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Патент USA US2406208

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Aug. 20, 1946.
Filed March 4, >1944
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‘_/ïeL'IZer WE/‘dlâ
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
-j . `,Reiner W.v Erdle, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Dental
' ‘- ` Research Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corpora
tion of Illinois
Application March 4, 1944, seriai No. 525,012 '
9 claims. (c1. szf-s)
This invention relates, in'general, to ceramic
will runtogether in the tooth mold, and the por
celain tooth so produced will have substantially
articles and Amaterial and meth'od for producing
the same, and has particular relation to an im
proved material and method for producing differ
one color. This, of course, is undesirable.
In handling two or more porcelain mixes which
ent shades or colorsalong different portions of
suchY articles and to the articles .thus produced.
While the invention is particularly adapted for
have~ different colors, considerable time is con
sumed,ïand the results .depend uponlthe skill of,
the operator.- Teeth are produced in` this mail
producing lfrom a singleporcelain mixvcommer
ner in different dental> laboratories throughout
cial Aru'ns of artificial teeth ; having uniformly
the country and in other countries. They .have
throughout therun `of teeth'Í different shades 10 to match a standardor given shade guide, and.y
along different portions of such teeth accurately
because the resulting shading of aV tooth depends
to rmatch a standard ,shade guide or the natural
to a large extent on the skill ofthe operator it
teeth, it is tobe understood that the invention,
in its broader aspects, is not limited v4to this par
ticular> use butfmay beemployed‘in all similar 15 `
Work-for example, ,.for-~ producing «different
shades or colors along different portions of other
ceramic articles.
Heretofore, in order to produce diiferentsh'ades
has been difficult to obtain reasonably accurate
matches of manufactured teeth with a standard
or given shade guide.
One of the main objects of the present inven
tion is to overcome the difñculties above set forth
and other difficulties-previously encountered in
the production of , porcelainteeth.
Another object of the invention is to provide `
in different parts of an artiñcial tooth, porcelainsy
of differentv -colors were manufactured. „These
for automatically shading a tooth correctly,
thereby raising the standard of the teeth.
'Another object of the invention is to provide
for producing a tooth with its parts of different
porcelain powders of diiferent colors were mixed
with distilled water, or other suitable binders,
into separate porcelain mixes, one for each color.
The lighter color porcelain mix and a definite 25
shades from a singleporcelain mix, thereby re
amount of it was placed ,in the tooth cavity of
ducing the labor cost and eliminating any error
the mold. Through gravity or vibration, for ex
an operator may make in handling »two or more
ample, in the Imanner set forthV and claimed in
different colored porcelain mixes toiill the tooth- >
my prior U. S. Patent No. 2,196,258, issued April
9, 1940, this porcelain mix would ñow to the lower 30 mold cavity.
Another object of the invention is'to provide
part of the mold cavity and form'the incisal part
an improved tooth porcelain and an’ improved
tooth porcelain mix; also an improved method
for assuring a better shading'of thev porcelain
tooth, was then introduced into >the mold cavity,
teeth and that the different shades in diii‘erent
and finally a third color porcelain mix, having
parts of each tooth of a commercial run of teeth ¿
th‘e color of the gingival part of the tooth, was
will uniformly and accurately match a standard
introduced into the mold cavity.
or given shade guide'.
It was not always necessary to use three dif
Further objects and advantages of the inven
ferent colored porcelain mixes `to produce a
tooth having the deiinite shades along different 40 tion will be apparent from the following detailed
description, taken in connection with the accom
parts thereof. It was found that by carefully
of the tooth. 'I‘he second color mix ofv porcelain,
having the color ofl the middle section of the
mixing the colored porcelain powders, two difier
panying drawing.
ent colored porcelain mixes could be used to pro
duce a porcelain tooth oi"y a given shade.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a micro enlargement showing a typ
` In order to produce a given shade in a porcelain 45 ical section of a porcelain powder embodying ther
tooth with two or more different colored porce- .
present invention;
lains, th'e operator must exercise extreme >care
to put the proper amount ofthe different colored
porcelain mixes intothe tooth mold. l The time
Figure 2 shows, more or less diagrammatically,
a mold having a tooth cavity filled With thesin
element is also ofgreat importance. If 1to0 much
time elapsesbetween the filling operations of the
different porcelain colors, a >sharp line will ap-`
pear on the tooth, caused by the different colored »
gle lporcelain mix of lthe present invention; and
Figure 3 is an enlarged perspective View of a
tooth formed according to the present invention.
Referring, in general, to the more or less 'dia
grammatic illustrations-inthe drawing, I provide,
porcelain mixes.v If there is insuflicient time be-'
according tothe `present invention, a new and
tween the filling operations, th'e porcelain Icolors 55 improved porcelain which may be referred to as
plural mix porcelains previouslyV employed.
As shown diagrammatically in Figure 1, this
- i new and' improved porcelain has relatively coarse
‘f porcelain particles I0 made of a lighter shade Ol
ferent colors or shades in the different parts of
the tooth.
porcelain having, for example, the color of the
incisalpart of the tooth. It also has finer porce->
lain particles I I, and still finer porcelain particles
`ing of colors so that the resulting tooth Willfol- Y
I2. The particles II, which are of a grain size»,
of the middle part of the tooth. f The particlesÍIZ;
' low the shade of natural teeth.
i After `the„.tooth, as shown at I1 in Figure 3,
. .Y is removed from the mold I4, it may be dried and
iire-hardened~~and- glazed as more fully disclosed
infrny4k previously` mentioned U. S. Patent No.
of next smaller grain size, are made of a still
darker shade, having the color,v of', the ginrgival
-part of the tooth.
22,196,258.A Y,'I‘hepor’celain tooth I1 selected for
illustrationgisfananterior tooth, but, of course,
The porcelain particles Il), II, and'IZ, of dif(-`
this may vary. The >incisal Vpart I9 of the tooth
vI-'I Vis «formedf by the -coarserV grain particles III
having, the color of the incisal shade of the tooth.-y _
The middle rpart 2D of .the tooth is’formed by
the next i'lner particles VIIhaving the‘color, of ,_
' ferent colors or shadesanddifferent grain sizes,A y
and in predetermined amountsfare vmixed~vtof
gether to produce a single porcelain powder hav-`
ing all of the colors or shades required in a porce- ^
lain tooth;
The finer porcelain particles will ñll ' Y
in the spaces between the Acoarser particles to
produce an accurate and uniform overall blend
nextsmaller than thegrain size of the particles
blé), are made of a darker shade, having thecolor `
ner the correctly colored porcelain particles pack
into the proper parts of the mold cavity I3 to
produce by the different settling or packing char
acteristics of the different size particles the díf
Y1 a “single mix porcelain,”jto distinguish from the
The single: porcelain, mix is pro
duced byV thoroughly mixing this mixturev of'por-` Vthe middle part‘of the tooth.r The'gingivalfpartV
2| is formed bythe next finer particles I2 hav-> ‘
celain particles Iß;> II, and I2 With a definite
ing'the color of the gingivalipart of thertoothl.
amount of distilled water,‘or other suitable bind
' From the foregoing description it will now be
er, _to produce asingle Vporcelain. mix of the de- ~ apparent
that the use'of the single mix porceäV
sired. consistency` and having all ofthe required
lain has the advantage ofrautomatically'shad- f
colors‘or shades in thesingleporcelain mix.V
la toothcorrectly, thereby> raisingr the stand
The tooth cavity I3*- of the vmold isthenfilled Y . ing
ard of >teeth producedv according to thel present
VvvithLtl'iissingle porcelain'mix, as shown at |75,
` ,
thus introducing all’o'f the representative lots of l:n invention. The lillinggofthe tooth moldcavity
IS'ninvolves thevvhandlingV of ’onlyV one porcelain
porcelain particles'fIß, II, and I2 into the cavity;
mix,I which reduces considerably the labor,` cost
I3 ‘completely to?lll the'same in a Single opera
for `producing, porcelainL teethkgThe use*V of the
tionA and without successively introducing porce
single’mix porcelain elimìn'ates'also anyY error
lainmixes of different colors into different parts
of the mold cavity, as heretofore required. VThe 35 anfoperator may makeby handling two or more l
different coloredY porcelains to1 filla tooth mold
porcelain mix I5 is introduced'into the mold cav
ityfIâ'While all of the various porcelain particles
As a result, I 'secure' better shading-1er' »
coloring of the tooth, >and I assure uniform and
accurate lmatching of all teeth of a given com
IIJ, II, andv I2 are in complete suspension in the „
binder. This assures the desired' shading of the
tooth, and also assures that the different shades 40 mercial runof teeth With‘a lstandard or given
indifferentjparts of eachtooth of a commercial
run ofteeth will accurately and uniformly match,
for example, `a standard or givenshade- guide.
All of the porcelain- particles III', II', andY I2
shadey guide.
If. desired, some of the; porcelain particles Il)
may. beuncolored and other of Asuch particles II),V
may be colored to’shade theincisal part of the
of different colors and different grain sizes may f, tooth by ablending ofthe colored and uncol
ored porcelain. Likewise, some of the porcelain
be kept in complete suspension during introduce`
particles IIV and/0r some of the particles l2 may
tionv ofv the single porcelain» mix intov the mold
cavity ' I3 i and up to that time, for'example, byV
be uncolored and .otherî of " such particle'smay >be
the.Y method and means disclosed. and claimed in
my copending application Serial No. 522,706', filed
gingivalparts by ablending of these colored and Y
February' 17,' 1944,
‘The moldV Ill'may bea flexible mold of the
' characterdescribed and claimed inv my prior U. S.
PatentNo. 2,337,636', issued December 21, 1943',
although, of course, this may varyyvvith-in the »
scopev of the present invention.
Upon filling‘the mold'cavity-I3 with thefsin
gle porcelain mix, the mold I4 and porcelain mix
I5 in the cavity I3 thereof" are vibrated, for ex
ample,y as morel fully' described and claimed in
my- prior'U. S., Patent No. 2,196,258», issued -April
9, 1940; Vibrating means for this purpose is
shown more ori-ess diagrammatically at» I6.' The
particular manner in which thedesiredvibration
`is-secured, and the particular form of the vibrat
ing means may, of course, vary widely.
A The diiîerent size porcelain particles II), I I, and
colored’ to’shade thetoothY alongl its middle and
uncolored porcelain particles. ‘
One suitable porcelain for purposesV of the
present inventionis composed of. minerals and
mainly of nepheline. syenite, as more fully de_-v
scribed in. my prior U.V S. PatentNo. 2,334,319,
issued November 16, 1943.Y This particular. mate,
rial is referred to for purposes'ofiillu'stration, it
being understood' that'other ceramic materials
and like materials’may .bev employedr within the
scope ofthe broaderaspects ofthe present,in‘-i
VI have described‘thej invention in connection
With the details vof a particular embodiment, but
Ido not rintend thereby` to limit the. inven'tion‘tol
such details, nornd'o I intend'to be'limited to‘thel
particular embodiment and relation". ofifthezes
sential features shown and described."l ‘
’ '
I2 have different'settling characteristics. The
1. VA unitary dental porcelain mix comprising aparticles Ill, vWhichare coarser or of larger grain
size, .will settle atonce to the bottom of the mold 70 liquid binder `and differentially ground particles
of vporcelaininitially, andprior togrinding; off
cavityA I3. The next nner particles Il settle over
different colors and in which the differentially
the coarser particles Iû, and where particles I2
of'aY third grain size are employed, as described,
thesestill ñner particles I2 settle over the par
ticles I I of intermediate grain size. ' In this man.-`
ground porcelain particles ’initially ofïdilîerent'
colors'> are combined in proportionsadaptedto
produce by thev differentsettling., characteristics
of the different size particles a predetermined
shaded coloring effect in an article formed of
2. An improved dental porcelain mix ccmpris~
ing a liquid binder having mixed therewith rela
tively coarse porcelain particles colored to pro
duce the desired color along the incisal portion
of a tooth, liner particles of the same porcelain
material but of a different color to produce a
different color along the middle third of the
tooth, and still nner particles of the same porce
lain material but of a still different color to
produce a further color along the gingival por
tion of the tooth.
3. As a new article of manufacture, a ceramic `
article having different colored or shaded por
tions with relatively coarse and colored or shaded
ceramic particles forming one of the colored or
shaded portions of the article and finer ceramic
particles cfa different color or shade forming
another portion of the article.
4. As a new article of manufacture, a porcelain
tooth having different shades along diiferent por
tions thereof with one portion formed of rela
tively coarse porcelain particles shaded to pro- ->
duce the desired shade along said portion and
another portion formed of nner porcelain par
ticles of a different shade to produce a different
shade along said other portion of the tooth.
5. As a new article of manufacture, a porce
'tooth having an incisal portion formed of rela
tively coarse porcelain particles shaded to pro
duce the desired shade along the incisal portion,
a middle third portion formed of nner porcelain
particles shaded to produce a different shade
along said portion, and a gingival portion formed
of a still finer porcelain ‘particles shaded to pro
duce a still differentshade along the gingival por
tion of the tooth.
7. As a new article of manufacture, a ceramic
article having a shaded coloring effect with
relatively >coarsely ground ceramic particles ini
tially, and prior to grinding, of one color forming
one of the »colored portions of the article, and
relatively iinely ground particles initially, and
prior to grinding, of a different color forming
another portion of the article.
8. As a new article of manufacture, a porcelain
tooth having an incisal portion formed of rela
tively coarsely ground porcelain particles ini
tially, and prior to grinding, of a relatively lighter
color to produce the desired color along the in
cisal portion of the tooth, and a gingival por
tion formed of relatively finer ground porcelain
particles initially, and prior to grinding, of a
relatively darker color to produce a different color
along .the gingival por-tion c-f the tooth.
9. A unitary ground porcelain material com
prising differentially ground particles of porce
lain initially, and prior to grinding, of dineren-t
lain tooth having an incisal portion formed of
relatively coarse porcelain particles shaded to
produce the desired shade along the` incisal por
tion and a gingival portion formed of nner por
colors and in which the differentially ground por
celain particles initially of different colors are
celain particles colored or shaded to produce a .
ferent siZe particles a predetermined shaded col
oring effect in an article formed of the material.
different shade along the gingival portion of the
6. As a new article of manufacture, a porcelain
comloined4 in proportions adapted to produce by
the different settling characteristics of the dif
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