Патент USA US2406203код для вставки
v Aug. 20, 1946. I .v - > H, CRUZAN ETAL ‘ ' 2,406,203 AUTOMATIC QIL CONDITICNER - Filed Aug. 22, 1942 . ‘ .4 Sheets-Sheet‘l Q - * J a ‘ ‘ "-f-"finv ?ew” 6mm as? mead/rd WW‘) Aug. 20, 1946. 2,406,203 H. CRUZAN ETAL _ AUTOMATIC _ OIL CONDITIONER Filed Aug. 22, 1942 4Sheets-Shee’c 3 . ' .H'arold. I 3mm Cruz an, A EdwardO. War-rick ,_ Aug; 20,- 1946-.‘ H. CRUZAN m1. - AUTOMATIC OIL CONDITIQNER - 2,406,203 " ' Filed Aug. 22, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 mm" w . < - - ~56 ~46v .23; 1V ‘ l ‘ . 24 3 7 v ' 1 , 25' 16‘ .' ' ___ I 2L2 H 26 ' Cfuzwo, Edward 6.“,“771305/ 2 W > Patented Aug. 20, 1946 2,406,203 / . , UNITED STATES PATENT, OFFICE, AUTOMATIC OIL CONDITIONER‘ Harold Cruzan and Edward C. Warrick, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to United Aircrafts Products, Inc., Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application Augustv22, 1942, Serial No. 455,820 12 Claims. 1 ' ’ (01. 35742) ~ rI‘his invention relates to an automatic oil‘con which will automatically prevent the application of excessive pressureto’ the lubricating system. Another important aim of this invention is to provide an apparatus ~of the above character in ditioner and more particularly to an apparatus for regulating the temperature of lubricants and thereby controlling the flow thereof in pressure systems for lubricating the power plants of air which a lubricant is brought to a predetermined ‘condition as to viscosity through a directand indirect exchange of heat. craft, armored vehicles or other conveyances,'al though the same is not restricted to such speci?c use. ' A ‘further important object of this invention Low atmospheric temperatures cause an in is to provide an' apparatus of the above ‘character crease in viscosity of the lubricant and conse- l0 in which the lubricating system is‘positively'pro duently a rapid build-up of pressure in the systected from damage resulting from high pressures tem far beyond normal requirements necessary therein, by substantially eliminating the sudden to move the lubricant therethrough, which’ frequently results in considerable damage toif not 'préSSure'drop Which usually occurs in similar de vvices ‘of present day use ‘ ‘ total failure of the system, 7 ' ’ I 15 Under certain conditions, such as in‘ modern \A‘ ‘still further important object of this inven tion is to provide an apparatus of the above char warfare, it is vitally important that the power aster which is'of simple construction, highly ef plants of the various vehicles or conveyances be ready for instantaneous use regardless of the ?cient in use, and one that can'be readily and quickly manufactured and installed at a reason- ' condition of the lubricant, due to atmospheric 20 able 00st. " 7 ‘ temperature changes. This isparticularly ~im- The foregoing andadditional objects ‘and ad poitant when it becomes necessary to place an aircraft into immediate operation from a so- vantages will be readily apparent throughout the COHrSé 0f the following description and drawings, called cold start in freezing or sub-freezing tem- peratures, . I in which 25 ‘ . ‘ ' Figure 1, is a fragmentary end elevation of the Another situation where the condition of a lubricant is of vital importance is in the operation invention, partly in section, and with a portion Of the fluid distributing head removed, as viewed of dive bombing. from the right of Figure 2, In this operation the dive is ‘ ' ' " ‘ often started at extremely high altitudes with ‘ Figure 2,'is a vertical cross sectional view of the motor cut out resulting in a cooling of the 30 the same, With parts broken away, lubricant and consequently a rapid increase in Figure‘ 3, is a 130D plan View Of the COIlditiOner, the viscosity thereof. When the operator reaches 011 a reduced scale, with a portion of the fluid dis a point where it, is necessary to pull-out of the ‘ tributing head removed to show the inlet and Out dive a sudden starting of the motor places the let warm-up tubes, ' lubricant in the System under Sudden and ex- 35 ‘Figure ‘l, is a horizontal cross-sectional view tremely high pressure which also quite often reof the ‘oil’ conditioner, also on a reduced scale,‘ sults in considerable damage and failure of the taken on line 4-4 of Figure 2, V oil'line. Figure 5, is a bottom plan view of one portion In order to overcome the foregoing and other of the fluid distributing head, v ’ objections and disadvantages which are frequent- 40 ‘Figure 6, is an end elevation of the fluid dis ly encountered at the present time, it is the pritributing head, as viewed from the right of Fig mary or important object of this invention to ure 2, with parts of the oil conditioner broken provide an apparatus of the above character . away, ~ which will automatically and rapidly condition a Figure '7, is a vertical cross-sectional view of a lubricant, as to viscosity, regardless of varying 45 portion of the ?uid distributing head, taken on‘ temperature changes before the same is forced line '|—‘| of Figure 5, showing fragmentary parts through the system. of the oil conditioner and inlet warm-up tubes Another important object of this invention is connected thereto, and p to provide an apparatus of the above character Figure 8, is a vertical cross-sectional view, sim which will automatically prevent the ?ow of lu- 50 ilar to Figure 7, taken on line 8—8 of Figure 5, bricant through the system until the same has showing a fragmentary section of one of the out been brought to a predetermined condition of viscosity. 7 let warm-up tubes. ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ I V Referring in detail to the drawings, the auto _Another important object of this invention is 55 matic oil conditioner includes a horizontally dis to provide an apparatus of the above character posed‘ cylindrical casing I, having its bottom 2,406,203 ’ 4 ‘ connected to ‘the base section 22 by a silver solder, portion-formed with an aperture 2 located inter- . welding or the like. The bottom of the base sec mediate the ends thereof. . Secured to the ex tion is further formed with a pair of spaced open ternal face .of the casing and surrounding the ings 28 corresponding to and in vertical registry aperture 2 is a ?anged ring 3 formed to detach- V‘ with the openings 2! in the casing (Figure 8). ably receive a threaded drain plug It. ' Formed integral with the bottom and side walls Integrally. fastened to the inner surface of the ' of the base section so as to separate the upper casing, adjacent‘ each of 3', bottom portion of the ends or the inlet and outlet tubes from‘ each its ends, as by’silver solder, welding orthe like.‘ other is a vertically extending partition 29 (Fig is an inwardly facing channeled supporting mem ure 3) of substantially V-iorm when viewed in her 5 having a flat top anda curved bottom to conform to the curvature of the casing. v Mounted within the casing l, is a series ' plan. of ver-, tically spaced and axially extending ba?le ‘plates Disposed on either side of the upper ends of the outlet warm-up tubes It is a vertical par tition 3U, formedintegral with the bottom, side ' and end walls of the base section so as to separate 6,1, 8 and'n9. The lowermost ba?le plate 6 of the the outlet warm-up tubes from the elongated‘ series, has its end portions seated upon andcon openings 28 which latter have direct communi- I nected to the supporting members 5, and its lon'--1 cation withthe main body of the lubricant con-g connectedto the casing, so; v gitudinal side edges ' tained withinv the casing. as to provide a lower header or compartment it, . .The. intermediate section 23 of the lubricant while the baffles 1, 8 and}; have their longitudinal‘. distributing head,‘ when viewed in bottom plan side edges connectedto the casing» so as to provide compartments. or chambers l I, I2, l3 and ‘ [4.‘ While only four horizontally extending ba?le plates are shown, it is to be understood that any desirable number may be used. v‘ The ba?le plates and the top of the casing are each provided with a horizontally extending as depicted. in Figure 5 of the drawings, includes atop wall 3!, sidewalls 32~and end walls 33. The top wall 3l;is formed with a par of spaced out let ports 31% and 35, while one end wall 33' is I formed with a ported neck 36 to provide an inlet passage for thelubricant ?owing into the condi ‘ centrally disposed row of_ spaced openings in ver-‘ - tical .alinement or registry with each other‘ so as tioner. _ Formed integral with the intermediate section and overlying a portion of the warm-up tubes, is to receive a bank or group'of inlet warm-up tubes a substantially horizontally extending downward l5 and a bank or group of outlet warm-up tubes 30 - ly facing cup-like partition 31. The top wall of. 16. The upperiends of the warm-up tubes ter the partition 31 is arranged to lie'in a position» minate a slight distance above the top of the intermediate the top wallv 3i and the bottom ‘edge casing» for a purpose to be hereinafter more fully of the intermediate section and has its side walls described, while lower ends thereof extend a and bottom edge of'substantially V formation so slight distance into the header Ill. - ' ' as to merge with and form a continuation. of the Mounted within the casing between the ba?le partition 29 carried .by the base. section, to there plates and to either side of‘ the warm-up tubes ' by provide separate passages for the lubricant are a plurality of open ended tubes.“ for the ?owing into and out of the conditioner. passage of air or othercoolant, The ?ared ends At its opposite end the intermediate section l8 of the tubes' are substantially hexagonal .40 . is provided with a pair ofdependent inwardly ’ shaped and are connected together by silversol divergent partitions 38 connected to the side and der or the like to prevent theescape of lubricant _ end walls 32 and 33 respectively, which form ver through the ends of the casingbetween the tubes tical continuations of the partitions 30 formed while permitting the passage of the lubricant around the tubes inheat exchange relationship .. therewith. _ The baffle plates are each provided at one of their ends with a transversely extending ro-w in the base section. Formed integral with the top wall 3! and connecting the partitions 38' so . as to underlie the outlet port 35 is a horizontal ‘ partition 39 which forms together with the top , wall and the divergent partitions 33 a barrier of spaced elongated openings l9, which are off which prevents the direct passage of lubricant set or staggered with respect to the similar open- ' 50 from the outlet warm-up tubes 56 to and through ings in the next adjacent plate or plates so as .the outlet port 35.. Otherwise stated, any lubri-> to provide a zig-zag or otherwise tortuous path cant ?owing upwardly through the warm-up for a lubricant ?owing through the casing. tubes. it will be directed by the‘ divergent parti The inlet and outlet warm-up tubes I45 and, it are each further. provided with a plurality of per 55 tions 38 and the horizontal ‘partition 35! toward 7 and through the outlet port 34. forations 253, whereby a portion of the lubricant Detachably secured upon the intermediate sec ?owing through the inlet and outlet'warm-up ‘ ' . tubes will be admitted: at spaced points to the tion 23 is the top or cover section 24 formed to provide a bottom wall to, side walls 4!, end walls main body of the lubricant within the casing.‘ The top of the casing i is also provided’ to 42. and top wall 43. The bottom wall MB is formed with an elongated opening 2|, to either siderof and adjacent to the outlet warm-up tubes and are with a pair of openings M and'45 to respectively ' .o?-set with respect .to the similarly shaped openings in the uppermost ba?ie plate (Figure 8). intermediate section 23, the port 34% being tapered register with the outlet ports 34 and 35 of the to provide a valve seat. ‘The top wall 43 is pro~ A lubricant distributing head is securely -65 vided with an opening d6 in vertical register with mounted upon the, top of the casing I, and in the opening 34, M and is, formed to detachably cludes a base section 22, an intermediate section receive a threaded plug 41 having a downwardly 23, and a top or cover section 24. I opening sleeve 48 formed integral therewith. . The base section 22 of the distributing head Slidably mounted within the sleeve 48 is the is in the form of a substantially rectangular rela 70 stem as of a valve 5c. When the plug 4-‘! is se tively shallow pan-like body having a bottom wall cured within theopening t6, the valve. 50 isnor 25; side walls 26, and end walls 21. The bottom ‘ mally and yieldably held upon its seat by-means wall 25 is provided with a longitudinally arranged of a'coil spring 5| ‘of a strength to exert a pre- ' row'of spaced openings into which the upper ends determined closing pressure upon the valve. In of the warm-up tubes extend, the latter being 75 2,406,203 lieu of a spring biased relief valve, a thermostatic valve, not shown, may be used. ' The top or cover section is ‘further provided ' with a lubricant outlet 52 formed in one of its end walls 42. Ordinarily, in the pressure systems in use at the present time for lubricating air craft or other engines developing high speeds,‘ the oil is pumped from a reservoir‘to the various parts of the engine to be lubricated and then re indicated by the ‘dotted-arrows, tothe outlet port ' 52 leadingto the reservoir. It will be seen from the foregoing, thata de- 7 cided advantage has been obtained, in that the 4*‘ normal warm-up time of the conditioner and the time of starting the flow of lubricant either through the warm-up tubes and/or the main body thereof, has been greatly reduced, thus aiford immediate and e?icient lubrication of the turned to the reservoir by means of a second or 10 ing engine, regardless of atmospheric temperature scavenge pump. _ changes under all operating conditions. In the event it is necessary to place the engine It is to be understood that the form of the in in operation when .the lubricant is highly viscous . vention herewith shown and described is to be or frozen, such condition imposes an excessive pressure upon the return line with the result that 15 taken as a preferred example of the same, and that various changes in the shape, size. and ar serious damage may be done to the entire system. rangement of ‘parts may be resorted to, without In order to overcome any damage which might departing from the spirit of our invention, or result from the highly viscous state of the lubri the scope of the subjoined claims. ' cant under normal operating conditions, as set Having thus described our invention, we claim: forth, it is proposed to. place the automatic oil 20 1. An apparatus for automatically controlling conditioner forming the subject matter of this the viscosity of a liquid which is subjected to application in the, oil return, conduit, between varying temperature changes, including a casing the scavenge pump and the reservoir, through having an outlet, a plurality of open-ended tubes the inlet and outlet ports 36 and 52, respectively. within the casing for the passage, of a coolant In operation, lubricant under pressure is forced therethrough and for the passage therearound of into the ?uid distributing head through the inlet the liquid to be controlled, a plurality of inlet 35 as indicated by the arrow in Figure 2. If the and outlet warm_up tubes in the casing and lubricant is highly viscous or congealed, the pres spaced apart so that the liquid can ?ow between sure necessary to force the same between the them exteriorly, the ends of which Warm-up horizontally disposed coolant tubes I1, is greater tubes are open, and the lower ends'being spaced than that required to force the lubricant through from the casing bottom and having communica-. .> the warm-up tubes l5 and Is. In this event, the tion with "the ‘casing, a liquid distributing head lubricant ?ows downwardly through the inlet having an inlet and an outlet carried by the warm-up tube l5 into the lower compartment casing and overlying the warm-up tubes and cas~ or header Iii; through the latter and thence up ing outlet and in communication therewith, said wardly through they outlet Warm-up tubes [6, in distributing head having a. passage for the liq the direction of the solid arrows, toward and uid ?owing from the outlet warm-up tubes to against the valve 5i]. If the pressure is greater the outlet of said head and a second passage than that necessary to force the lubricant in the for the liquid ?owing from the oasinglto the core or main body of the conditioner between the 40 outlet of said head, ‘and valve means disposed horizontally disposed tubes H, the valve 50 will Within the ?rst-named liquid passage of the be forced open allowing the lubricant to be re distributing head and biased to closed position turned to the reservoir through the outlet port 52. to control the passage of liquid therethrough. In the case of a thermostatic valve, the combined 2. An apparatus for automatically controlling pressure and temperature of the lubricant will the viscosity of a liquid which is subjected to vary open the valve to permit the passage ‘thereof to the outlet port 52. At this point it is to be par ing temperature changes, including a casing?hav~ ing an outlet, a plurality of open-ended" tubes within the casing for the passage of a coolant 20, which are preferably provided on each side i therethrough and for the passage therearound of each of the tubes, permits the warm or hot 50 of the liquid to be controlled, a plurality of inlet lubricant ?owing through the tubes l5 and I6 and outlet warm-up tubes in the casing, and to be directly diffused throughv the lubricant in spaced apart so that the liquid can flow between the main body of the conditioner‘regardless of them exteriorly, the ends of which warm-up tubes whether the lubricant contained therein is highly are open, and the lower ends being spaced from viscous or not. Thus in the event the lubricant r the casing bottom and having communication in the main body of the conditioner is highly with the casing, liquid distributingimeanshaving viscous, the tubes l5 and I6 act as warm-up an inlet and an outlet carried by the casing and passes well as passes having less restriction overlying the warm-up tubes and casing, outlet to flow. Flow of lubricant through these tubes and in communication therewith, said distribut warms up the lubricant in the main body of the 00 ing means having a passage for the liquid flow conditioner by direct di?usion as well as by heat ing from the outlet warm-up tubes to the outlet transfer through the tube walls, such warm-up of said means and a second passage for the liq of the lubricant continuing until the pressure uid flowing from the casing to the outlet of said necessary to force the lubricant in the zig-zag means, and means disposed within the ?rst or tortuous path, through the core is less than 65 nained liquid passage of the ‘distributing means that necessary to overcome the resistance of the and biased to closed position to control the pas valve 5!}, regardless of whether the same is spring sage of liquid therethrough. biased or of the thermostatic type. At this time, 3. An apparatus for automatically controlling instead of the lubricant ?owing upwardly through the viscosity of a liquid which is subjected to the tubes It as hereinbefore described, same varying temperature changes, including a casing will ?ow downwardly through the tubes I5, into 70 having an outlet, a plurality of open-ended tubes and through the header Ii! and theme, will fol within the casing for the passage of a coolant low a zi-gezag or tortuous path back and forth therethrough and for» the passage therearound across the length of the conditioner through the of the liquid to be controlled, a plurality of ‘inlet , bailled sections and‘passage's 2l-28, 35-45, as 75 and outlet vwarm-up tubes in the casing- and ticularly noted that the‘ perforations _or by-passes 2,406,203 varying temperature changes, the combination including a on one side plurality of sage and an easing, a distributor head mounted of the casing, said head having a passages including an intake pas outlet passage, a plurality of tubes terminating in the intake passage and projecting into the casing so as to terminate in spaced rela tion from the side of the casing opposite the head, and two spaced groups of open-ended tubes within the casing for the passage of a coolant there through and for the passage therearound of the liquid to be controlled, said open-ended tubes being transversely disposed with respect to the ?rst mentioned tubes which are spaced apart so that the liquid can ?ow between them exteriorly, one group of said open-ended tubes, being located including a cylindrical casing, a distributor head mounted on one side of the casing, said head hav ing a plurality of passages including an intake passage and an outlet passage, a relief valve mounted between two of the passages in the head, two groups of open-ended tubes for the passage of the coolant through the open end of the tubes and for the passage of a liquid to be controlled around the open end of the tubes, said open ended tubes being mounted in the casing, one group being arranged in spaced relation from the other, a plurality of heater tubes terminating in the intake passage and being transversely dis posed with respect to the open-ended tubes, a plurality of heater tubes terminating in the out let passage also transversely disposed with respect to the open-ended tubes, said heater tubes being on one side of said ?rst mentioned tubes and the other group being located on the other side of located between the group of open-ended tubes said ?rst mentioned tubes. 10. In an apparatus for automatically control 20 and terminating in spaced relation from the side of the casing opposite the head so as to form ling the viscosity of liquid which is subjected to passages for the liquid to‘ be cooled from the varying temperature changes, the combination intake opening to the outlet opening, and said including a casing, a distributor head mounted heater tubes being spaced apart so that the liquid on one side of the casing, said head having a plu can flow between them exteriorly. rality of passages including an intake passage 12. An oil temperature regulator, comprising a and an outlet passage, a relief valve mounted in casing, a plurality of heat exchange tubes as-, the head, two groups of open-ended tubes for sembled in said casing for the passage of a fluid the passage of a coolant through the open-ended therethrough as a coolant and for the passage tubes and for the passage of a liquid to be con trolled around the open--ended tubes, said groups : therearound of oilto be cooled, a header chamber at one side of said casing and communicating of tubes being mounted in spaced relation from with the interior thereof, a plurality of'tubular each other within the casing, and a plurality of heater tubes terminating in the intake passage ‘ conduits extending from outside said easing into said casing and through said assembly of tubes to and being transversely disposed with respect to the open-ended tubes, said heater tubes being positioned between the two groups of open-ended tubes and terminating in spaced relation from the side of the casing opposite the head so as to form a passage for the liquid to be cooled from the intake opening to the side of the casing oppo site said head, and said heater tubes being spaced apart so that the liquid can ?ow between them said header chamber, said conduits being spaced 35 apart so that the oil may flow between them - exteriorly, a ?tting overlying the outer ends of said tubular conduits and formed with oil inlet and outlet passages and a partition in said ?tting 40 exteriorly. 11. In an apparatus for automatically control ling the viscosity of liquid which is subjected to varying temperature changes, the combination 45 effecting a division between said tubular conduits in such wise that some thereof ?ow oil from said . inlet passage to said header chamber and others thereof ?ow oil from said header chamber to said outlet passage. HAROLD CRUZAN. EDWARD C. WARRICK.