves 2| rearwardthrough valve I3 so that 20 valve 13» exceeds the force tending to~move itv
away from seat l2 by an amount which is great
liquid entering'recess 26 ‘and’ groove 2| may‘drain
enough ‘to hold valve I3 against seat‘ 12 but "is"
into ‘casing I. The area (of valve‘face outside
not’ great-enough to vcause an-unnecessary- frlic-i
of groove 2| simply acts as a bearing‘ area as
tional ‘drag upon seat I12 during rotation thereof’
there is no pressure in the filth between it and
seat '12.
‘
In order that valve l3 may ‘not be moved away
fromits seat l2 by the pressure in the valve port
and in the lubricating ?lm, it is urged toward its
seat by a constant force and by forces which
vary in accordance with variations in the pres
sure prevailing in the valve ports.
As "shown'in Figs. land 5, port l4 communi
cates with a passage '23 which extends through
valve ‘l3 into alinement with a bore 24 formed
25 >
relative to valve l3.
‘
’
‘The hold-up motors are so arranged that'tl/ie“v
force exerted by a hold-uprmotor or the resultant‘
of the forces exerted by a group of hold-‘up
motors on one side of the. cylinder barrel axis
is applied to the- ‘valve at a point which is‘ ap
proximately opposite the» pressurec‘enter 10f’ the-‘
pressure area surrounding the valve ports cn-the
same side of the cylinder barrel'axis. -
-
’
.
If a single hold-up motor or the same riurnbe
in rear head 2 and ‘communicating vwith a pas- 35 of hold-up motors were‘ arranged upon opposite‘
sides of‘ the cylinder barrelv axis of a small m-a-? ‘
sage 25 which extends-outward'through rear head
2 ‘for connection to an externallcircu-it. A'sub
stantially ?uid tight joint between passage 23
chine, corresponding 'motors ‘would necessarily be‘
of the same diameter and it would be impossible
to arrange them close enough together to apply
and bore’ 24 is provided by a ‘thimble 26 having
its ‘front end forming a ?at slidable ‘joint with _ r the. hold-up ‘forces to the proper points on ‘the
valve without increasing‘ thediameterof the valve:
the rear face of valve l3 and its rear end form
and the valve seat to- such an extent that the"
ing a substantially spherical joint with a tubular
overall size of the machine would be materially
hold-up piston 21 which is ?tted in bore 24 and
increased and the frictional drag‘ on the valve
urged against thimble 26 by a spring 28 arranged
seat increased so much that the efficiency'ofthe
in the rearend of bore 24. Passages ll, port I4,
machine would be seriously impaired.’
'
'
passage 23-; thimble. '26, ‘the bore through piston
The present invention, however, provides‘ a
21, bore 24 and ‘passage 25*form' a channel for
different number of hold-up motors of ‘different
the ‘flow ‘of liquid between cylinders l0 and one
diameters upon opposite sides of the cylinder
side of an external circuit.
barrel axis so that they» maybe arranged close
As shown in Figs. 5 and 7', port l'5 communi
together and the e?‘iciency of‘ the machine main
cates with two passages 29 each of which ex
tained' while reducing overall dimensions to’ a
tends through valve I3 into alinement with a
minimum. While the machine has ‘been shown:
bore 3li~formed in rear head ‘2 and communicat
provided with one h'old-up- motor on one side of
ing- with a passage 31' which extends outward
the cylinder barrel axis and two smaller hold
through rear head 2 for connection to an ex- up motors on the other side ‘thereof, it‘ is obvious‘
ternal circuit. A substantially fluid tight joint
that agreater number‘ of hold-up motors could
between each passage 29 and a bore 30 is pro
be provided, particularly in ‘a machine of greater
vided by a thimble 32 having its front end form
capacity,v providing that a greater number were
ing a ?at slidable joint with the rear face of
arranged upon one side of the axis than upon
valve l3 and its rear end-forming a substantially
spherical joint 'with a tubular hold-up piston
the other side thereof.
of‘ an external circuit.
case are the ends of passages l I‘.
7 As best shown in Fig. 5, ports I! and [5' are "
33 which is ?tted in bore 30 and urged against,
separated from each other at the ends thereof'by I
thimble 32 by a spring 34 arranged in the rear
valve areas which are generally known as bridges
end of bore 30. Passages ll, port l'5,‘ passages
29', thimbles 32, the bore through pistons 33, bores 65 and provide seals between the two ports; thatis,‘
the length ‘of each bridge is at least as great as
30‘ and passage 31 form a channel for the ?ow
the diameter of the cylinder ports which ‘in this
of liquid between cylinders I0 and the other side
When the machine is performing work, high I
Thimble 26 is held against ‘valve I13 and piston
21 is held against thimble 26 by spring 28,_ each 70 pressure prevails in the cylinder ports communi
cating with the high pressure valve ports and in
thimble 32 is held against valve l3 and each pis
the cylinder port Which has just passed onto a
ton'33 is held against a thimble 32 by a spring
bridge from the high pressure ‘Valve port buthhas I
34-, and valve [3‘ is held against its seat I: by
not opened to the low pressure valve portjg‘low‘
spring 28 and-both of springs 34‘ so: that ‘valve I3
» pressure prevails in the cylinder ‘ports cornmuni'is constantly urged against-its-seat 12 a constant
2,406,138
eating with .the low pressure valve port’ and in theii
cylinder port which has just passedonto abridge
,from the low pressure. valve port but has not
opened to the high pressure valve port; and the
number of high pressure cylinder ports and the‘
number of'low pressure cylinder ports continuous
Forrexam
additiongto thehold-up forces exerted thereon by ,
the hold-up motors. As soon- as the cylinder port
passes'gbeyond the end of duct 42, enough liquid
I can escape through duct 42 from the balancing
motor to substantially deenergize it. 7 Since ex
- lyvary as the cylinder barrel rotates.
tension of the pressure area and the shift of the
center of'pressure is due to the pressure in the
plain the machine shown there will be four high,
pressure cylinder ports and three low pressure‘
cylinder ports at one‘instant and three high pres-v
sure cylinder ports and four lowpressure ,cylin
der ports at the next instant.
cylinder portsracrting upon the bridges, the'ba1-_
ancingmotors are energized and deenergized in
synchronism, with the changes in the center of
pressure sothat valve I3 is held ?rmly to its seat
'
This variation in the number of high pressure‘
cylinderports causes the pressure area surround-i
without excessive hold-up forces being exerted
thereon.
ing the high pressure valve port to vary'betweenj 15;
a minimum and a maximum and the center ofi
pressure'of that area to move radially.
87.
it .to;exerit upon valve seat 13 a‘jhold-up force in
'
I
.
-
Thevolumetric capacity vof a machine of the
type shown is ordinarily increased by adding ad
The pres- 1
ditional rows of pistons 9 and cylinders I 0 in
whichcase the machine is ordinarily of the split
phase type, that‘is, the cylinder ports are ar
one ofthe bridges and it is extended suddenlyby 2,0 ranged in at least two concentric circular rows
sure area is, extended-gradually by a cylinder port
moving from the high pressure valve port onto
a'cylinder port moving from the other bridge into
’ and the leading edges of the ports in one row are
‘ / communication with the high pressurevalve port. \
The pressure area is suddenly reduced by a cylin- ‘ ‘
offset from the leading edges of’ the ports in the
other row so that the cylinder ports open suc
der port. containing liquid under high pressure
cessively to the valve ports.
moving from one bridge into communication with 25
For example, such a machine may be pro
the low pressure valve port and it is gradually
vided with a- valve seat l2?1 which has a plural
reduced as the cylinder port moves off the other
ity of circular cylinder ports lla and a plurality
bridge into full registry with the high pressure‘
of elongated cylinder ports I Ib formed therein in
valve’ port. Extending the pressure area on one
concentric circular rows as shown in Fig. 13, it,
or both bridges causes the center of. pressure to,‘
being understood that valve seat l2a is formed
move from the center of ,pressureof the mini- ‘
upon the end of the rotor of themachine in the
mum pressure area radially inward and also ;par
same manner that valve seat I2 is formed upon I
allel to the axis of the bridges. >
'
the end of the rotor of the machine shown in
'Figal.
; r v’ When the machine is‘operatingat high speed, ‘
Ports llb are elongated in order to keep
‘ thersizeof the pressure area and the location of 35 as small as possible the valvelmember ‘I35 with
the center ofrpressure change so rapidly thatv
'which valve seat [2% coactsv to control the ?ow
properly located hold-up motors ;will hold the ‘
of; liquid to and from the pumping cylinders;
valve to its seat but if the machine is operating
Since valve l3a is functionally the same as the
atlow speed as when a motor is starting its load,
valve l3 previously described,.like parts have
thechange in the pressure'area' and in the center 40 been indicated by like reference numerals with
of_.pressure causes the valve to be tilted or to be
the exponent “a” added to the reference numeri
lifted from its seat so that liquid can escape from
als applied to valve [3“.
'
between the valve and its seat to such an extent
Since the cylinder ports are arranged in two.
1 thatunder certain circumstances the motor can
concentric rows, thejvalve ports Ill‘1 and l5a in
‘ not start its load.
‘
_
>
.
V45 valve I3a are made wide enough to register with
r i
In order to prevent the valve from being tilted
‘ or lifted from its seat, the hold-up motors are so
both, rows of cylinder ports and the bridges be- a
tween the valve ports are wider at theirouter ’
1 arranged that the force exerted by a single motor ' ends than at their inner ends and are so shaped '
or the resultant. of the forces exerted by a plu- }
as to completely cover each cylinder port as it
, rality'ofmotors is applied to the valve at a point’ 50, centers uponabridge. .
.
'
1 approximately opposite the center of pressure of ,
Since valve “is is of substantial size, the same,
; the minimum pressure area and balancing mo-.‘
number of hold-up motors may be arranged upon
opposite sides of its axis. Asshown, valve l3a
the pressure areas and shifts‘ of the centerbfu has two passages 23a extending therethrough
pressure toward one bridge or the .other, the bal-j 55 from port Ma and two passages 29a extending
" ancing motors being arranged behind the bridges
therethrough from port I5a. Each passage 23a
‘ tors are provided to compensate for increases in_
and supplied with liquid through ducts which ex
' j tend through the face of the valve.
'
communicates with one side of a hydraulic circuit
a through a hold-up motor of which only the tubu
7
If the machine is small and of the single phase,
; type as shown in Figs. 1 to 12, a single balancing
. motor is arranged behind each of they bridges.
so
f ‘As shown, a cylinder 40 (Fig. 6) is formed in valve
[3 behind each of the bridges, apiston 4| is ?tted
in each cylinder 40 and bears against the front
lar piston 21a and. the thimble' £6a have beenv
shown, and each passage 29a communicates with,
the other side of the circuit through a hold-up
motor'of which only the tubular piston 33a and
the thimbl'e 32a have been shown.
7
In asmall machine. the ‘pressure areas and .
‘ end of rear head 2, and a duct 42 extends from 65. hold-up forces are small and a single balancing
‘ cylinder 40 through the face of the bridge. The
j outer ends of ducts 42 are usually located directly ‘
1 in‘ the path of the cylinder ports but they may be
, o?'set therefrom.
As each cylinder port crosses a bridge, a pres
sure impulse is transmitted therefrom to the bale
ancing motor behind that bridge through duct 42
, either directly from the cylinder port or through
i the lubricating ?lm on the bridge.
The pressure a
j impulse energizes the balancing motor and causes
motor behind each bridge compensates satisfac
torily for the variations in theh'igh pressure area,
but in' a large machine with a single balancing,
motor behind each bridge the errors in compen
sation result in. larger unbalanced forces, and in
virregularities ofgmovement which become con
spicuous atlow speeds. Therefore, 'a-large size
machine ordinarily has a plurality/of balancing
motors arranged behind each bridge and adapted
to be successively energized and deenergized.
10
As shown, valve I3“ has six balancing'motors
Elie-Ma" arranged behindaeac-h' of: its.brid‘ges.,. a
duct ?e-leadscfromeach cylinder 40a‘throughthe
face of‘ valve‘ l3a, one half of‘ ducts I42a have. the
outer ends thereof arranged in thezpath'of‘ cyl
inder ports. He and they other h'ali‘of ducts 42a
have the outer ends thereof arranged in. the
path of. cylinder ports Iii”-
'
Theouter: ends of du'cts42a'are-so spac'edth'at
each. cylinder port registers: ?rst. with one then
withtwo and then with-th'reeducts 42E andthen
passesout of registry with the ducts successively
the
of; slide block, LB: spring 52 .is assisted
thrust of‘ pistons 9" against ring l6.
"
Since the strength of a: compression spring; de
creases :as it expands'and since the’ movement of
the slide block toward the right from its neutral
position is opposed’ by the thrust ofv pistons 9
against thrust ring [6,, spring 52, is assisted'in
moving slide. block I8, toward the right from-‘its
neutral position by a piston v53 ?ttedin a cylinder
54 which is carried by casing l and connected
by a channel 55 to passage 31 as shown in Fig. 12..
The arrangement is such that, when cam-SIi-is
‘shifted; spring 52 will'move slideiblock. l8itoward
the right in respect» to Fig. 2iuntil;it hasapassed
cessively energized and then; successively deener
gized. Consequently, the forces, exerted by. the 15 its neutral position: and‘ the" pump-discharges into
passage‘Bi and’ then liquid: under‘ pressure: will
balancing motors: upon valve 1.3%" are‘ varied‘ at
?ow-from passage 31‘ tocylinder. 5.4 andzcauserpis
a rate which is approximately the same as the
ton 53110 assist. spring 52,-inmoving slide block 118'
rate. at‘ which the high pressure area varies.
While only six balancing motors have been
As-v shown in‘ Fig. '2,_ cam 5'05 has a head: 56
shown behind each‘lbridge,‘ ailarger number are 20
so" that. the hold-up motors 4.09-4l‘i1aré1. suc
farther-toward the, right.
employed in. large machines. In» fact, a medium
size machine ordinarily has;ten;balancing motors
behindeach bridge.
.
'
.
a
i
.
formedrupon one end thereof and arranged within
a hollow piston- 51 which is: ?tted in a cylinder
5'8s-ca-rried by casing l,‘ and a‘: head- 59 is'formed
upon: the other end of: cam‘v 50' and. arrangedrwithi
motorsand' the balancing motors may be; retained 25 in‘ a hollow piston’ 60: which is larger than; pis
ton 5-1 and1 ?tted in'a cylinder 6| carriedrby. cas
his position.duringass'embly of the machine, rear
ing l> in axial'alignment with cylinder ‘58..
head 2- and' valve l3 areconnected together" to
‘Cam- 50? is ordinarily" so. shaped that: when
form a. subeassembly. As shown. in Fig. 1, a rear
contact 5|‘ is in; engagement. with them-id-por
head 2'? has: two. pins ‘473-1 ?xed. therein upon. oppo
tion of cam 50, the movement of slide’ block .l:8:is
site sides, ofv its axis, the outer part of. each pin
slight relative to the. movement of’ camill but I
43 isproyid‘ed' with a. suitable cannelurev and ar
progressively increases as. contact 5| engages
rangedv in a. bore formed. invalve. i3, and valve.v [3
points on cam 50 - which‘ are; progressively farther
has ?xed therein two dowels 4.4 each of. which
from the mid-portion thereof;- 'As shown, cami'?
passes: through. the canne'lure. of a.- pin‘ 43 and
has: formed upon the face thereof'a cam track
holds valve 131 and rear head; 2' together but per
consisting of a short central'track section 6?; (Fig.
mit's valve‘ I3' tov move slightly in an- axial direc
' In order that the‘ several parts of the hold-up
tion relative to rear head 2..
_
11)- which extends parallel to the path'of. the
cam, a track section 6'3 which extends from; one
end~ of section 62 toward piston 51 and-zi‘s in
tral? position, thrust ring I6 is concentric with
cylinder barrel 1' and rotation. of cylinder bar: 40 cline-d toward slide block F85, and a track. section
64' which extends. from the other end‘ofi section
rel 1 will not cause reciprocation. of pistons‘ 9.
62' toward piston 60 and is inclined away from
When slide block L8 is shifted from its. neutral
slide'bloclel?t.
I
position, thrust. ring [6. will. be eccentric to cyli
When cam 50' is in‘ its neutral position as
‘inder barrel 1. and rotation; of. cylinder barrel 1
When. slide block'lil is in its central or neu
will‘ cause the. pumpto. deliver liquid in; a. direc- -
shown in Fig. 2, contact member 5-1 "will be in
engagement with‘ track'section 62‘ and slideblock
tion and at a. rate determined by the direction
'l'?’iwil'l be in its. neutral position so that pump
and distance-slide block‘ l8 isv o?set from i-tsjneu
displacement will be zero. When cam 50. is
tral position. If cylinder barrel 1 is rotated in
shifted upward in respect to Fig. 2; track section
a clockwise direction, shifting slide vblock l8; to.
ward' the 'leit in- respect to- Fig; 2 from‘its neutral .70 63 will pass across contact‘ 5?! and move slide
block t8‘ toward the left and thereby cause ‘the
position will cause pistons 9 to discharge through
pump to discharge liquid‘in- one direction and
passages llgport I43. passage 23; thimblel?tubu
to increase its'rate during» continued movement
lar piston 21, bore 24 and through passage 25- to
of cam 50. When cam 50 is shifted downward
‘one side of an external circuit and, shifting sliide
‘in respect to Fig.‘ 2;’track section 64‘ will pass
block 18: toward the right-in respect to Fig. 2
across- contact 5| and permit slide block l8" to
from its neutral‘ position will cause pistons 9’ :to
move toward the‘ right andv thereby cause the
discharge liquid through ‘passages ll, port 15,
pump to discharge liquid in the opposite direc
passages 29, thimbles 32, tubular pistons 33, bores
tiori and to increase its rate during continued
31! and through passage 3| to the other side of an
movement of cam 50..
external circuit.
'
I
Since‘ any power-pump'has as an inherent char
The mechanism for shifting slide block I'8' may
acteristic thereof a‘ certain amount of slip or
assume various forms but, as shOWIlySlid? block
leakage‘ and‘ since in a pump of the type shown
18 is adapted to be moved toward the left and
the rate of delivery is proportional to the dis
permitted to move toward the right in respect
tance its displacement varying member is moved
to Fig. 2 by a cam 5.1.! which engages a contact
from its neutral position, it is necessary that
member 5.1. ?xed to or formed? integral with slide
the displacement varying member be moved an
’ block i8.
Contact member 5| is, retained invengagement
appreciable distance from its neutral position
' with. cam 59: by a compression, spring: 52 which
' before the pump-can deliver liquid under pressure
to an external‘ circuit.
engages slide. block I.8' upon its‘. opposite side and
constantly urges. it toward the right. Spring 52
has su?icient strength to: hold contact 5! in en
gagement with cam 56 atallrtimes and tomove
slide block lf8‘v to, its: neutrali position from. its
. extreme; position at the. left. in which movement
Ln order that the pump may deliver liquid to
an external‘ circuit. as soon as track section 63
or .64. engages contact‘ 5|, the end of trackse‘c
time 61 rises abruptly from one end oftrack sec—
tiOn: Gland the end of track section 64."drops
abruptly away from the otherlend' of track. sec?
connected'by a ‘channel. 88'to cylinder ‘6|; and ‘
tion 62 as shown inv Fig. 111‘ The length of track
port 86 .communicateswitha channel 89 which
is connected to gear pump supplychannel 16-and
section 62 and the drop from one section toan
'other has'been magni?ed in Fig. 11 for‘the pur
pose ‘of illustration but vin practice track’ section
62li‘s'lvery' short and in a small pump such as
to cylinder 58 so that piston 51 is
gear pump pressure at all times. '
subjected to »
When pilot .valve 82 is in its neutral positio ,
it blocks" portv 85 so that no'liquid can flow to or
' shownthe drop from one track ‘section to- an
‘ ‘other is only a few thousandths vof an inch as‘
‘ that’amount of movement of slide block I8 is all
that‘ is' necessary ‘to cause the pump to supply -
escape from cylinder 6| butacvery slight move
ment thereof in one direction will open port 85
to port'84 so that liquid can escape from cylinder
liquid to compensate for leakage losses at a nor
6| and thereby‘permit the pressure in cylinder
mal operating pressure.
58 to cause piston'5'l tomove cam 58 ;in~one di
rection and a very slight movement of pilot valve
82 in the opposite direction will open port 85 to
port 86 so-that gear pump liquid can flow to cyl
inder 6| and cause piston 68 to move cam 58 in
'
' In orderthat slide'block 18 maybe adjusted
exactly to its neutral position and in order to
protect pistons 5'! vand 68 from. the transverse
thrust vexerted upon cam 58 by slide block I8,‘
cam 58 issupported at a point opposite contact
the opposite direction against-the force exerted
thereonby piston '51 which is smaller thanpis»v
5| and at'l’e'ast oneof the pistons 5'! or 68 is ?tted ‘
loosely over the head on the 'e'nd'of cam 58;
vThe control for. pilotT'valve 82 '1
includes follow
; / ' As shown in Fig. 2, head -59 is slightly smaller v20 toniiII.v
than the bore in piston 68 and a roller 65 is
‘inclined to' the plane of cam 58 and ?tted in a
. bore “which is formed in casing'l as shown
‘ in Fig.9. One end of roller '65 is approximately
1 spherical andengages the-back ofcam 58 at a
point opposite contact 5| and the other end of ‘
roller '65 is ?at‘and in engagement with‘ a ball
up mechanism which transmits motion ‘from cam
58 to'valv'e 82 and tends to return it to its neu
tral position as fast as it is-moved therefrom.
As shown, valve 82 is constantly urgedin one‘
direction by a spring 98 and it‘ is adapted to be
moved in the opposite direction by a lever 9| hav
ing one en'd‘thereof pivotedito the stem of valve»
82 and the other end thereof supported by a pin
'92 which is guided in the pump casing and bears
81 which is arranged in bore “and held in en
j _ gagem'ent with roller ‘65 byia screw 68 threaded
‘. into casing I. ‘
30 upon a cam track “93 formed upon cam 59,‘a screw
When contact 5| is in engagement with cam
track ‘section 62, screw 68 is'so adjusted that‘
‘slide’ block ‘I8 is held exactly in its neutral posi
94 being threaded through'the ‘end of lever ‘9|
into engagement with pin 92 for the purpose of
adjusting lever 9| relative to cam track 93.
Lever 9| is operated by a shaft 95 journaled in
casing I and having formed upon its inner end
an eccentric 96 which engages lever 9| interme
diate the ends thereof.’ Spring 98 urges lever 9|
against eccentric '96 and causes adjusting screw
' ‘ tion sothat the pump is at zero stroke, the‘clear
‘ iance between head 59 and the interior of piston
‘ .68 compensating for any misalignment of parts
and, for' any lateral movement of cam 58‘ necese
sary to move slide block I8 exactly to its neutral
position.
~-
~'
'
94 to bear upon pin '92 and pin '92 to bear upon
cam track 93 soithat there is no‘ lost motion
~
.: ,When‘cam 58 is shifted in one direction or the
i .other,1roller'65 will rotate in cylinder 66 and pro
between these parts at any time. -
1 wide an antifriction bearing for preventing any
'
. de?ection. of cam 58 and for relieving pistons 51 ‘
f and 68‘ from the transverse thrust of slide block
I
V
V
'
Shaft 95 is also J'ournaled in and restrained
from axial movement by a spring retainer 91
_ which is fastened to‘ casing I. v‘A'torsion‘ spring
I8 against cam 58.
-" 98 is arranged around retainer 9'! and around a
Liquid‘for supercharging thepower pump and
-'hub ‘99’ which is‘ fixed upon' the outer end of
for'enabling'pistons 51 and 68_to shift cam 58 ,
shaft195 and provided. with means for?rotating
‘ may be ‘supplied from a gear pump shown’ in
.Fig. 1 as having vits driven gear ‘II ?xed upon‘
it and shaft'95, hub 99 being shown provided with
one part I88 of a [ball and 'a socket joint by
‘ H shaft 5 and its idler gear 12 journaled upon a 50 means of which it may be connected to a control
. ‘ shaft 13 carried by front head 3. Gears ‘II and
I '12 are ‘?tted in a. suitable pump chamber which
‘ {is-formed in front head 3 and‘ closed at its rear
1 byaplate 14." "
'
device.
'
~
'.
,
.
'
Spring '98 has its two ends arranged upon op
posite sides of two ‘pins 'I8I and I82 ‘which are
?xed, respectively, in retainer 9'! and hub‘ 99 par
pThe gear pump draws liquid from a reservoir 55 allel‘with each'other so ‘that when hub 99 is ro
‘ 1 15 (Fig. 12) ‘and discharges it into a channel
tated in'one direction or the other by an external
116 which is connected to channels 25 and 3|
force, pin I82 will move away from pin‘ |8I and
1 through check valves 11 and 18, respectively, so .
thereby cause the tension of spring 98 to be in
"that the power pump is supercharged by gear . I
creased'and, when the external vforce is removed,
pump liquid regardless of the direction of pump 60 spring ‘98 will return hub 99 andshaft95 to and
del1very. ' The liquid discharged by the gear pump
yieldingly retain them in their neutral positions.
‘in excess of requirements is'exhausted through
In order to limit the angular distance through
a relief valve 19 which discharges into reservoir
which “shaft ‘95 may be rotated, a recess I83 is
‘I5. The power pump is also provided with relief
formed in hub 99 and a stop bolt I04 is ?xed in
"valves 88 and 8| which are connected, respec 65 retainer 91 with its head arranged within ‘recess
1 tively,‘ to channels 25 and 3| and permit'the es
I83 so that rotation of shaft 95 in either direc
1 cape of liquid whenever the pressure created by the
tion is limited by the head of bolt I84 engaging
; power-pump exceeds a'predetermined maximum.
an end wall of recess I83.
'
.
‘ The delivery ~of ‘gear‘pump liquid to cylinder
' The above described control will operate in the
1 6| is under the control of a'pilo‘t valve 82 (Figs. 70 following manner, it being assumed that cylinder
‘2, '10 and 12) ‘fitted in a valve casing 83 which
barrel 1 is being rotated in a clockwise direction
-' ‘is carried by the pump casing and provided with
in'respect to Fig. 12 and that gear pump ‘II-12
‘three‘annular grooves or ports 84, 8'5 and 86.
Port '84 communicates with a drain channel 81
is maintaining pressure in channel ‘I6 and it be-v
ing understood that in the following explanation
‘which discharges/into reservoir 1‘5,~p0rt 85 is 75 directions are speci?ed in' respect to Fig. 12 and
2,405,138
.14
113
cam 5.0 is at‘ the left of its neutral position 01'. to
not in- respect to. any other figure. or to the ma
permit aspring98 to shift pilot ‘valve 82; upward
chine .as actually‘ employed in. practice.
if cam ‘50 is at the right of its neutral position.
When shaft 95: is. in its. neutral position as
Shifting pilot valve 82 causes cam 59 to move
shown, cam‘ 50 and slide block |8 are in their
toward its neutral position and cam track 93 ‘to
neutral positions and ,pump displacement is. zero.
adjust the left end of lever 9| as explained above.
When shaft=95 is rotated in a_ counterclockwise
When cam 5|] reaches its neutral position,, cam
direction from its neutral position, eccentric‘ 96
trackliZ engages contact 5| and holds slide» block
will depress lever 9| which will‘ pivot upon pin
|.':8 in its neutral position and pilot. valve 82- will
92 and move valve 82 downward so that gear
have been returned to its neutral positionso that
pump liquid can flow through valve casing 83 and
the liquid in- cylinder 6| is trapped therein and
channel 88 to cylinder 6|. Since piston 60 is
holds cam 58 in its neutral position. If liquid
larger than piston 51, it will move cam 50 toward
should leak'from cylinder 6| and permit cam 58
the right and cause Piston. 51 to expel liquid fromv
to start to move toward the left, cam track 93
cylinder 58 into channel '89.
Movement of cam- .50 toward the right causes 16 will raise pin. 92 and causelever 9| to swing about
eccentric 96 as a fulcrum and depress pilot valve
cam track 93 .to'moveacross the end‘ of pin 92
8.2. so'that gear pump liquid will flow through
so that, since pilot valve. 8-2 and’ the right end
valve casing 83 and channel 88 to cylinder GI and
_of- lever 9| are urged upwardby spring 98, the
cause piston 58 to return cam 58 to its neutral
left. end oflever ‘9|, moves. progressively down
‘,ward as. cam 59 moves toward. the right. and‘ valve 20
The pump shown is ordinarily employed to». en
82 isv kept depressed only during continued ro
ergize a motor which is adapted to move-its-load
tationof. shaft .95.. Consequently, valve .82 will
‘to: desired positions. In order that the speed of
be returned to its neutral position. as. soon as ro
the motor ‘may bevaried at a. rapid rate when the
tation of shaft, 95 ceases.
,
. '
.
position.
~
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,
r
Movement of cam '58 toward the right also 25 loadzis. at a distance. from; a desired position and
varied‘ micrometrically when the load approaches
causes. cam track ~62 to move. out of engagement
a desired: position,.;cam tracks 6.3 and 644 are-.so
with contact 5|. andcamtrack B4 to. move across
shaped that. a’ given'angular movement of shaft
contact 5| so that spring '52 canmove. slide. block
95 results in. a. very small movement of slide block
l8 upward which will cause the. pump to dis
charge liquid into passagev 3|. As. soon as the 30 <|i81when it is near .its neutral position and results
in a. much greater movement of slide block |.8
pump creates pressure in passage 3|, the. pressure
when it. is farther from its neutral position. As
extends through channel 55'. to cylinder 54. and
shown, the slope of each cam track is non-uni
causes piston 53 to. assist spring 52. in moving
slide block |8 upward to increase the displace
form and isv reduced to a minimum near the-junc
ment and delivery of the pump.
tion of the. track with .camtrack 62.
.
.
-
The hydrodynamic machine illustrated and d» <
When shaft 95 is rotated. in a. clockwise direc
‘scribed herein may be modi?ed in various ways"
tion, eccentric 96 will revolve upward and permit
without departing from the scope of the inven
spring 98 to raise pilot valve 82.and the right
tion which is hereby claimed as follows‘:
end of lever 9|, the left end of lever 9| ‘contin
‘uing to press pin 92‘ against loamv track 93 due‘ 40, 1. In a hydrodynamic machine, the combina
tionof arotatable- cylinder barre1 having a. plu
to the action of‘ the spring 99. ‘Raisingpilot
rality of cylinders arranged therein with the
valve 82 will connect channel 88 todrain chan
outer endsof saidcylinders: arranged approggi:
‘nel'tl' and thereby enable the gearpump. liquid
mately- in a circular row‘ and; alternate cylinders
constantly supplied‘ to cylinder 51 to move cam
58’ toward the left and cause piston 60 to‘£45 in. said row inclined. in. opposite. directions in re
spect to the. axis of. said cylinder barrel to thereby
expel liquid from cylinder 6|‘ through channel 88
reduce ‘the space required‘ for said cylinders,
and pilot valve casing 83 into drain channel 81.
'Movement of cam 50‘ towardthe left :vcauses
means 'for connecting each cylinder to opposite
position as soon as rotation of shaft 95 ceases.
thereto when the machine is performing useful
work, and‘ a vpiston ?tted in. eachv cylinder and
cam track v93 to move across the end of .pin 92 , ‘sides. of. a. circuit alternately as saidcylinder bar
and raise pin 92' and the left end of lever 9| so‘ I rel rotates, a cylindrical reaction member encir
cling said cylinder barrel and‘ arranged eccentric
that pilot valve '82 is returned to its neutral
If contact member 5|‘ is in engagement with
cam track 8'3, movement of cam 50 toward the
having the outer end thereof in contact‘ with said
cylindrical member‘ to be reciprocated‘ thereby
tact 51 and‘ shift slide block I'8 downward to re
duce- pumpv displacement. "If contact 5| is in en
gagement with cam track v62', movement of cam
50 toward the left causes cam track 82 to move
during rotation of said‘cyli'nd‘er barrel.
left also causes cam track 64' to move across con-‘ 55
I
.
,2. In a hydrodynamic machine, the combina
tion of a rotatable cylinder barrel having a plu~
ra‘lity ofv radial cylinders. arranged therein was
the inner ends of adjacent cylinders arranged
out of engagement with contact 5| and cam track .
‘close together in a staggered row,lthe cylinders
63 to move across contact v5|". Cam track 63 in
whose inner ends are in the left side 'of said: row
moving toward‘ the left across contact 5| will
being inclined‘ outward‘ toward the right end‘ of
shift slideblockv I8 downward and cause the pump
said cylinder barrel‘ and the cylinders whose inner
to discharge into: passage ‘.25. vThereafter, con
tinued rotationv of shaft 95‘ will cause pump disl ' pends ‘are‘in the right side'- ‘of said row being in
clined‘ outward toward‘the left end of‘ said cylin
placement to continue to increase until‘ it reaches
maximum-and rotation of shaft 95in a counter
clockwise direction will cause cam '58 "tomove to
ward the- right and reduce pumpdisplacement
. as explained»: above.
When the rotative force is removed‘ from shaft
95» after it has been rotated' in one direction or
the other, spring 98 will quickly rotate shaft 95
to and stop it in. its. neutral position-and cause
eccentric 9.6. to shit; pilot. valve 82 downward if
der barrel so that said cylinders occupy’ a mini‘
‘mum amount of‘ space, ‘avp'iston‘ fitted‘ in each
cylinder‘, ' a cylindricai reaction member ‘encir
70 cling said cylinder'barrel eccentric ‘thereto’ to‘ en‘
gage said pistons and effect reciprocation thereof
during rotation‘ of said: cylinder barrel, and means
‘for connecting each cylinder [to opposite sides of ,
a circuit alt-er-nately'as saidI cylinder ‘barrel! ro
Y
75 tates-w ' >
2,406,138
16
other of said members'and means vfor retaining
said ‘connectors in‘ association with ‘said other
member so that said members and saidchold-up
motors may be connected together to form‘a- sub-f
assembly before beingassembled with other parts '
" 3.“ In a hydrodynamic‘machine‘, the ' combina
tion'of a rotor having passages extending inward
from an end thereof, means for-‘connecting each
‘of said passages to opposite'sides'of a circuit
‘alternately as said'rotor rotates, a plurality of
radial cylinders arranged in said cylinder barrel
of 7.said
In amachine.
hydrodynamic
-'
machine haVing-a-casing
v
with the inner ends thereof arranged close to
1gether' in a staggered row, alternate cylinders in
and pumping means arranged within said casing
said row being inclined in "opposite directions in
and including a valve seat having cylinder ports
respect to the radii of said rotor and'a portion 110 arranged therein, the combination of a' valve
of each cylinder outward vfrom the inner end
member engaging said‘ seat and provided upon'o'p;
‘thereof being arranged ‘between the adjacent
posite sides ‘of its axis with valve ports'vvith'which
cylinders ‘so that all of said cylinders are arranged
each cylinder port registers alternately during
a ‘minimum amount of space, a piston ?tted in
operationiof said pumping means, an endmeml
each cylinder, and a cylindrical reaction member 1,5 ber carried by said casing andv provided with con
arranged" around‘ said rotoreccentric thereto to
nections for'connecting said valve ports to a hy
draulic circuit, a plurality o_fjrhold-vuplmotors ar
ranged in saidend'm'ember for holding said valve
engage: ‘said ‘pistons and ‘effect reciprocation
v'tlit'ereof during rotation of said rotor, said mem
ber engaging each piston ‘upon a single spot
member against said seatand for providingacomi- '
which is onset far enough from the piston axis 20 munication ' between said valve ports and said‘
~to causethe piston to rotate in its cylinder as it
connections, a plurality of pins each havinglo‘ne
‘ereciprocate's therein, " '
" end thereof ?xed in one, of said members and the
" 4. Ina hydrodynamic machine having its pis
other end'thereof provided with a 'cannelurefand
‘ ' "tons and cylinders arranged in a rotatable cylin
extending
into, the other member,‘ and dowels
der barrel, a valve seat arranged upon said cylin 25
?xed in said other member and extending
through saidncannelures to'connect said mem
der barrel and provided with ports which com
municatewithsaid cylinders, and' means for-re
bers together but permitting a slight axial ‘move
:cipr'ocating‘ said pistons, 'the'combina'tion of a
'valveiengaging said seat and provided upon op- posit'e" sides of its " axis’ with valve' ports with 30
whichiea'ch cylinder port communicates‘ alter
nately as said'cylinder barrel rotates, and a plu
"rality' of hold-up ‘motors adapted to hold said
v ment therebetween.
8._ In a hydrodynamic ‘machine having its pis
tons and cylinders arranged in a rotatable cyliné '
der‘ barrel and a valve seat arranged upon said
cylinder barrel and provided with a plurality of
ports which communicate with said cylinders, the
valve against said seat and so arranged that a’
greater number of said motors are upon one‘side‘ 35 combination of a ‘valve engaging said seat and
provided with high and low pressure valve ports
of ‘the ‘valve axis than upon the other side thereof
so that said motors may be arranged close to
gether.
'
a‘
I
v
‘
,
.
5. In a 'hydrodynamiclmachine ‘having a cas
ing and vpumping means arranged within ‘said,
casing and including a valve seat having cylin-V
'der ports arranged therein, the combination of a
‘valve engaging said seat and provided upon oppo
fwith which each cylinder port communicates al
ternately as said cylinder barrel rotates, a plu
rality of hold-up motors arranged’ behind said
valve to urge it against said seat, atleast one bal
ancingfmotor for assisting said hold-up motors
in urging said valve against said seat, and means
for intermittently energizing and deenergizing
said balancing motor in accordance with varia
site sidesof its axis withvalve ports with which 45 tions in the number and‘ angular positions of cyl
'_ each cylinder port registers alternately during op‘
inder ports communicating with said high pres
"eration of said pumping means, an end head car-v
sure
port.
'
_
'
'
'
'
ried by said casing andr'provided with connections
9.‘ In a hydrodynamic machine having its pis
Vfor, connecting said valve ports to a hydraulic cir-,
tons and cylinders arranged in a rotatable cylin
cuit, a plurality of ‘hold-up cylinders so arranged
50 der barrel and a valve seat arranged upon said
in said end head that a greater number _of_ saidv
cylinder barrel and-provided with a plurality of
cylinders are upon one side of the valve axis than *
upon "the other side thereofand each cylinder‘
Y cylinder ports which communicate with said cyl
inders, the combination of a valve engaging said
communicates with one of said valve ports and.
seat and provided with inlet and outlet ports and
‘with one of said connections, and a piston fitted 65
with bridges therebetween so arranged that each
in each hold-up cylinder to urge said valve against
cylinder port registers with said inlet and outlet
said seat and having an axial bore to provide a
ports alternately as said cylinder barrel rotates
I passage for the ?ow of liquid between the valve
1 port and the connection with which its cylinder
and said bridges provide seals between, said valve
ports, a plurality of hold-up motors arranged be
mommunicates;
,
'
6‘ In a hydrodynamic machine having a casing 60 hind said valve to urge it against said seat, and a
balancing motor arranged behind at least one of
and pumping means arranged within said casing
said bridges to assist said hold-up motors in hold
‘and including a valve seat having cylinder ports
ing said valve against said seat, said valve having
arranged therein, the combination of a valve‘
a duct leading from the face of said bridge to the
.member engaging said seat' and provided upon 65 balancing motor behind it so that said balancing
opposite sides of its axis‘ with valve ports with
motor is energized by pressure transmitted there
which each cylinder port registers alternately
to through said duct from cylinder ports passing
‘ .during operation of said pumping means, an end
member carried by said casing and provided with
connections for connecting said valve ports to a
hydraulic circuit, a plurality of hold-up motors
for holding said valve‘ member against said seat
across said bridge.
‘
10. In a hydrodynamic machine having its pis
tons and cylinders arranged in rotatable cylinder
barrel and a valve seat'arranged upon said cylin
' der barrel and provided, with a plurality of cylin
and for ‘providing communication between said,
der’ports which'communicate with said cylinders,
vvalve ports and ‘said connections, connectors ?xed
75
_
'
the
combination of a valve engaging said seat and
to one of said members and associated with the
provided with inlet and ‘outlet ports and with
r
2,406,138
17
18
bridges therebetween so‘, arranged that each cyl
inder port registers with said inlet and outlet
ports alternately as said cylinder barrel rotates
and said bridges provide seals between said valve
ports, a plurality of hold-up motors arranged be
pump displacement, the combination ofa cam ‘for
hind said valve to urge it against said seat, said
said contact against the face of said cam, means
for moving said cam in oppoSitediI-jections selec
tively to effect movement of said rrii-zjmberv in; o_p
hold-up motors being energized by liquid trans
mitted thereto from said. valve ports. so that the
moving said member in one direction and ‘for, lim
iting its movement in the opposite“ direction,_ a
contact on said member,“ means for urging said
member in said opposite direction and for; holding
posite directions selectively, and a guide arranged
forces‘ exerted upon said valve by said holdéu'p
motors vary in accordance with variations" in the 10 opposite said contact andin engagement with the
back of said cam to absorb the thrust imposed
pressures at said valve ports, and a balancing mo
upon said cam by said member.
,
_'__
tor arranged behind each of said bridges to assist
15'. In a pump having a displacement varying
said hold-up motors in holding said valve against
member shiftable in ‘opposite directions ‘to vary
said seat, said valve having a duct leading from
pump displacement,- the combination of a oamfpr
thelface of each bridge to the balancing motor
moving said member in onerdirectioyn and for lim
behind it so that said balancing motors are ener
iting' its movement in the opposite direction,’ a
giz'ed' by pressure transmitted thereto through
contact on said member, means for urgingsaid
said dust from cylinder ports passing across ‘said
bridges.
11. In a hydrodynamic ‘machine having its pis
tons and cylinders arranged in a rotatable‘ cylin
memberin said opposite direction and Iorhold
ing said contact against the face of said cam,
means for moving said cam inv opposite directions
cylinder barrel and provided with a plurality of
cylinder ports which communicate with said cyl
selectively to effect movement of saidmemjber in
opposite directions selectively, a roller arranged
opposite said contact and inclined to the pathv ‘of
seat and provided with inlet and- outlet ports and
in engagement with the back; of said cam, means
with bridges therebe'tween so arranged that each
for prevénting said roller from‘ movinggaxiallyto
thereby enable it to absorb the thrust imposed
der barrel and a valve seat arranged uponsaid
inders, the combination of a valve engaging’ said ‘’ 525 said cam’, said roller'havin'g one end arcuate and
cylinder port registers ‘with said inlet and outlet
for rotatably supporting saidrroller, ‘and, means
ports‘ alternately as said cylinder barre1 rotates’
p
a
and, said bridges provide seals between said valve 30 up'on'said cam by said member. -v v
16.
In
a
pump
having
a
displacement
varying
ports, a plurality of hold-up motors arranged be
member shiftable in opposite directions t'ovary
hind said valve to urge it against said seat,» and
pump displacement, the combination of a cam for
a plurality of balancingmotors arranged behind
each of said bridges to assist said hold~upf motors
moving said member in one direction and forlim
in: holding said valve against said‘ seat,v said valve‘ a iting‘ its movement in the ‘opposite direction; a
contact on said member; means for urging said
having a duct leading from each hold-up motor
member in said opposite direction and for bold
through the face of the bridge and the outer ends
ing
said contact, against the face, of said cam,
of said ducts being so. located that eachv cylinder
servo-motor means for moving said cam in oppo
port as it passes across a bridge communicates
- do site directions selectively to effect movement of
successively with a plurality of said ducts.
12. In‘ a- reversible pump having a displacement
varying member shiftable in opposite directions
from a neutral‘ position‘ to cause the pump to
deliver liquid in either of two directions" and to
vary pump delivery from Zero to maximum in
either direction‘, the combination of means for
constantly urging said displacement varying
member in one direction, means for moving said
member in the opposite direction against the ac
said member in opposite directions selectively and
including a‘ stationary cylinder and a piston ?tted
in said cylinder and soy connected to said cam
that’. said cam may be adjusted relative to the axis
of said piston, and a guide arranged opposite said
contact and in engagement with the back of said
cam‘ tov relieve said piston! from the' thrust im
posed upon said cam vby said member.
17. In a pump having a displacement varying
50 member shiftable in opposite directions to vary
pump displacement, the combination of a cam for
sisting said urging means in moving said member
tion of said urging means, a servo-motor for as
in said one direction, and means for energizing
said servo-motor only after said urging means has
moved said member in said one direction beyond
moving said member'in one direction and for lim
livery, the combination of means for constantly
urging said displacement varying member in one
direction to cause said pump to discharge into the
?rst side of said circuit, means for moving said
member in the opposite direction against the ac
one end arcuate and in engagement with the back
of said cam, means for rotatably supporting said
roller, means for moving said roller to and retain
ing it in an adjusted position to enable it to ab
sorb the thrust imposed upon said cam by said
member, said servo-motor means including a sta»
tionary cylinder and a piston ?tted in said cylin
der ‘and so connected to said cam that said roller
adjusting means may adjust said cam relative to
the axis of said piston, and means for preventing
iting its movement in the opposite direction, a
contact on said member, means for urging said
55 member in said opposite direction and for hold
its neutral position.
.
ing said contact against the face of said cam,
13. In a reversible pump having a displacement
servo-motor means for moving said cam in op po
varying member shiftable in opposite directions
site
directions selectively to effect movement of
from a neutral position to cause the pump to
said member in opposite directions selectively,
deliver liquid to one side or the other of a hydrau
a roller arranged opposite said contact and in
lic circuit and to vary pump displacement from
clined to the path of said cam, said roller having
zero to maximum in either direction of pump de
tion of said urging means, a servo-motor for as
sisting said urging means in moving said member
in said one direction, and means for connecting
said servo-motor to said ?rst side of said circuit
so that it will be energized only after said member
has been moved in said one direction beyond its
neutral position.
14.'In a pump having a displacement varying
member shiftable in opposite directions to vary
said roller from moving axially to thereby enable
it to absorb the thrust imposed upon said cam
by said member.
'
18. In a pump having a displacement varying
2,406,138
19
20
'member'shiftable in opposite directions to vary
said 'member in opposite directions selectively,
pump displacement, the combination of a cam for
means for supplying motive ?uid to said servo
moving said member in one direction and for
limitingvits movement in the opposite direction, a
motor means including a .pilot valveconstantly
cam track arranged upon said cam and includ- ;
ring a neutral track section extending parallel to
the path of said cam and a displacement varying
section inclined to said path, means for urging
said member in said opposite direction and for
holding said contact against said cam track, and
means for movingsaid cam in opposite directions '
selectively to move said cam track across said
urged in one direction and shiftable from and to
a neutral position to effect movement of said cam
from and’ to its neutral position, a follow-up
mechanism for transmitting motion from said
cam to said pilot valve, a control associated with
said follow-up mechanism and being operable by
an external force from and to a neutral position
to e?ect movement of said valve from and to its
neutral position, and spring means for returning
said control to its neutral position upon removal
contact to effect movement of said member and
thereby 5cause a variation in pump displacement,
of said external force.
‘
'
said camlbeing so formed that said cam track, 15
21. In a hydrodynamic machine having a mem
drops abruptly from, one to the other of said
ber shiftable in opposite directions to vary the
track sections so that a slight movement of said
displacement of said machine, the combination .
cam from its neutral position will cause pump
of an element movable in opposite directions from
displacement to be ‘increased an’ appreciable
amount.
7
, a neutral position for e?ecting movement of said
i: 20 member in opposite directions, a control operable
‘ 19., In a pump having adisplacement varying
by an external force from and to a neutral posi
member shiftable in opposite directions to/vary
tion for e?ecting movement of said element, and
pump displacement, the combination of means
including a cam for effecting movement of said
spring means for returning said control‘ to its
neutral position upon removal‘ of said external
member in opposite directions selectively, servo (2,5
-motor means for moving said cam in opposite di
22. In a hydrohynamic machine having an inlet
rections selectively to effect movement of said
and an outlet, the combination of a cylindrical
member in opposite directions selectively, means
reaction member; an annular'cylinder barrel ‘ar
for supplying motive ?uid to said servo-motor,
ranged within said member and having a plurality
l means including a pilot valve shiftable from and; 30 of radial cylinders arranged therein with the
to a neutral position to effect movement of said
outer ends thereof arranged‘ in a row extending
force.
cam from and to its neutral position, a control‘
operable by an external force from and to a neu- ,
‘
‘
'
'
'
around the periphery of said cylinder barrel, al
ternatev cylinders in said row being inclined in
tral position for moving said valve from and
opposite directions so that the inner ends thereof
to its neutral position, and spring ‘means for 35 are arranged close together and form a double
returning'said control to its neutral positicnrupcn ‘
staggeredjrow in the inner periphery'of said cyl
removal of'said external forces ,
inder barrel with su?icient wall thickness be
tween adjacent cylinders, means for rotating said
cylinder barrel, a piston ?tted in each cylinder
20. In a pump having a displacement varying,
member shiftable in opposite directions to vary
pump displacement, the combination of a cam 140 and engaging said member to be reciprocated/ _
for moving said member in one direction and for
thereby during rotation of said cylinder barrel,
limiting its movement in the, opposite direction,
and means for connecting each cylinder with said
a contact on said member,means for urging said
, inlet and said outlet alternately as said cylinder
'member in said opposite direction'and Vfor hold
barrel rotates.
ing said contact against the,‘ face of said cam,
WALTER FERRIS;
servo-motor means for moving said cam in oppo
ADOLF R. GRAD.
site directions selectively to‘ eiTect movement of
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