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Патент USA US2406203

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v Aug. 20, 1946.
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- > H, CRUZAN ETAL
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' 2,406,203
AUTOMATIC QIL CONDITICNER
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Filed Aug. 22, 1942 .
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Aug. 20, 1946.
2,406,203
H. CRUZAN ETAL _
AUTOMATIC _ OIL CONDITIONER
Filed Aug. 22, 1942
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A EdwardO. War-rick ,_
Aug; 20,- 1946-.‘
H. CRUZAN m1.
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AUTOMATIC OIL CONDITIQNER
- 2,406,203 "
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Filed Aug. 22, 1942
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Cfuzwo,
Edward 6.“,“771305/ 2
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Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,406,203
/ .
, UNITED STATES PATENT, OFFICE,
AUTOMATIC OIL CONDITIONER‘
Harold Cruzan and Edward C. Warrick, Dayton,
Ohio, assignors to United Aircrafts Products,
Inc., Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application Augustv22, 1942, Serial No. 455,820
12 Claims.
1
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(01. 35742)
~
rI‘his invention relates to an automatic oil‘con
which will automatically prevent the application
of excessive pressureto’ the lubricating system.
Another important aim of this invention is to
provide an apparatus ~of the above character in
ditioner and more particularly to an apparatus
for regulating the temperature of lubricants and
thereby controlling the flow thereof in pressure
systems for lubricating the power plants of air
which a lubricant is brought to a predetermined
‘condition as to viscosity through a directand
indirect exchange of heat.
craft, armored vehicles or other conveyances,'al
though the same is not restricted to such speci?c
use.
'
A ‘further important object of this invention
Low atmospheric temperatures cause an in
is to provide an' apparatus of the above ‘character
crease in viscosity of the lubricant and conse- l0 in which the lubricating system is‘positively'pro
duently a rapid build-up of pressure in the systected from damage resulting from high pressures
tem far beyond normal requirements necessary
therein, by substantially eliminating the sudden
to move the lubricant therethrough, which’ frequently results in considerable damage toif not
'préSSure'drop Which usually occurs in similar de
vvices ‘of present day use
‘ ‘
total failure of the system,
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15
Under certain conditions, such as in‘ modern
\A‘ ‘still further important object of this inven
tion is to provide an apparatus of the above char
warfare, it is vitally important that the power
aster which is'of simple construction, highly ef
plants of the various vehicles or conveyances
be ready for instantaneous use regardless of the
?cient in use, and one that can'be readily and
quickly manufactured and installed at a reason- '
condition of the lubricant, due to atmospheric 20 able 00st.
"
7
‘
temperature changes. This isparticularly ~im-
The foregoing andadditional objects ‘and ad
poitant when it becomes necessary to place an
aircraft into immediate operation from a so-
vantages will be readily apparent throughout the
COHrSé 0f the following description and drawings,
called cold start in freezing or sub-freezing tem-
peratures,
.
I
in which
25
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.
‘
'
Figure 1, is a fragmentary end elevation of the
Another situation where the condition of a lubricant is of vital importance is in the operation
invention, partly in section, and with a portion
Of the fluid distributing head removed, as viewed
of dive bombing.
from the right of Figure 2,
In this operation the dive is
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often started at extremely high altitudes with
‘ Figure 2,'is a vertical cross sectional view of
the motor cut out resulting in a cooling of the 30 the same, With parts broken away,
lubricant and consequently a rapid increase in
Figure‘ 3, is a 130D plan View Of the COIlditiOner,
the viscosity thereof. When the operator reaches
011 a reduced scale, with a portion of the fluid dis
a point where it, is necessary to pull-out of the
‘ tributing head removed to show the inlet and Out
dive a sudden starting of the motor places the
let warm-up tubes,
'
lubricant in the System under Sudden and ex- 35 ‘Figure ‘l, is a horizontal cross-sectional view
tremely high pressure which also quite often reof the ‘oil’ conditioner, also on a reduced scale,‘
sults in considerable damage and failure of the
taken on line 4-4 of Figure 2,
V
oil'line.
Figure 5, is a bottom plan view of one portion
In order to overcome the foregoing and other
of the fluid distributing head,
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’
objections and disadvantages which are frequent- 40 ‘Figure 6, is an end elevation of the fluid dis
ly encountered at the present time, it is the pritributing head, as viewed from the right of Fig
mary or important object of this invention to
ure 2, with parts of the oil conditioner broken
provide an apparatus of the above character .
away,
~
which will automatically and rapidly condition a
Figure '7, is a vertical cross-sectional view of a
lubricant, as to viscosity, regardless of varying 45 portion of the ?uid distributing head, taken on‘
temperature changes before the same is forced
line '|—‘| of Figure 5, showing fragmentary parts
through the system.
of the oil conditioner and inlet warm-up tubes
Another important object of this invention is
connected thereto, and
p
to provide an apparatus of the above character
Figure 8, is a vertical cross-sectional view, sim
which will automatically prevent the ?ow of lu- 50 ilar to Figure 7, taken on line 8—8 of Figure 5,
bricant through the system until the same has
showing a fragmentary section of one of the out
been brought to a predetermined condition of
viscosity.
7
let warm-up tubes.
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Referring in detail to the drawings, the auto
_Another important object of this invention is 55 matic oil conditioner includes a horizontally dis
to provide an apparatus of the above character
posed‘ cylindrical casing I, having its bottom
2,406,203
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4
‘ connected to ‘the base section 22 by a silver solder,
portion-formed with an aperture 2 located inter- . welding or the like. The bottom of the base sec
mediate the ends thereof. . Secured to the ex
tion is further formed with a pair of spaced open
ternal face .of the casing and surrounding the
ings 28 corresponding to and in vertical registry
aperture 2 is a ?anged ring 3 formed to detach- V‘
with the openings 2! in the casing (Figure 8).
ably receive a threaded drain plug It. '
Formed integral with the bottom and side walls
Integrally. fastened to the inner surface of the '
of the base section so as to separate the upper
casing,
adjacent‘
each
of
3',
bottom portion of the
ends or the inlet and outlet tubes from‘ each
its ends, as by’silver solder, welding orthe like.‘
other is a vertically extending partition 29 (Fig
is an inwardly facing channeled supporting mem
ure 3) of substantially V-iorm when viewed in
her 5 having a flat top anda curved bottom to
conform to the curvature of the casing.
v
Mounted within the casing l, is a series
' plan.
of ver-,
tically spaced and axially extending ba?le ‘plates
Disposed on either side of the upper ends
of the outlet warm-up tubes It is a vertical par
tition 3U, formedintegral with the bottom, side
' and end walls of the base section so as to separate
6,1, 8 and'n9. The lowermost ba?le plate 6 of the
the outlet warm-up tubes from the elongated‘
series, has its end portions seated upon andcon
openings 28 which latter have direct communi- I
nected to the supporting members 5, and its lon'--1
cation withthe main body of the lubricant con-g
connectedto
the
casing,
so;
v
gitudinal side edges
' tained withinv the casing.
as to provide a lower header or compartment it,
. .The. intermediate section 23 of the lubricant
while the baffles 1, 8 and}; have their longitudinal‘.
distributing head,‘ when viewed in bottom plan
side edges connectedto the casing» so as to provide
compartments. or chambers l I, I2, l3 and ‘ [4.‘
While only four horizontally extending ba?le
plates are shown, it is to be understood that any
desirable number may be used.
v‘
The ba?le plates and the top of the casing are
each provided with a horizontally extending
as depicted. in Figure 5 of the drawings, includes
atop wall 3!, sidewalls 32~and end walls 33. The
top wall 3l;is formed with a par of spaced out
let ports 31% and 35, while one end wall 33' is
I formed with a ported neck 36 to provide an inlet
passage for thelubricant ?owing into the condi
‘ centrally disposed row of_ spaced openings in ver-‘
- tical .alinement or registry with each other‘ so as
tioner.
_
Formed integral with the intermediate section
and overlying a portion of the warm-up tubes, is
to receive a bank or group'of inlet warm-up tubes
a substantially horizontally extending downward
l5 and a bank or group of outlet warm-up tubes 30 - ly facing cup-like partition 31. The top wall of.
16. The upperiends of the warm-up tubes ter
the partition 31 is arranged to lie'in a position»
minate a slight distance above the top of the
intermediate the top wallv 3i and the bottom ‘edge
casing» for a purpose to be hereinafter more fully
of the intermediate section and has its side walls
described, while lower ends thereof extend a
and bottom edge of'substantially V formation so
slight distance into the header Ill.
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'
as to merge with and form a continuation. of the
Mounted within the casing between the ba?le
partition 29 carried .by the base. section, to there
plates and to either side of‘ the warm-up tubes ' by provide separate passages for the lubricant
are a plurality of open ended tubes.“ for the
?owing into and out of the conditioner.
passage of air or othercoolant, The ?ared ends
At its opposite end the intermediate section
l8 of the tubes' are substantially hexagonal .40
.
is provided with a pair ofdependent inwardly
’
shaped and are connected together by silversol
divergent partitions 38 connected to the side and
der or the like to prevent theescape of lubricant
_ end walls 32 and 33 respectively, which form ver
through the ends of the casingbetween the tubes
tical continuations of the partitions 30 formed
while permitting the passage of the lubricant
around the tubes inheat exchange relationship ..
therewith.
_ The baffle plates are each provided at one
of their ends with a transversely extending ro-w
in the base section. Formed integral with the
top wall 3! and connecting the partitions 38' so .
as to underlie the outlet port 35 is a horizontal ‘
partition 39 which forms together with the top
, wall and the divergent partitions 33 a barrier
of spaced elongated openings l9, which are off
which prevents the direct passage of lubricant
set or staggered with respect to the similar open- ' 50
from
the outlet warm-up tubes 56 to and through
ings in the next adjacent plate or plates so as
.the outlet port 35.. Otherwise stated, any lubri->
to provide a zig-zag or otherwise tortuous path
cant ?owing upwardly through the warm-up
for a lubricant ?owing through the casing.
tubes.
it will be directed by the‘ divergent parti
The inlet and outlet warm-up tubes I45 and, it
are each further. provided with a plurality of per 55 tions 38 and the horizontal ‘partition 35! toward
7 and through the outlet port 34.
forations 253, whereby a portion of the lubricant
Detachably secured upon the intermediate sec
?owing through the inlet and outlet'warm-up
‘ ' . tubes will be admitted: at spaced points to the
tion 23 is the top or cover section 24 formed to
provide a bottom wall to, side walls 4!, end walls
main body of the lubricant within the casing.‘
The top of the casing i is also provided’ to 42. and top wall 43. The bottom wall MB is formed
with an elongated opening 2|, to either siderof and
adjacent to the outlet warm-up tubes and are
with a pair of openings M and'45 to respectively '
.o?-set with respect .to the similarly shaped
openings in the uppermost ba?ie plate (Figure 8).
intermediate section 23, the port 34% being tapered
register with the outlet ports 34 and 35 of the
to provide a valve seat. ‘The top wall 43 is pro~
A lubricant distributing head is securely -65 vided with an opening d6 in vertical register with
mounted upon the, top of the casing I, and in
the opening 34, M and is, formed to detachably
cludes a base section 22, an intermediate section
receive a threaded plug 41 having a downwardly
23, and a top or cover section 24.
I
opening sleeve 48 formed integral therewith. .
The base section 22 of the distributing head
Slidably mounted within the sleeve 48 is the
is in the form of a substantially rectangular rela 70 stem as of a valve 5c. When the plug 4-‘! is se
tively shallow pan-like body having a bottom wall
cured within theopening t6, the valve. 50 isnor
25; side walls 26, and end walls 21. The bottom ‘ mally and yieldably held upon its seat by-means
wall 25 is provided with a longitudinally arranged
of a'coil spring 5| ‘of a strength to exert a pre- '
row'of spaced openings into which the upper ends
determined
closing pressure upon the valve. In
of the warm-up tubes extend, the latter being 75
2,406,203
lieu of a spring biased relief valve, a thermostatic
valve, not shown, may be used.
'
The top or cover section is ‘further provided '
with a lubricant outlet 52 formed in one of its
end walls 42. Ordinarily, in the pressure systems
in use at the present time for lubricating air
craft or other engines developing high speeds,‘ the
oil is pumped from a reservoir‘to the various
parts of the engine to be lubricated and then re
indicated by the ‘dotted-arrows, tothe outlet port '
52 leadingto the reservoir.
It will be seen from the foregoing, thata de- 7
cided advantage has been obtained, in that the 4*‘
normal warm-up time of the conditioner and
the time of starting the flow of lubricant either
through the warm-up tubes and/or the main body
thereof, has been greatly reduced, thus aiford
immediate and e?icient lubrication of the
turned to the reservoir by means of a second or 10 ing
engine, regardless of atmospheric temperature
scavenge pump.
_
changes under all operating conditions.
In the event it is necessary to place the engine
It is to be understood that the form of the in
in operation when .the lubricant is highly viscous
. vention herewith shown and described is to be
or frozen, such condition imposes an excessive
pressure upon the return line with the result that 15 taken as a preferred example of the same, and
that various changes in the shape, size. and ar
serious damage may be done to the entire system.
rangement
of ‘parts may be resorted to, without
In order to overcome any damage which might
departing from the spirit of our invention, or
result from the highly viscous state of the lubri
the scope of the subjoined claims.
'
cant under normal operating conditions, as set
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
forth, it is proposed to. place the automatic oil 20
1. An apparatus for automatically controlling
conditioner forming the subject matter of this
the viscosity of a liquid which is subjected to
application in the, oil return, conduit, between
varying temperature changes, including a casing
the scavenge pump and the reservoir, through
having an outlet, a plurality of open-ended tubes
the inlet and outlet ports 36 and 52, respectively.
within
the casing for the passage, of a coolant
In operation, lubricant under pressure is forced
therethrough and for the passage therearound of
into the ?uid distributing head through the inlet
the liquid to be controlled, a plurality of inlet
35 as indicated by the arrow in Figure 2. If the
and outlet warm_up tubes in the casing and
lubricant is highly viscous or congealed, the pres
spaced apart so that the liquid can ?ow between
sure necessary to force the same between the
them exteriorly, the ends of which Warm-up
horizontally disposed coolant tubes I1, is greater
tubes are open, and the lower ends'being spaced
than that required to force the lubricant through
from the casing bottom and having communica-. .>
the warm-up tubes l5 and Is. In this event, the
tion with "the ‘casing, a liquid distributing head
lubricant ?ows downwardly through the inlet
having an inlet and an outlet carried by the
warm-up tube l5 into the lower compartment
casing and overlying the warm-up tubes and cas~
or header Iii; through the latter and thence up
ing outlet and in communication therewith, said
wardly through they outlet Warm-up tubes [6, in
distributing head having a. passage for the liq
the direction of the solid arrows, toward and
uid ?owing from the outlet warm-up tubes to
against the valve 5i]. If the pressure is greater
the outlet of said head and a second passage
than that necessary to force the lubricant in the
for the liquid ?owing from the oasinglto the
core or main body of the conditioner between the 40 outlet of said head, ‘and valve means disposed
horizontally disposed tubes H, the valve 50 will
Within the ?rst-named liquid passage of the
be forced open allowing the lubricant to be re
distributing head and biased to closed position
turned to the reservoir through the outlet port 52.
to control the passage of liquid therethrough.
In the case of a thermostatic valve, the combined
2. An apparatus for automatically controlling
pressure and temperature of the lubricant will
the viscosity of a liquid which is subjected to vary
open the valve to permit the passage ‘thereof to
the outlet port 52. At this point it is to be par
ing temperature changes, including a casing?hav~
ing an outlet, a plurality of open-ended" tubes
within the casing for the passage of a coolant
20, which are preferably provided on each side i
therethrough and for the passage therearound
of each of the tubes, permits the warm or hot 50 of the liquid to be controlled, a plurality of inlet
lubricant ?owing through the tubes l5 and I6
and outlet warm-up tubes in the casing, and
to be directly diffused throughv the lubricant in
spaced apart so that the liquid can flow between
the main body of the conditioner‘regardless of
them exteriorly, the ends of which warm-up tubes
whether the lubricant contained therein is highly
are open, and the lower ends being spaced from
viscous or not. Thus in the event the lubricant r the casing bottom and having communication
in the main body of the conditioner is highly
with the casing, liquid distributingimeanshaving
viscous, the tubes l5 and I6 act as warm-up
an inlet and an outlet carried by the casing and
passes
well as passes having less restriction
overlying the warm-up tubes and casing, outlet
to flow. Flow of lubricant through these tubes
and in communication therewith, said distribut
warms up the lubricant in the main body of the 00 ing means having a passage for the liquid flow
conditioner by direct di?usion as well as by heat
ing from the outlet warm-up tubes to the outlet
transfer through the tube walls, such warm-up
of said means and a second passage for the liq
of the lubricant continuing until the pressure
uid flowing from the casing to the outlet of said
necessary to force the lubricant in the zig-zag
means, and means disposed within the ?rst
or tortuous path, through the core is less than 65 nained liquid passage of the ‘distributing means
that necessary to overcome the resistance of the
and biased to closed position to control the pas
valve 5!}, regardless of whether the same is spring
sage of liquid therethrough.
biased or of the thermostatic type. At this time,
3. An apparatus for automatically controlling
instead of the lubricant ?owing upwardly through
the viscosity of a liquid which is subjected to
the tubes It as hereinbefore described, same
varying temperature changes, including a casing
will ?ow downwardly through the tubes I5, into 70 having an outlet, a plurality of open-ended tubes
and through the header Ii! and theme, will fol
within the casing for the passage of a coolant
low a zi-gezag or tortuous path back and forth
therethrough and for» the passage therearound
across the length of the conditioner through the
of the liquid to be controlled, a plurality of ‘inlet
, bailled sections and‘passage's 2l-28, 35-45, as 75 and outlet vwarm-up tubes in the casing- and
ticularly noted that the‘ perforations _or by-passes
2,406,203
varying temperature changes, the combination
including a
on one side
plurality of
sage and an
easing, a distributor head mounted
of the casing, said head having a
passages including an intake pas
outlet passage, a plurality of tubes
terminating in the intake passage and projecting
into the casing so as to terminate in spaced rela
tion from the side of the casing opposite the head,
and two spaced groups of open-ended tubes within
the casing for the passage of a coolant there
through and for the passage therearound of the
liquid to be controlled, said open-ended tubes
being transversely disposed with respect to the
?rst mentioned tubes which are spaced apart so
that the liquid can ?ow between them exteriorly,
one group of said open-ended tubes, being located
including a cylindrical casing, a distributor head
mounted on one side of the casing, said head hav
ing a plurality of passages including an intake
passage and an outlet passage, a relief valve
mounted between two of the passages in the head,
two groups of open-ended tubes for the passage
of the coolant through the open end of the tubes
and for the passage of a liquid to be controlled
around the open end of the tubes, said open
ended tubes being mounted in the casing, one
group being arranged in spaced relation from
the other, a plurality of heater tubes terminating
in the intake passage and being transversely dis
posed with respect to the open-ended tubes, a
plurality of heater tubes terminating in the out
let passage also transversely disposed with respect
to the open-ended tubes, said heater tubes being
on one side of said ?rst mentioned tubes and the
other group being located on the other side of
located between the group of open-ended tubes
said ?rst mentioned tubes.
10. In an apparatus for automatically control 20 and terminating in spaced relation from the side
of the casing opposite the head so as to form
ling the viscosity of liquid which is subjected to
passages for the liquid to‘ be cooled from the
varying temperature changes, the combination
intake opening to the outlet opening, and said
including a casing, a distributor head mounted
heater tubes being spaced apart so that the liquid
on one side of the casing, said head having a plu
can flow between them exteriorly.
rality of passages including an intake passage
12. An oil temperature regulator, comprising a
and an outlet passage, a relief valve mounted in
casing, a plurality of heat exchange tubes as-,
the head, two groups of open-ended tubes for
sembled in said casing for the passage of a fluid
the passage of a coolant through the open-ended
therethrough as a coolant and for the passage
tubes and for the passage of a liquid to be con
trolled around the open--ended tubes, said groups : therearound of oilto be cooled, a header chamber
at one side of said casing and communicating
of tubes being mounted in spaced relation from
with the interior thereof, a plurality of'tubular
each other within the casing, and a plurality of
heater tubes terminating in the intake passage ‘ conduits extending from outside said easing into
said casing and through said assembly of tubes to
and being transversely disposed with respect to
the open-ended tubes, said heater tubes being
positioned between the two groups of open-ended
tubes and terminating in spaced relation from
the side of the casing opposite the head so as to
form a passage for the liquid to be cooled from
the intake opening to the side of the casing oppo
site said head, and said heater tubes being spaced
apart so that the liquid can ?ow between them
said header chamber, said conduits being spaced
35 apart so that the oil may flow between them
- exteriorly,
a ?tting overlying the outer ends of
said tubular conduits and formed with oil inlet
and outlet passages and a partition in said ?tting
40
exteriorly.
11. In an apparatus for automatically control
ling the viscosity of liquid which is subjected to
varying temperature changes, the combination 45
effecting a division between said tubular conduits
in such wise that some thereof ?ow oil from said
. inlet passage to said header chamber and others
thereof ?ow oil from said header chamber to said
outlet passage.
HAROLD CRUZAN.
EDWARD C. WARRICK.
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