Патент USA US2406179код для вставки
Aug. 20,1946. - 2,406,179 B. R. WALSH ETAL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING AIR ENTRAINMENT 2 Sheets-Sheét 1 Filed Nov. 24, 1943 ' ' "*“l ' ‘ 26 - 7 Y7 ' (5. ~53 ENGINE 72],; - I ' n ‘ ' _M__ 1 j |' __ ‘ 267%’? i , 15 - k‘ 26 \ I '1 10 as ' I . 19 16 P 27 '2l ' 12 ' ' I 6 '20 25 \ 5 -~ 1'2 7* \ Q @ a . 9 ' 6 11 . 16. 10~ v I‘ ‘ 1 14 15 ' * . f - I I INVENTORS BRUCE R-WBLSH l _GIB§‘9RG,ES.P£T£RSON W14 ORNEY ‘Aug. 20, 1946. 2,406,179 ' B. R. WALSH ETAL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING AIR ENTRAINMENT Filed Nov. 24, 1943 /owl. // 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Kgi//. ///mag‘. / omI _‘/ // .on3¢~-ON9Q3NH ,A_w 20 Nan./‘ Zia W“H\MwDmIAsOQWEnKm OZ.QOOHIP,FE~t<Z,DQ 0Q].I FZ.WQuON o I ‘ . omvl. owl .oul o?l ‘urns as; 'sqrt- cmnsscmci as-mwHosm > ‘ g1‘ ' ' INVENTOK GEO‘gfEFSfETERSON Ruc: Rw L5H ATTORNEY _ Patented Aug. 20, 1946 " 7” ‘ " > p UNITED STATES PATEN'TYOFFIICE 2,406,17 9 ‘ ,METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING . AIR ENTRAINMENT Bruce R. Walsh, Wilkinsburg, and George S. > < Peterson, Penn Township, Allegheny - County, Pa., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Wright Aeronautical Corporation, Paterson, N. J ., a cor- r . poration of New York . Application November 24, 1943, Serial No.'511,604 ' 7 Claims. (0!. 73453). " ‘ vThis invention relates to methods and apparatus for measuring air entrainment, useful for determining the presence and percentage of .A further object of the invention is to provide a continuously operating indicator of the charactor described which shall be smallin size and gas in liquid or semi-liquid materials, such for instance as lubricating oil, grease, plastic material,‘ oil well drilling mud and the like. More of. a few number of parts andrwhich may’ be “portable or be a permanent part of almost any: type of hydraulic installation, as for example particularly the invention is concerned with methods and apparatus for continuously indicat- the lubricating system of an airplane engine,'a~ hydraulic brake or power transmission system/ ing the percentage of gas at a point in a ?owing stream of such'liquid or semi-liquid material. or a system for handling liquidssuch as a liquid . ?yifeeding or measuring device. In many modern hydraulic installations it is desirable, if not imperative, to ‘know of the presence and percentage of gas in the liquid in the system. ‘ . l a Thus, in some pressure lubricating systems the 6 ‘most any point in a hydraulic System, such date presence of an excess of entrained air or gas in 15 va reservoir 0r t0 a ?owing Stream Of liquid,v and the lubricant may seriously impair its e?iciency. Which Will not interfere With the normal Opera Mud used in drilling oil wells may sometimes become so laden with air or gas that disaster re- tieh 0f the system, i According to the present invention use is made . sults. Hydraulic systems for transmitting energy of a rotary positive displacement pump Drei may operate erratically or fail completely if air zb‘vided ‘with, a ?xed ‘ori?ce discharge. .The .in becomes mixed with the liquid used, and liquid herent characteristics of such a device, when. feeding devices may fail to function or measure pumping liquids containing entrained air, are. accurately. , It is old in the art to which this invention ‘ such that when operated at constant speed the discharge pressure of the pump falls 01f or de relates to determine the percentage of gas in liquid 25 creases With increase in the percentage of air or or semi-liquid material by examination of ingas in the liquid- Witha?Xed eri?eein the Pump dividual samples of the material. One such meth- , od- involves securing a measured volume of the material to be tested and subjecting it to pres- Outlet which requires a de?nite discharge pres Sure for each Dump ?OW rate, the discharge Dress sure of the liquid Dumped falls Off With decreas sure in a, closed container whereby its‘volume is 39 mg inlet absolute pressure, in a manner to be reduced. Another method consists in comparing described, because the ?ow falls off. Thus a still the weight 01’ a whims of material of known further object of the invention is the provision of . gaseous content with the weight of an equal volapparatus of the character described embodying ume of material of unknown gaseous content. Z Continuously Operated, positive displacement However, such methods are discontinuous and rid-means, advantageously a substantially constant are limited for the most part to use in the laboratory. ‘ Speed rotary pumD. These and other objects are accomplished by Apparatus involving the use of electric circuits the present invention as Will be apparent from containing electrical condensers, resistances or the following description and ateemnanyingv light sensitive, electric cells have been proposed 40 drawings. wherein,’ for continuously indicating the percentage of gas in liquids but these devices, while possibly sound theoretically, are complicated and delicate and Fig. 1 is a top plan View. partly in Section, 0f the indicator of the present invention; Fig. 2 is a front plan view of the apparatus eating the percentage of gas entrained in liquids. System, Of an engine; and have not proven entirely satisfactory under prac- _, ShOWn in Fig- 1; tical conditions of operation. 45' Fig. 3'is a diagrammatic view, partly in sec It is an object of the present invention to protion. and ShOWS One form of apparatus of the vide an improved method for continuously indipresent invention connected to the lubricating A further object of the invention is to provide ' ' Fig. 4 is a chart in which indicator inlet and avstrong and durable, inexpensive and simply con- 50Joutlet pressures are graphically illustrated by structed direct reading apparatus for continucurves for lubricating oil containing various per ously and accurately indicating the presence or absence,-or change in percentage of gas in liquids, semi-liquida'plastic material, or liquids containing solids. - I ' , ~ g ' , - .A further object of the invention is the PI’OL~ vision of continuous indicating means of the char-. . acter described which may be connected at ‘al- 3 centages of air at different altitudes, as when the oil is used to lubricate an airplane engine. . Referring to the drawings and more particu 56 Ilarly to Figs. 1 and 2, wherein like numerals in 5 2,406,179 dled is indicated regardless of whether the gas be ' simply entrained or mechanically admixed with the material orliberated from solution in the liq uid by the drop in pressure in the system. While the invention is particularly meritorious in air plane lubricating systems it is‘ well adapted for Wide application in industry. What is claimed is: 1. The method of continuously indicating the 6 the pump, a pressure gage in the outlet of the pump intermediate the pump and the resistance and means for driving the pump at a substantially constant speed whereby a difference in pressure across. said pump is obtained, said difference be ing less the greater the percentage of gas pres ent with the liquid‘. 5. In apparatus for measuring the quantity of gas entrained in a mixture of liquid and gaseous percentage of gas in a liquid-gas mixture which 10 material, the improvement comprising a positive comprises preparing a calibration chart of a posi displacement pump, inlet and outlet connections tive displacement pump driven at constant speed for the pump, a pressure gage arranged to indi and discharging through a constant resistance, in cate the pressure of the liquid-gas mixture on the which pump discharge pressures are plotted inlet side of the pump, a ?xed ori?ce resistance in against pump inlet pressures for liquids contain 15 said pump outlet connection, a pressure gage con ing various known percentages of entrained gas, nected to the pump outlet intermediate the pump thereby obtaining a series of characteristic curves, and the ori?ce resistance, and means for driving pumping a liquid containing an unknown per the pump at a substantially constant speed centage of entrained gas with said pump at said whereby a difference in pressure across said pump speed and through said resistance, determining 20 is obtained, said di?erence being less the greater the inlet and outlet pressures of the liquid and noting the percentage of entrained gas in the liq uid represented on the chart by the curve having the nearest comparative corresponding pressure readings. the percentage of gas present with the liquid. 6. Apparatus for use with a calibration chart of -a positive-displacement pump operating at a given speed, said chart showing the relation be 25 tween the pump inlet and outlet pressures when 2. The subject matter of claim 1 wherein the pumping liquid-gas mixtures of variousekno-wn inlet temperatures of the liquid-gas mixture used in preparing the calibration chart of the positive displacement pump and the liquid-gas mixture containing an unknown percentage of entrained 30 percentages of gas through a ?xed restricted ori ?ce; said apparatus comprising a positive-dis gas are made equal. ' 3. The subject matter of claim 1 wherein a plu rality of said charts are prepared corresponding to operations of the positive displacement pump with liquid-gas mixtures of different tempera tures, determining the temperature of the un known liquid-gas mixture and referring to the chart representing operation of the pump near est the temperature of the unknown liquid-gas mixture for determining the percentage gas pres ent in said liquid. 4. In combination with a system including a ?owing stream of liquid containing entrained gas, a by-p-ass in said system, a positive displacement pump in said by-pass, means for determining the pressure of the liquid-gas mixture entering the pump, a ?xed ?uid ?ow resistance in the outlet of placement pump for which said chart is cali brated, means for operating said pump at said given speed, a ?xed restricted ori?ce similar to the ori?ce upon which said chart is based, said pump being arranged to pump a liquid-gas mix ture through said ori?ce, means for measuring the pump inlet pressure, and means for measur ing the pump outlet pressure upstream of said ori?ce. , ' - 7. Apparatus for measuring the quantity of gas in a liquid-gas mixture, said apparatus compris ing a positive-displacement pump, a restricted passage through which said pump is arranged to pump said mixture, means for operating said pump at a substantially constant speed, means for measuring the pump intake pressure, and ' means for measuring the pump discharge pres sure upstream of said restricted ori?ce. . BRUCE R. WALSH. , GEORGE S. PETERSON.