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Патент USA US2406182

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Aug. 20, 1946; '
A. H. zl-:rrz
„ 2,406,182
Aug. 20, 1946.v
A. H. zl-:l'rz
2,406,182 '
FiledA Sept. l1, 1945
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 20, 1946.
A. H. zElTz _
Filéd sept. 11', 1945
3 sheets-sheet 5-
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,406,182 Y
Arthur H. Zeitz, Kansas City, Mo., assignor of one
half to Charles S. Foreman, Kansas City, M0.
Application September 11, 1943, Serial No. 501,965 Y
6 claims.
(C1. 153-32) `
Fig.V 1 is a plan view of a bending apparatus
embodying my invention,fportions of the top plate
being broken away to better illustrate the drives
for the respective buck operating screws.
Fig. 2 is a partial perspective view of the top
of the machines, particularly illustrating one of
This invention relates to bending apparatus
andmore particularly to a bending machine for
curving large pipes near their point of,` installa
tion, and has for its principalobject to bend pipe
sections in apredetermined geometric curve.
In the construction of pipe lines, for example
the bending bucks.
oil and gas pipe lines, it is necessary to bend the
pipe sections to ñt the contour of the ground
Fig. 3 is a detail transverse sectional view on
the line 3_3, Fig. l.
Fig. 4 is a detail transverse sectional view on
Where the line is laid. Due to ythe fact that it is
difficult to handle and transport large pipe sec
tions, particularly after they are curved, it is de
sirable that the sections be bent in the field near
their point of use.V The walls of such- pipe are
the line 4_4, Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a detail ~longitudinal sectional view
on the line 5_5, Fig. l.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged transverse sectional view >
Vrelatively thin and will therefore buckle easily
requiring long gradual curves and extreme care 15 through one of the bending buck guides.
in the bending operation. `
It has been found that in bending large size
steel pipe which have relatively thin side walls
Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional view on the line
1_1, Fig. 1, particularly illustrating the drive
for the bending bucks.
Referring more in detail to the drawings
that all portions of the pipe must be bent simul
taneously by a constant, slowly and evenly ap 20 wherein:
I designates a pipe bending machine preferably
plied pressure to prevent buckling,l also the more
supported on sills 2 and 3 extending longitudi
bucks used the less the chance of buckling the
nally of the machine. Themachine may be fixed
on a permanent foundation, however, I prefer to
Other objects of the present invention are
therefore to provide a portable pipe bending ma 25 make said machines portable vby mounting the
chine; to provide a device adaptable for bending I
different diameters of pipes; to provide a bending
machine with a plurality of simultaneously mov
sills 2 and 3 on a frame 4 of a conventional
trailer 5„the frame 4 being resiliently supported
by springs 6 on axles 1 which are carried by
wheels 8. The trailer may be of conventional
able bending bucks; to provide for moving the
bucks at a predetermined speed ratio for effecting 30 structure and forms no part of the present in
vention other than serving to provide portability
a simultaneous even pressure throughout the
length of the pipe being bent; to provide a ma
Mounted on the sills 2 and 3, and preferably
chine with pivotally mounted bucks for chang
transversely thereof, are a plurality of spaced
ing the angle of contact between the bucks and
pipe as saidpipe isbent; to provide a central 35 guide tracks 9, I0, II, I2, I3,.I4, I5, I6, and I1,
said tracks preferably being spaced equally dis
power device for applying power for moving the
tant along said sills and preferably being of odd
bucks to bend the pipe; to provide a plurality of
numbenwhereby the central track I3 is located
inter-connected speedreducers for transmitting
midway between the tracks 9 and I 1 which are
power to the respective bucks; ,-to provide for
moving each buck with an individual. screw; to 40 adjacent the ends of the sills. The tracks prefer
ably consist of spaced channel members I8 and
provide the screws for the respective bucks with
I9Y having vertically arranged web portions 20
threads having different leads for moving said
and upper and lower laterally extending flanges
bucks at different speed ratiosyto provide the
2I and 22, the lower flanges 22 preferably being
screws with threads the leads of which are re
lated to provide relative speed ratios of the bucks 45 mounted on Vand secured _to a plate 23 which is
secured to the upper flange 24 of the sills 2 and
to form the pipe in a predetermined curve; to
3. The flanges 2| and 22 extend inwardly of the
provide an efficient, compact, and sturdy device
tracks and their inner edges 25 are spaced to
for bending pipe; and to provide structuralele- .
provide a slot 26 `therebetween for a purpose later ~
ments and arrangements thereof in a device of
described. A plate 21 extends over the track
the character and for the purpose set forth.
members 9 to I1 inclusive, for forming a .noor
In accomplishing ~these and other objects of
ing or work surface 28, the plate 21 being car
the present invention, I have provided improved
ried by the flanges 2l of the channels forming
details of structure, the preferred form of which
the track members Sto I1 and is secured thereto
is .illustrated in the accompanying drawings,
55 as by welding or the like. The platesV 23 and.A
21 close the spaced flanges of the channels yto
form enclosed guides for retaining oil in which
therparts therein may operate to provide lubri
the plates El' toward the hand-wheels whereby >
cation therefor.
the'faces 69 of said plates 67 'are toward the pipe
99, said gusset plates preferably being welded to’
the plates 59 and 61 and arranged on the side of
Y `Mounted 0n one side of ythe machine is a box
'i9 to be bent.
girder -29 extending above and belowthe track
In order to adapt the bucks to the respective
pipe size to be bent, pipe cradles "H are mounted
on the respective plates 59 in engagement with
members 9 to Il and having its outer- face 3|r
secured to thek track channel members I8 and
i9, as atï3ï2’, therplate' 3'9":¿is preferablgrbracediby"
stiiîenersonangles33 which are rigidlysecured"
the'p’lat'e’s 93. The cra-dl'esi'll"preferably(V consist
of“ laterally and vertically extending members 12
`and 'i3 arranged at right angles, as at 14, and
to the outer faces of the channel Web members ,
as at 34. Mounted on the plate 30, are horizont»
'adapted to carry curved plates ‘i5 which are of
thesame curvature as the pipe 10. The lower
jacent the ' plate 39 being secured thereto by
ends of the curved portions 15 are arranged hori
Y means or” welding or the like as'at' 38'!whereby;thet
-« yz‘ojntally;vas-ati T6; and'adapted to rest on the
webs 39 and 99 of the respectiverlt:l beams-formv » -> 'platesf'FZïi and be-secured therewith to the plates
tallyarranged I beams 35 andg39, flangesyS-’lfad-k'
the upper and lower walls ,ofgtheï box` ygir‘der 29;A ~ '_ 59 by means o_f cap-screws 7l, the upper ends of
thek outer wall Vbeing formed bya plate 4I >secured ' >the curved plates l5 being connected, asV at '18,
to the flanges 42 of the respective IV beams;A Not ' with> horizontal members i9 which‘are secured
.Y Y only does this structurev form a housing but alsoA 20 to the vertical plates 13, as at 89.
rigidly connects'the ends o?thetrack mem‘berszto
formf a1;-lrig’idiibexfgirder;l 'li‘h‘ef other; endsï'of
of cap-screws'or thel 1ikeï 81| extending; through; t
- thetrackîmemb‘ers‘ “areF connected by means oían
apertures 62 in the'pl‘ates 67 andthreadedjintd
threaded apertures 83» in" theplatesf.13;> lll/lithi-y
th'is arrangement the buck
on- the nuts'y 54 and-,slotsl 84-'are providedfin the»
plate 2ïI whereby` turning' of the hande-WheelsI 4’9’:
I beam memberl 43: Secured’to the lower’surfa'ce
voí the‘pl'atev V23v` adjacent- the ends: ofrthe respec
tive- track 'members 9'c and I1' inclusive,- whereby
the housing 29, the I beam member' 43`and1t‘l'1e`
sills 2l and13‘ fîorm longitudinal members; through
andy '59y rotates they screws 45€ tornovei` thei nuts#
54 in; the guide tracks`r 9 and"4 Il’ to: adjust thee
the apparatus which are each „connected to Ythe
channels ?i9 and? l 9i' of theî respective track mem
position‘- of the bucks 5l and 58` to- engage:the:vr
bers 9 and'l'l inclusive formingiaf'ri'gid structure
pipe -Tíleto be bent.
capable of 'withstandinghardusa'ge andi handling
Theintermediate tracks7 |19 :and l‘ä"inclusîveïareA
provided- with`r thrustbearings 85 adjacentîtheibox:
heavy pipe.
The plates 13
rare preferably'secured to> the.y plates 9T by means
girder 29 for rotatably mcunting'shafts' 8'9 of‘
In'the. ends'of each ofithetra'ck‘members 9fand
Y Il, adjacent; theî I; beam 43g are'Y thrust: bearingsï 35 screws 97,98, 89599,', 9h92; and’ 93<respectivelyL Y
êikfor rotatablyïsupporting: shafts45 of screws 46
The shafts 85 extend throughV apertures 94î in»
the plate Sil'for connection with'ígear reduction
units' 95 mountedîon the; plate 39l inside? of the',
extending inwardly through?. th‘eî track members
9 and Il, the shafts 45 extending'v outwardly
l' tl'iroiugh4 apertures 41T ini plates. 49T which-'fclose
the ends Vof the 1track members to enclose- the 40
` ` bearings as; VThe hand-wheels 4s: and: sul are
rnduntedlcrr tlieo‘uter ends ofthe shafts 455 in`l`
the' tracks "9 ‘ and.: lil~ respectively,r said wheels* be;
ingvkeyed .te they shafts ` by: m‘e'a‘nsî` of splines. 51
The geary reductionïunits 955 connected with'theî`
respective shaftsV 86’rarerprefera-bly all of~theîsame"
type an’d'have" worm drive shafts 96 extentíling:l
laterally of said gear reduction units and longií-g
tudinally‘of the bending apparatus.: Eachizoffthe
whereby> operation 'of the“ hand-wheels rotate's'f 451 gea-r- reduction` units' preferably' havef their;v shafts
thexscrews'in' the respectiveitrack'members. ’ The'
99». connectedr by couplings-3:91'r to the adjacent`r
hubs f, 521er tlieI hand-wheels 49L and . 5 91 engage"Í thejv>
reduction' unit. wherebyÍ all`A of> the> gearY reduction,
outer vfëazcerofcthe plate 48 toLcoop'e'rate-'with’ col?v
units-»are interconnected'v and'. are simultaneously‘ï
larsY âîäfonzthe screws ‘49S l'i'avir'i'g~ engagement- withîv
operated'lby” means of; ehain'drives 9.78 ‘an‘d‘f 99Ihave"
theî inner'portion‘- of? the bearing’sl4‘4' fio prevent! i ingA drivingi engagement witlrsproeketsr m0: and’.
l-llflVV arranged in spaced: relation >on‘Y` the:Í shafts.'
The screws 49 are threadedly engagedï'witlf‘iu
96<whereby> the driving' torque:impartedy tolith'ei
nutsî'54 slidably mounted between the.' channelsy
shafts-'96' isidiv'ided .toreduce strain-ion.theïspee'd;`
' íißf and: l 9 ' of' the trackfmembers Sr'and‘ l1; where-f
by _rotationì of thel hand-wheels» 49. andî 59T? move.
the nuts: 5tl in saidltrack" ’membersv throughï en"- r
gagementfof vthe- threadß. 55? ont the screw 49 withl
internal threads 59 fini: the nutsî 54'. Pivctallïy
means-,ofspro‘ckets H32 ’andi §92 mounted: orr stubil
shafts |94,l rotatably.œ supported'. int Yb'e'aìringsi H15’.
om theí plate 39.; "l‘l'ieîstL-ibI shafts-|941 also carryg
mounted, on the respectiveînut's' 54'; areï'bu'cks 5l#Y
and' 591v whlichï preferably' consist of.I feotï ¿plaiîesäël'`
engagedA .by chains? VI II8=A andi i109? vsfhichï> are driven.;
adapted to; restenV the faceV 281 of.4 the door v2ï `
and beicennected to'. the nuts. by' meansî of' cap
screws 69*exten’dingfthroughxapertures 6Fl» in'th‘e `
plates"Y Eilïan'd>Y into threaded' recesses» 572i in the i
ating over sprockets:y |.'|'3 on: at counteràsliatt"v ISIÃ'Q-u
said counter-shaft beingiY drivenfv byï~ means ofi ai
belti or’o‘ther suitable'.v power:v transmission: mecha-‘f
nism lîli5' from a‘ primeïmover; suchas iaî-gas'olineì ~
engine'. l: lr6', which'. is î suspended'Í byi means? ori arms’ì i
nuts’ 543'."Y The.` screws 89 form' bearing' postsv oniv
whichthefbucks.r 5l?" and ESI may pivot' as limited
by' engagement of the end of slots 93 in the `plates ï
59;` spaced toward the hand-"wheels from: the
aperturesv Bfti‘náthe plates "andiy shanksfßll of cap'
Y ‘ Whenthegasoline motorïorïothe'r ‘prime‘mcveïrsil
screws 95; the Shanks of which: are tlireacled'into ~ is operated;v the’. worm' Yshafts A99 arie-'rotated
l >`threaded'"recesses 99",» in theV nuts 54. Mounted
throughîi the transmission- mechanismV just cle-A
on;V theîìfóot plates- 59 adjacent the apertures 9T
scribed'to transmit p'o'we? through» the respective* '
aref upwardly extending plates'- El which» are `
gear'rreductienl units toi rotate` the shafts" ßiïfatl>
preferably secured, asb‘y‘weldíng-in upright pesi--~ `
noires meente-S159 and-‘Bracediby'gusseeplates
aireduced speed.” I prefer' to'l provide éaclil'ofîthe‘ff ~
`ï units 95 with the same gear 'reduction whereby?"
the ¿screws 81 yand'93 inclusive are rotatedat
the same speed as later described.
wheels y49 -and »50 are -rotatedto move _the .bucksA Y
51-and 58 into engagement -with the'oppositev
sides of said pipe. The prime mover; ||6 is then
operated to transmit rotary motion to thecounf
vided With collars |20 adapted to engage the
thrustv bearings 85 and cooperate with the gearl Cl ter-shaft |l4 to drive the respective chains` ||2.stub-shafts ||I,_«.sprockets |06 and |01, stub‘
reduction units to prevent endwise movement of
shafts |04, sprockets |02 and |03, chains 90v and*>
the screws. Each of the screws extends in the
9,9, sprockets |00 and |0|, to the worm drive
respective tracks and the threads A|2| thereon
shaftsl 96 of the respective gear reduction
are threadedly engaged with internal threads |22
95, which simultaneously rotate the screws, |31,in the nuts |23 slidablyr` mounted in the respec
and 93 at lthe same rotational -speed. Due to the
tive- tracks. Pipe carriages or bucks |24 of; ex
ratio of the leads'of the respective screws 81'fto
actly the same construction as the bucks 51~and
58 are `pivotally mounted ori the «respective -nuts ’ 93, the bucks |24 are moved laterally of the ap
paratus to bend the portion of the pipe between,
|23V-by meansv lof» cap-screws- |25 extendingl
through'apertures in footplates |26Y in the re-- 15 the bucks 51 and 58, each of the bucks pivotingv
relative to the nuts 54 andIZB-to-maintain en--_
spectivebucks and threadedly engaged in thread-,
gagement of the pipe perpendicular tothe tan
edl recessesy in_.the respectivek nuts` |23, the piv
of the curve at the respective points of con»otal movements of _the respective bucks being
-. Each of the screws 81 and 93 -inclusive is pro
limited by means of cap-screwsl21 extending
throughqslots- |28 in the vplates |26 and thread-v
edly engaged in threaded recesses |29, the plate
21ïbeing slotted overthe-,normal path o_f> the
screws |24and~|21 as at |30 to permit the nut
and bucks to move transversely ofthe machine.
y Secured to the carriages or bucks |24 are pipen
cradles |3| substantially of the same structure
, The curves placed in the pipes are measured
-by a~scale~ |31 mounted on >the plate 2-1~adJa-;,
cent the vbuck |2l|l moved` bythe screw 90, saidl
scale |31 preferably being graduated to indicateY
the degrees of the external angle formed by the.
tangentsv to the curve of thepipe.l When the;
curvature is placed in the. pipe the prime'mover- `
is reversed to reverse the screws 81 to-=r93~in-V
elusive to withdraw the respectives bucks from.
as the cradles 1|. The cradles |3| `have curved
faces |32 adapted to engage theside of the pipe
engagement with the pipe, vand the hand-wheels
to be bent, engagement of the cradles |3|, moved
by the respective screws 81 to 93 inclusive, being 30 49 and 50 rotated to back the bucks Á»E1-and` 58a
whereby the pipe may be picked up and removed
on the opposite side of the pipe to the cradles
from the apparatus.A With this arrangement'the
1| vwhich are adjustably moved by the screws 46.
bucks engage the pipe at relatively small spacingv
»_ I prefer to rotate each _of the screws 81 to 93
to exert an even-‘force fthereon and eliminate;
inclusive at the same speed, and in the-par
ticular instance illustrated plîovideea variation
in the leads of the threadson the respective
screws whereby the ratio of-the rotational speed
of thel individual screws «to the «linear speed of
the respective bucks willincrease as the screws
are spaced from the center towardthe ends of ~ 40
the machine. 4In the present instance Ivprefer
that the screw 90 have a ratio of 3 threads to 1
inch, the screws 89 and 9| a ratio of 3.2_threads to
l inch, »the screws 88 and 92 a ratio of 4 threads to
buckling of the pipe whichis common> in thin.
wall structures such> as are used in cross-country
pipelines whereby a correct curvaturefmaybe':
imparted tothe pipe without anyobstructions‘.
deformation thereof.
From the foregoing it is believed obvious that;
Ihave provided a pipe bending machine capable;
of bending` pipe sections in predetermined geo-A
metric curves wherein pipes of different diam
eters may be eñiciently and accurately bentto
1 inch, and the screws 81 and 93 a ratio of 6.85 45 conform to the contour of the earth where the
pipes are to be laid.
threads to 1 inch. These are approximate iig
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
ures and of course will vary with the spacing of
Patent is:
the individual bucks. While I prefer to pro
1. In a pipe bending machine, a frame adapted
vide for the variation in linear travel of the
individual bucks by using screws of different lead, 50 to receive a pipe to be bent, a plurality of guides
arranged transversely of said frame, pipe engag
it is believed obvious that a similar result could
ing bucks movably mounted in the respective Y
be obtained by changing the ratio of the gears
guides, the end bucks facing inthe opposite di
in the respective gear reduction units.
rection of the intermediate bucks, means for ad
In order to assist in placing a pipe 10 to be
bent on the apparatus, I preferably provide ex 55 justing the end bucks to effect engagement of
all the bucks with the pipe, screws in the re
tensions |33 on the sills 2 and 3 extending out
spective intermediate guides for moving the re
wardly at each end of the apparatus and pro
spective bucks, each of the screws located to
vide bearings |34 for rotatably supporting rollers
ward the center of the frame having longer lead
|35 at the ends of the machine, the top of said
rollers being substantially on the same level as 60 than the adjacent outer screw whereby the cen
the upper face |36 of the horizontal portion of
the pipe engaging cradles 1| and |3|.
The operation of a pipe bending apparatus con
structed as described is as follows:
ter buck moves relatively faster than the outer
bucks, and means for simultaneously rotating
said screws in the intermediate guides for mov
ing the respective bucks toward the pipe to bend
The pipe bending machine is moved in the ñeld 65 said pipe.
2. In a pipe -bending machine, a frame adapted
adjacent a point of use of the pipe and when
to receive a pipe to be bent, a plurality of guides
pipe curves are needed to conform to the con
arranged transversely on said frame, Ipipe en
tour of the earth, the section of the pipe to
gaging bucks movably mounted in the respective
be bent is placed on the apparatus, the ends
thereof being supported by means of the rollers 70 guides, the end bucks facing in the opposite di
rection of the intermediate bucks, means for ad
|35. The bucks |24 are all moved toward the
jucting the end bucks to effect engagement of all
' housing 29 until the pipe engaging faces |32
the bucks with the pipe, screws in the respective
of the respective bucks are in alignment. The
intermediate guides for moving the respective »
pipe _10 is then arranged so one side thereof is
engaged by the respective bucks |24 and the hand 75 bucks, each of the screws located toward the
alice; i'sê
ée >'er
the fifam‘efhaving longer lead than-'thev
Yto» receive a pipe «to be bent; aplurality of :spaced
adjustable pipefengag'ing bucks mounted Von the
youter screw ¿whereby tneï‘centerïbuck
, movesH rela-‘tivelyA faster ythan l_the nouter bucks, a
drivingï~ r’x-ieamsgi- `and yspeedY 'reducer-vs operatively
Y connecting the drivingfmeanswith the -‘respec
tive screws ¿Í-'or simultaneously Vrotating said
screws- in »the intermediate ¿gíuidesfîa-t ïthe vsainev
rotational I'speed for movin-'gïltlie respective bucks
toward thefpipeg at difI-‘erentïspeed ratios for
bending said pipein _a'jcurlvegïv`
¿3._4 ¿Iï Ta pipe «bend-ing" macnïinea fra-me, al' plurality bf'fgluides- arranged transverselyY on Vsaid
frame? foncvjversmonnted in the respective guides
frame for »movement transversely-thereof,- «the
end bucks adapted -to-enga-ge one> side of the `iîbipe'
5 and the Íintermediate bucks» the other side, means
for adjusting the Vend bucks to eiïect engage
ment 'o_f» all the buckswith the pipe before bend'
ing, means for moving said intermediate bucks
toward' the pipe, each of said moving'y means ~1o~
10! cated »toward the center of the frame moving
the respective bucks -fa'ster than »the -nex'tvoute?
radjzwent lbuck whereby the center buck"V moves
Y an' movable transverselyon the frame, carriages
_ly mounted enti-1e followers, screws »in 15
the'gïui‘desïliavingengagemerit VYWith the respec-`
relatively vfaster than the outer bucks; vthe mov
ing - speedV oi `each»«intern‘ried-iateV buck being ` of
'predetermined' ratio'r relative l'tothe other bucks, _ i
tive: ¿followers-fer _movi-ng same, _said screws hav
andv- means ¿for simultaneously operating4 said»
`buck moving means for moving all; -of theïintere
mediate bucks toward» the pipeV to ebend vsame in
pivoting aon the followers to maintain» the' force
andthe intermediate bucks »the other side, means `
ing‘í different? leads, Vpipe Aengaging bucks' adjacent
the ends of the frame for engaging one'sideoff
aV curveibetween theend bucks, said-curve» being
‘ the, ¿pipe-¿c be bent, pipe .engaging vbacksea-the 20v determined by thev relative speed ratios »et the ree;
carriages and (movable »therewith for engaging
spective intermediate bucks.
Y the «opposite side of the pipe intermediateiof the
a pipe bending machine, avfreìme'adapted
ñr'st named bucks», and means-for Simultaneously Y to receive a pipe to be bent`,»a plurality 'of spaced
rotatïn’ïgi'tlfie screwsulin the `respective guides;- for
adjustable `pipe engaging bucksI mounted on `the’
movingthe followers and- 4bucks thereon- »toward 25 frame for movement transversely thereof, theV
theV pir-peffor‘ bending saidA pipe, said Vcarriages ' end bucks adapted to engage one side of the pipe
Vextended thereby'at'r'ig-htangles to the pipe.
for adjusting the end bucks to effect engage
of all the bucks With- Vthe pipeY before bend
tol/receive'V a piíp'e to beèbenët, pipe engaging 'bucks 30 ing, means for moving said intermediate bucks
¿ ¿a n a pipe 'bending machine, .a frame adapted
' moüntedi on' the frame >‘for movement transverse
~ ly thereof', the end bucks facing in the opposite
direction? of the intermediate' bucks,V means «for
toward the pipe, each of said moving means» 1o-_ Y
cated toward the centerV of the frazfn'e"movingV
the respective lbucks faster than the next outer
adjustingtne' end bucks to eiîect'engagement of`
azll'l'the’ Abucksïvviiílfl the pipe, screws" in" the frame
adjacent buck whereby the »center buck moves
relatively faster than the outer bucks,- a~_ driving
thers'cr‘ewsloca't’ed toward tHeIcenter cfftloe fran-1e>
ing the drivingmeans with the respective buckV
moving-means’ forV simultaneously >operating _said
and’¿havingV engagement into >the respective .inY-`
termedîatelbiicks for moving said-bucks, eacn of
means,V and ‘speed reducers operatively connect;`
having longer lead thanviïthe adjacent screw
means to moveftlie respective.interino-fr
whereby‘tlie center buck moves 'relatively faster 40' moving
diate bucks toward the pipe to bend same in al
' than’tne fcnter' bucks, and means for moving tne
curve Abetween the end bucks, said- curve being
respective bucks ~toward the A.pipe to> bend same Y ' determined
by the relativev speed vofV the respec
ti-v'e intermedia-te bucks.
5A. r In a pipe- bendinemachinaf 9J» frame adapted'
Vî “
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