Патент USA US2406147код для вставки
Aug. 20, 1946. 2,406,147 R. K. HOPKINS‘ V APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING METAL Filed May 9, 1944 . H“ n 3‘ 0 a ...~ m w a, .Q $ .. 1 ‘o . w £4: A,+A7ai 4% .32. J03_.l 8O2. .%_M. 3. Q3__31:5: __7 I1 Ln. 9.7 5w 9w m2 Patented Aug. 20, 1946 2,495,147 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,406,147 APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING METAL Robert K. Hopkins, New York, N. Y., assignor to The M. W. Kellogg Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application May 9, 1944, Serial No. 534,828 4 Claims. (01. 13-10) 1 2 The present invention relates to improvements in the construction of vessels for holding molten metal, and more particularly to improvements in the construction of metallurgical vessels of the type having discharge ori?ces. In its broader as pects, the term “metallurgical vessels” is intended to apply to any vessel adapted to hold molten metal. In accordance with certain aspects of the pletely shut off ?ow of liquid from said vessel. streamed, if the ori?ce should become fouled, eroded or otherwise impaired for use, pouring must be stopped, and the metallurgical processes embodying the features of the present inventiton. Referring to the drawing, the apparatus of the In this manner, an easy and eiTective expedient is provided for controlling flow of the molten metal from the vessel without the use of valves or stop pers. As another feature of the present invention, means for producing and/or heating the metal in the vessel are arranged and constructed to con tinue their operation without interruption irre invention, such a vessel may, for example, consist of a furnace crucible in which metal is produced, 10 spective of the rotative position of said vessel. Various other objects, features and advantages re?ned or otherwise metallurgically treated, or of the invention will be apparent from the follow may consist merely of a receptacle for transfer ing particular description, and from an inspec ring molten metal from a furnace to a mold. tion of the accompanying drawing, which shows In the usual metallurgical vessel, such as the conventional crucible furnace having a discharge 15 somewhat diagrammatically partly in vertical sec tion and partly in side elevation an apparatus ori?ce through which the molten metal is present invention comprises a metallurgical ves being carried out interrupted until the ori?ce 20 sel 18 adapted to contain molten metal Ii, such as ferrous metal, and shown speci?cally as a cup structure has been repaired or replaced. One object of the present invention is to pro shaped crucible furnace of circular cross-section. This vessel id is shown comprising an outer metal sheil l2 with an inner refractory lining !3, but vide a new and improved metallurgical vessel con structed to permit continuous pouring of metal therefrom and continuous Operation of any 25 as far as certain aspects of the invention are con cerned, said vessel may be made entirely of metal metallurgical process which may be progressing such as copper, and may be provided with a jacket in said vessel, even though its pouring ori?ce to permit liquidcooling of the vessel. structure should be impaired beyond utility. As a feature of the present invention, the vessel In carrying out certain features of the present invention, the metallurgical vessel in the form of 30 in is tilted along an inclined axis A, and is mount ed for rotary discharge emplacement. For that a cup-shaped crucible is mounted on an inclined purpose, the vessel i ii is ?xed at its bottom end to axis and is provided with at least two duplicate an inclined shaft M which extends along the axis ori?ce structures or devices interspaced around A, and which is suitably journalled. Any suitable said vessel, and arranged in a plane substantially at right angles to said axis. The vessel is rotat in) means may be provided for rotating the shaft M. In the speci?c form shown, a worm wheel l5 ?xed able about this axis, and when said vessel is in to the shaft I4 meshes with a worm i6 driven by a pouring position with respect to one of the ori?ce hand crank or by a motor (not shown). structures, the other ori?ce structure is disposed L l The vessel 59 is provided with a plurality of above the horizontal level of the ?uid in said ves duplicate discharge ori?ce struc sel and out of pouring position. When the lower 40 equally tures or devices ii, two being shown disposed on active ori?ce structure requires to be replaced or diametrically opposite sides of said vessel, and repaired, the vessel is rotated about its inclined extending in a plane substantially at right angles axis, to move said ori?ce structure out of pouring to the axis A. Each of these ori?ce structures ll position and the upper inactive ori?ce structure into pouring position. This transition from one 45 comprises a tapering opening it; in the wall of the vessel iii, and a nozzle or spout 2d of suitable ori?ce structure to the other can be quickly ef heat-resistant material, seated against the re fected with minimum of pouring interruption. fractory lining l3 h its apertlu'e in registry While the damaged ori?ce structure is in elevated with the wall opening iii. spout 29 is de inactive position, it can be repaired Or replaced without interfering with the pouring through the ' sirablv removably ‘ mounted to permit its easy replacement. For that purpose, the spout 29 other ori?ce structure. By rotating the vessel into has a base section ‘it affording a shoulder 22 a position intermediate of the extreme pouring which is clampingly engaged at its diametrically positions of the two ori?ce structures, it is pos opposite sides by a pair of metal holding dogs sible to raise both of said structures above the level of the liquid in the vessel, and thereby com 23, secured to the shell ['2 of the vessel Ill by ' 2,406,147 4 3 studs 24. By loosening studs 26, the dogs 23 may be swung out of holding engagement with the spout 20, and said spout removed for replace ment, for repair or for cleaning. The molten metal H in the vessel H3 is de sirably maintained under a floating blanket of flux or slag 26 having the usual metallurgical function, such as that of re?ning the metal electrical connection to the electrode 30 may be established, as for example through a contact nozzle 32 connected to a suitable source 33 of electric current through a power feed and con trol unit 34, and embracing said electrode with a snug slide ?t loose enough to permit the feed ing of said electrode through said nozzle, but tight enough to maintain contact between said nozzle and said electrode. The electrical con and/or conserving its heat. This ?ux 26 may be of any well-known composition suitable for per 10 nection of the deposited metal H into the circuit forming this function. During normal pouring operations, the metal ' of the contact nozzle 32 may be eifected, as for example, through a lead 36 connected into the power feed and control unit 34. H in the vessel [9 is maintained at a level above The electrode 30 may be lowered into the vessel the lowermost position of either one of the dis charge openings id, as shown in the drawing. 15 H3, or may be raised from said vessel by any suitable means. In the speci?c form shown, the In this position of the discharge openings E8, the electrode 30 is supported through a clamp 38 on molten metal l i will ?ow through the lowermost a hoist 31 which may be elevationally moved opening and through its spout Zil as shown, while through a pair of feed screws 39 adapted to be the other opening it is in elevated position above the level of the slag it. While the upper ori?ce 20 rotated in unison through a hand or motor unit (not shown). structure ii is inactive, it may be replaced, The electrode 3!! extends substantially vertii repaired or cleaned so that it can be made ready cally as shown, and is desirably arranged so that for immediate use. In the meantime, the metal its lower end is approximately near or at the H may be teeming through the lower active spout 2e into a suitable mold 2'4’, such as an ingot 25 axis A. With this arrangement, the vessel Ill can be rotated without interfering with the metal mold. In extreme pouring the elevated inactive well as a substantial lining it around said position of the vessel ii], discharge opening E3 as portion of the refractory opening is disposed above the slag 26. This permits the refractory lining It to be patched up around the elevated dis charge opening lii, in case such repair work is required. producing operation of the electrode 30, and with out substantially altering the position of the lower end of said electrode relative to the sides of the ‘ vessel. As the molten metal is continuously being dis charged from the vessel Ii] at a certain rate through one of the orifice structures ll, metal is continuously being produced in said vessel at sub When it is necessary to clean, replace or repair 35 stantially the same rate. As the electrode is con sumed, it is fed lengthwise into the metal fusing the lower active ori?ce structure ill, the vessel zone at a rate controlled to maintain the level of in’! is rotated about its inclined axis A, so that the molten metal l i in the vessel Ill substantially this ori?ce structure is raised above the level of the slag 25 out of pouring position, while the constant. This controlled movement of the elec other conditioned ori?ce structure ll’ is lowered 40 trode 39 may be eifected in any suitable manner, as for example through a pair of feed rolls 40 into pouring position. This rotary transition of mounted on the hoist 37 and disposed on opposite the vessel ill between. the two extreme positions sides of the electrode 39 in frictional engage of the ori?ce structures H can be eifected with minimum of pouring interruptions. ment therewith. At least one of these feed wheels MI is driven from a motor 4!, while the other When it is desired to shut oif the ?ow of metal, wheel may be positively driven from said motor the vessel NJ is rotated in intermediate position or may be merely an idler serving as a guide for between its two extreme pouring positions. In the electrode 30. The electrode 30 may be formed this intermediate position, the two ori?ce struc continuously and progressively from skelp as it is tures I‘! will be disposed in horizontal alignment being fusibly fed into the Vessel l 9. above the level of the slag 26 in approximate To control the feeding movement of the elec position B shown in dot and dash lines. In this trode 38, there is desirably provided a non-con manner, an easy and expeditious expedient is sumable pilot electrode 45, disposed alongside of ailorded for cutting off or turning on the metal flow without the use of valves or stoppers. said electrode, and having its lower end sub The vessel It) desirably constitutes a furnace -' in which the metal is continuously produced as it is being discharged into a mold. As an addi tional feature of the present invention, the metal producing means is constructed and arranged to merged in the slag 2%. This pilot electrode 45, disposed alongside of said electrode, and having its lower end submerged in the slag 26. This pilot electrode 135, which is supported on the hoist 31, as for example by the clamp 38, may be made of operate continuously without interruption, even 60 high heat conductive metal such as copper, and may be formed with chambers through which a while the vessel H1 is being rotated between its two extreme operating positions. This metal cooling liquid is circulated by means of inlet and producing means desirably comprises one or outlet connections A5 and 47. Pilot electrode 45 is connected by a lead 48 to the control unit 34, more consumable electrodes 39, one being shown, containing at least some of the ingredients of 65 and controls the feed movement of the electrode 30, as for example, by the voltage drop across the metal to be produced, and having its lower the gap separating said pilot electrode from the end submerged in the slag 26. Electrode 3i! may metal H in the vessel ill. The electrode feed be of the kind and character shown and described motor rll is connected to the control unit 34 by in my prior Patent No. 2,191,479, issued February the leads 49, and when the pilot electrode gap 27, 1940. Current of su?icient intensity is dis changes in length from a predetermined value, charged across this gap 3l to create a metal fusing zone in and around said gap. To create this control unit M in response to this change this metal fusing current discharge across the operates said feed motor correspondingly, and gap 3|, the electrode 36 and the metal H are thereby causes the electrode til to be fed at a electrically connected in the same circuit. The rate necessary to maintain the level of the metal 2,406,147 6 i l substantially constant. The details of the con trol unit 34 and the manner in which it controls the feed of the electrode 30 are not per se part of the present invention, and since they are well known in the art, they are not herein described with any particularity. In order to maintain the metal H near and around the actual discharge opening “3 sum ciently ?uid to flow freely, there is desirably pro vided a non-consumable upright electrode 50 sub merged at its lower end in the slag 26, and dis posed directly about this opening. This heatingr electrode as may be of hollow copper construction chambered for the circulation of a cooling me dium therethrough, as in the case of the pilot electrode 45, and is supported on the hoist 31, as for example a clamp 5!. A lead 52 connects the heating electrode 58 to the power feed and control unit 3%. By maintaining a current discharge ing two duplicate discharge openings, a heating electrode in said vessel, and means for rotating said vessel to bring either one of said openings into pouring position below said, electrode while moving the other opening out of pouring position. 2. A metallurgical vessel supported for rotation about an inclined axis, and having two discharge openings diametrically opposed with respect to said axis whereby one of said openings Will be in pouring position below the level of the molten metal in said vessel, while the other discharge opening will be above the top level of the fluid in said vessel. 3. In combination, a metallurgical vessel sup ported for rotation about an inclined axis, and having two discharge openings substantially in a plane transverse to said axis, said openings being arranged whereby one of said openings will be in pouring position below the level of the across the gap separating the electrode 59 from 20 molten metal in said vessel, while the other dis charge opening will be above the top level of the the metal H, freezing of the metal in the active discharge opening I8 is prevented, and free flow molten content of said vessel, and a heating elec therethrough continuously maintained. The cur trode in said vessel above one of said openings in its pouring position. rent discharge from or to this electrode 50 can be controlled automatically by the temperature ll. In combination, a crucible furnace supported of the metal near or at the active discharge open for rotation about an inclined axis, and having two discharge openings diametrically opposed ing ‘:‘3. with respect to said axis, whereby one of said It should be noted that the three electrodes openings will be in pouring position below the 30, 45, and 50 are so supported and positioned as to maintain their relative position with respect level of the molten metal in said furnace, while to the sides of the vessel 10, irrespective of the I the other discharge opening will be above the top rotat'fve position of said vessel, and that the heat level of the molten content of said furnace, ori?ce ing electrode 50 will remain directly above either devices removably connected to said furnace ad one of the discharge openings l3 in either ex jacent to and in registry with said openings re treine relative position of said vessel. . spectively, whereby said devices may be removed As many changes can be made in the above for repair or replacement while their correspond apparatus, and many apparently widely different ing discharging openings are out of pouring posi embodiments of this invention can be made with tion, electrode means for continuously producing out departing from the scope of the claims, it is metal in said furnace while metal is being dis intended that all matter contained in the above 40 charged therefrom through one of said openings, description or shown in the accompanying draw and a heating electrode in said furnace above ing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in one of said openings in its pouring position. a limiting sense. What is claimed is: 1. In combination, a metallurgical vessel hav ROBERT K. HOPKINS.