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Патент USA US2406179

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Aug. 20,1946. -
2,406,179
B. R. WALSH ETAL
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING AIR ENTRAINMENT
2 Sheets-Sheét 1
Filed Nov. 24, 1943
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INVENTORS
BRUCE R-WBLSH
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ORNEY
‘Aug. 20, 1946.
2,406,179
' B. R. WALSH ETAL
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING AIR ENTRAINMENT
Filed Nov. 24, 1943
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Patented Aug. 20, 1946 "
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UNITED STATES PATEN'TYOFFIICE
2,406,17 9 ‘
,METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING
.
AIR ENTRAINMENT
Bruce R. Walsh, Wilkinsburg, and George S. >
< Peterson, Penn Township, Allegheny - County,
Pa., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Wright
Aeronautical Corporation, Paterson, N. J ., a cor- r
. poration of New York
.
Application November 24, 1943, Serial No.'511,604 '
7 Claims.
(0!. 73453).
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vThis invention relates to methods and apparatus for measuring air entrainment, useful
for determining the presence and percentage of
.A further object of the invention is to provide
a continuously operating indicator of the charactor described which shall be smallin size and
gas in liquid or semi-liquid materials, such for
instance as lubricating oil, grease, plastic material,‘ oil well drilling mud and the like. More
of. a few number of parts andrwhich may’ be
“portable or be a permanent part of almost any:
type of hydraulic installation, as for example
particularly the invention is concerned with
methods and apparatus for continuously indicat-
the lubricating system of an airplane engine,'a~
hydraulic brake or power transmission system/
ing the percentage of gas at a point in a ?owing
stream of such'liquid or semi-liquid material.
or a system for handling liquidssuch as a liquid .
?yifeeding or measuring device.
In many modern hydraulic installations it is desirable, if not imperative, to ‘know of the presence
and percentage of gas in the liquid in the system. ‘
.
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Thus, in some pressure lubricating systems the 6 ‘most any point in a hydraulic System, such date presence of an excess of entrained air or gas in 15 va reservoir 0r t0 a ?owing Stream Of liquid,v and
the lubricant may seriously impair its e?iciency.
Which Will not interfere With the normal Opera
Mud used in drilling oil wells may sometimes become so laden with air or gas that disaster re-
tieh 0f the system,
i
According to the present invention use is made .
sults. Hydraulic systems for transmitting energy
of a rotary positive displacement pump Drei
may operate erratically or fail completely if air zb‘vided ‘with, a ?xed ‘ori?ce discharge. .The .in
becomes mixed with the liquid used, and liquid
herent characteristics of such a device, when.
feeding devices may fail to function or measure
pumping liquids containing entrained air, are.
accurately.
,
It is old in the art to which this invention ‘
such that when operated at constant speed the
discharge pressure of the pump falls 01f or de
relates to determine the percentage of gas in liquid 25 creases With increase in the percentage of air or
or semi-liquid material by examination of ingas in the liquid- Witha?Xed eri?eein the Pump
dividual samples of the material. One such meth- ,
od- involves securing a measured volume of the
material to be tested and subjecting it to pres-
Outlet which requires a de?nite discharge pres
Sure for each Dump ?OW rate, the discharge Dress
sure of the liquid Dumped falls Off With decreas
sure in a, closed container whereby its‘volume is 39 mg inlet absolute pressure, in a manner to be
reduced. Another method consists in comparing
described, because the ?ow falls off. Thus a still
the weight 01’ a whims of material of known
further object of the invention is the provision of .
gaseous content with the weight of an equal volapparatus of the character described embodying
ume of material of unknown gaseous content. Z Continuously Operated, positive displacement
However, such methods are discontinuous and rid-means, advantageously a substantially constant
are limited for the most part to use in the laboratory.
‘
Speed rotary pumD.
These and other objects are accomplished by
Apparatus involving the use of electric circuits
the present invention as Will be apparent from
containing electrical condensers, resistances or
the following description and ateemnanyingv
light sensitive, electric cells have been proposed 40 drawings. wherein,’
for continuously indicating the percentage of gas
in liquids but these devices, while possibly sound
theoretically, are complicated and delicate and
Fig. 1 is a top plan View. partly in Section, 0f
the indicator of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a front plan view of the apparatus
eating the percentage of gas entrained in liquids.
System, Of an engine; and
have not proven entirely satisfactory under prac- _, ShOWn in Fig- 1;
tical conditions of operation.
45' Fig. 3'is a diagrammatic view, partly in sec
It is an object of the present invention to protion. and ShOWS One form of apparatus of the
vide an improved method for continuously indipresent invention connected to the lubricating
A further object of the invention is to provide
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Fig. 4 is a chart in which indicator inlet and
avstrong and durable, inexpensive and simply con- 50Joutlet pressures are graphically illustrated by
structed direct reading apparatus for continucurves for lubricating oil containing various per
ously and accurately indicating the presence or
absence,-or change in percentage of gas in liquids,
semi-liquida'plastic material, or liquids containing solids.
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.A further object of the invention is the PI’OL~
vision of continuous indicating means of the char-. .
acter described which may be connected at ‘al- 3
centages of air at different altitudes, as when the
oil is used to lubricate an airplane engine.
.
Referring to the drawings and more particu
56 Ilarly to Figs. 1 and 2, wherein like numerals in
5
2,406,179
dled is indicated regardless of whether the gas be '
simply entrained or mechanically admixed with
the material orliberated from solution in the liq
uid by the drop in pressure in the system. While
the invention is particularly meritorious in air
plane lubricating systems it is‘ well adapted for
Wide application in industry.
What is claimed is:
1. The method of continuously indicating the
6
the pump, a pressure gage in the outlet of the
pump intermediate the pump and the resistance
and means for driving the pump at a substantially
constant speed whereby a difference in pressure
across. said pump is obtained, said difference be
ing less the greater the percentage of gas pres
ent with the liquid‘.
5. In apparatus for measuring the quantity of
gas entrained in a mixture of liquid and gaseous
percentage of gas in a liquid-gas mixture which 10 material, the improvement comprising a positive
comprises preparing a calibration chart of a posi
displacement pump, inlet and outlet connections
tive displacement pump driven at constant speed
for the pump, a pressure gage arranged to indi
and discharging through a constant resistance, in
cate the pressure of the liquid-gas mixture on the
which pump discharge pressures are plotted
inlet side of the pump, a ?xed ori?ce resistance in
against pump inlet pressures for liquids contain 15 said pump outlet connection, a pressure gage con
ing various known percentages of entrained gas,
nected to the pump outlet intermediate the pump
thereby obtaining a series of characteristic curves,
and the ori?ce resistance, and means for driving
pumping a liquid containing an unknown per
the pump at a substantially constant speed
centage of entrained gas with said pump at said
whereby a difference in pressure across said pump
speed and through said resistance, determining 20 is obtained, said di?erence being less the greater
the inlet and outlet pressures of the liquid and
noting the percentage of entrained gas in the liq
uid represented on the chart by the curve having
the nearest comparative corresponding pressure
readings.
the percentage of gas present with the liquid.
6. Apparatus for use with a calibration chart of
-a positive-displacement pump operating at a
given speed, said chart showing the relation be
25 tween the pump inlet and outlet pressures when
2. The subject matter of claim 1 wherein the
pumping liquid-gas mixtures of variousekno-wn
inlet temperatures of the liquid-gas mixture used
in preparing the calibration chart of the positive
displacement pump and the liquid-gas mixture
containing an unknown percentage of entrained 30
percentages of gas through a ?xed restricted ori
?ce; said apparatus comprising a positive-dis
gas are made equal.
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3. The subject matter of claim 1 wherein a plu
rality of said charts are prepared corresponding
to operations of the positive displacement pump
with liquid-gas mixtures of different tempera
tures, determining the temperature of the un
known liquid-gas mixture and referring to the
chart representing operation of the pump near
est the temperature of the unknown liquid-gas
mixture for determining the percentage gas pres
ent in said liquid.
4. In combination with a system including a
?owing stream of liquid containing entrained gas,
a by-p-ass in said system, a positive displacement
pump in said by-pass, means for determining the
pressure of the liquid-gas mixture entering the
pump, a ?xed ?uid ?ow resistance in the outlet of
placement pump for which said chart is cali
brated, means for operating said pump at said
given speed, a ?xed restricted ori?ce similar to
the ori?ce upon which said chart is based, said
pump being arranged to pump a liquid-gas mix
ture through said ori?ce, means for measuring
the pump inlet pressure, and means for measur
ing the pump outlet pressure upstream of said
ori?ce.
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7. Apparatus for measuring the quantity of gas
in a liquid-gas mixture, said apparatus compris
ing a positive-displacement pump, a restricted
passage through which said pump is arranged to
pump said mixture, means for operating said
pump at a substantially constant speed, means
for measuring the pump intake pressure, and
' means for measuring the pump discharge pres
sure upstream of said restricted ori?ce.
.
BRUCE R. WALSH. ,
GEORGE S. PETERSON.
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