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Патент USA US2406226

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Aug., 20, 1946.
__ A, l.. mMBALL
Filed July s, 1942
_‘ 2,406,226
3 SheAets-Sheet‘l
Argh@ 1.-. Kimball;
His Attorney.
Aug. 20, 1946.
' `
AFilad July s, 1942 "
_' zangers-sheet *.2
Arthur* L. Kimball ,.
v by
.Mwyc‘f '
[His- Attorneg.
Auïg'. 2_0, 1946. ~ „
l A. l..v KIMBÁLL
Filed July 8, «1942
2,406,226 -
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
Arthur L. Kimball, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor
to General Electric Company, a corporation of
` New York
Application July 8, 1942, Serial No.' 450,131
6 Claims.
(Cl. 210-71)
vThe present invention relates to washing ma
chines of the type having a spinner basket in
which the clothes are centrifugally dried.
a circumferentialgroove I1 receiving a snap ring
I 8 for engaging a shoulder I 9 on the tubular shaft
l6»so as to support the sleeve I3. The projec
»During centrifugal drying there-are unbalanced
tions I 4 are spaced ‘apart so as to provide drain
forces resulting from non-uniform distribution
of clothes in the spinner basket, from gyration
of the driving mechanism and from precession
of the spinner basket.
(Il > passages 20.
At the lower end the sleeve I3 has '
a projecting ñangeZI and a nut 22 both of great
er diameter than the clearance opening 23 in the
carriery hub ï1.‘ The flange and nut which are
spaced on opposite sides of the carrier hub ac
cordingly confine the carrier hub >on the sleeve
I3 and at the same time permit relative move
The object of my invention is to provide an
improved construction andv arrangement in which
objectionable vibration resulting from these un
balanced forces is kept at a minimum, and, for
a consideration of what I believe novel and my
Y The -driving connection between the shaft I6
invention, attention is directed to the following
description and the claims appended thereto.
and the spinner basket comprises a spider 24
15 fixed to the lower end of the sleeve I3 and having
A In. the drawings, Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation
radial arms 25 intermediate the carrier» arms 6.
of a washing machine embodying my invention;
Fig.` 2 iszan enlarged sectional elevation of the
support for thespinner'basket; Fig. 3 is a sec
The arms 25 are connected to a flexible steel ring ,
26 which atintermediate points is connected tov
the carrier arms 6. The connections to the arms
tional view on line 3-3 of Fig. rl; Fig. 4 is a sec
tional view on line 4-4 of Fig. 2;V Fig. 5~is a sec
tional view taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 2; Fig. 6 is
6 and 25 `are made through bolts 21 having bush
ings 28' which clamp the ring against the heads
ofthe bolts. The clamping surfaces are cham
asectional elevation of the driving mechanism;
fered, as shown at 29, so as to prevent localized
Fig. 7 is >a sectional View on line 1-1 of Fig. 6;
and Fig. :Sis a sectional View taken on line 8-8 25 stresses in the ring. The connection between the
bolts 21 andthe carrier arms 6 is complicated
of Fig. 6.
by the fact that the carrier arms have a stiffen
Referring to the drawings, there is shown a
ing rib 30 directly .above the desirable vposition
washing ‘machine having an outer casing I in the
for the bolts. The connectionis accordingly
upper part of which is a spinner basket or clothes
receptacle 2 having outwardly flaring fluted >side
walls 3 provided with centrifugal discharge’open
ings 4 at the region of maximum diameter. The ‘
spinner basket is made of .relatively thin‘sheet
metal, which may be porcelain» enameled> steel,
and is'removably supported in a combined car
rier and balance ring having relatively heavy side
made through projections 3| on bushings 28
(Fig. 4) which are riveted at 32 to the under
side of thecarrier arms, and the carrier arms
are- provided with. holes 33 through which a
wrench may be inserted'totighten the bolts.
The above described construction >provides a
support .for the spinner basket which permits' a
universal tilting of' the spinner basket relative
walls 5 surrounding the spinner basket and spaced
the driving shaft I 6. This tilting tends> to
radialtarms 6 extending `beneath the bottom of
neutralize’any .unbalanecd couple or dynamic
the spinner basket and connecting the side walls
unbalance which would otherwise transmit ob
_5 with a hub .1.v The carrier sidewalls 5, as 40 jectionable
vibration to. the driving shaft. 'I'he
shown more clearly in Fig. 3, loosely surround
is also resiliently supported for
the side walls. of the spinner basket. Possible rat
axialmovement with respect to the shaft to
tling due to this looseness is prevented by rubber
cushion axialv forces which, as hereinafter ex
bushings *.8 bolted tothe carrier side walls -and
while thespinner basket is rotat
having flexible projections 9 which fit in the` - ing with arise
precession and
unbalanced distribution
flutes in the side Wallsof the spinner basket.
of the clothes.
The spinner basket is secured to the rcarrierfby
means of a nut I0 threaded on a sleeve I I fixed
nection is its relatively low friction which re
tween the nut I0 and a shoulder I2 on the sleeve 50 sults from the use of a material of low internal
friction'forthe .ring 26 and from >the design of
II.y The carrier hub 1 loosely surrounds a sleeve
the connections to the ring so as to minimize
I3 which at its upper end,as shown` in Fig. '5,
to the carrier hub, the basketbeing clamped be
has inwardly extending projections .1I-4 provided
with axial grooves I5 by means of which the
sleeve issplined on a tubular Ashaft I _6 and _with
the friction.. The lowfriction is important in
preventing forward precession. or shaft whip
which is 4excitedby friction in the rotating parts.
. Low friction `means low exciting force.
between anoutwardly extending Ilan-ge, |08 ,at
the lower end ofthe supportingfmember~v|03
and a; ring |09 clamped betweenA a flange >IIIJ at
~theyupper edge ofthesupporting ring> 13 anda
,flange III at the lower end. of a supporting ring
H2. The,rub.ber vring |01 isrconñned -between
lthe supporting ring 13, the'supporting member
I04,.and a ñange H3 at the inner end of the
.ing `also rotate on and gyrate. about, these axes).
. ; lDynamic, unbalance is neutralized.` by ¿the` tilt
able support, of the spinnerbasket provided :by \
the; rinfë,r 26,. , The basket tilts ¿relative to the
shaft I‘Bto _a position in which there. isnounba-lr
, ancedcouple.
> Of Ycourse ,thejstatic and -dynamic unbalances
are not perfectly neutralized bythe tiltable sup->
ports. provided by the rings |01 and 2‘6. Thefsti?f- ,
ness of ,the rings limits the degree of. neutraliza
ring; |09. Rotation of the rubber ring |01 rela
tiveto the support |04 and the ring |019 is pre, Il)
vented by tabsA ||4 struckout- of parts I 09and
|08 and fitting in notchesA in the rubber ring.
. Dynamic and static unbalance, cause vibrations
The rubber ring |01 is rinitially compressed to a
of shaft frequency which are iof greatest magni-V
point `at which its modulus. ofelasticityincreases.
tude at the critical speeds, thepspeeds at which
This means that upon tilting of the- spinner bas,
the shaft speed is resonant with one ofthe nat’
ket- from a ,central position the restoring force due
frequencies of. vibration of _thefrotating _sys
to the rubber ring increases at a continually in
tem (the basket, shaft, gear- c'asing,-„etc.). In
creasing rate. Also, since, _the pressure onthe
the present machine there are two critical speeds
brake shoes |05 is dueto the weight of the spin
to be considered, the ñrst critical `speed infwhich
ner vbasket and gear ca_sing. and the compressive
the basket and other parts supported. by the íru-b
forces in the `rubber ring, the `pressure on the
brake shoes increases as the spinner basket tilts
away; fom its central position. y This means >that
theI friction damping eiîect of . the brake shoes
|05 increases as the spinner basket moves from its central position.
.ber ring |01 vibrate as a unit, on the >ring and
the second critical speed in which the basket
would tendv to tilt or vibrate v`relative to thefup
per end of the shaft I6. vThe first critical _speed
is dueV to the rubber ring |01_and Vcan »be called
a “mounting" critical speed. The second critical
The spinner basket and its driving mechanism
speed, in which thereis ilexure between the shaft
are all supported from the bottom wall of the
and the basket, can bev called a “shaft’f critical
outer „casing by -a flange II5 on the ring ||2
which is clamped between a ring ||3a and the 30
`It has been observed, and these observations
bottom wall of the outer casing. The upper end
have been checked --by theoretical computations,
of »the driving mechanism_ projects through a '
that the second critical speed vexistsonly _when
clearance opening IIS in the bottom wall of the
the moment of inertia of the basket aboutthe
outer` casing which is sealed by a rubber sleeve
axis of'rotation is less thanr the moment _ofy iner
.|I1 having its upper end ñxed tothe tubeV 93
tiaof the basket aboutuan axis at right angles
by a clamp ||8 and having its lower end clamped
tothe axisof rotation and through >its center of
between a ring IIS and the upper side of the
gravity. The second critical speed, beinghigher
bottom wall of the outer casing. Y
the ñrst critical speed, is objectionabledue
__ Duringwashing, the brake shoe 69 is applied,
holding the gear housing 41 vstationaryand caus 40 to the» higher centrifugal forces which make’it
more diilicult _to bring the spinner basket.;> up
ing oscillation of the agitator 34. During cen
through the second critical speed. . This second
trifugal extracting, the brake shoe 60 is released
criticalspeed has beeneliminated in the present
and-the motor 5| is reversed to couple the hous
construction by making the moment of ,inertia
ing to -the pulley 54 through the overrunning
o_f the basket about its axis of rotationgreater
clutch Blf-9 I.
than the moment of inertia> of the basket about
j During centrifugal extracting, the clothes will
an axis at right angles to its axis of rotation
:be non-uniformly.- distributed causing an unbal
and through its 4center of gravity.
ance which can be divided into a static unbal
ance (equivalent to a weight shifting the center
of gravityof the lbasket transverse to its axis of 50 sov that the first critical speedv is substantially
>belowthe normal extractingspeed.V In the-pres;
rotation) and a dynamic unbalance (equivalent
ent machine the critical speed due to~ the ,rubber
to `a couple tending to tilt the basket about an
ring |01 (the natural frequency of vibration of
the basket, shafts, gear casing,_etc., on the rubber
»_axis perpendicular to the axis of rotation).
Static unbalance during spinning is neutralized
bythe gyratory support provided by the rubber
ring) is of the order of, 100 R. P. M., >whilegthe v
extracting speed is 1200 R. P. M. Itis of ccn
ring I 01 which permits tilting of the spinner
shaft IB about the center of the gear casing to
bring the center of gravity of the spinner basket
siderable advantage to have the natural frequency
due to the rubber ring ¿|01 `(the firstV critical
speed) low so that the centrifugal forces due to
the unbalance, which vary` as the square ofthe
speed, will be small. If the critical speedishigh
directly above the center of the gear casing. , In
this position„the spinner basket rotates about its
center of gravity.'v From one aspect, the rubber
they centrifugal forces which vary as the square of
the speed will be correspondingly higher and the
ring |01 can be considered as resiliently sup
portingA the shaft, gear casing and basket for gy
friction forces on the’ bearings may be sufficient
to keep the basket from coming up to speed.- \
ratory movement. While the spinner basket is
rotating about its center of gravity.. the upper
VVAnother feature in the present construction
which assists in bringing the basket up vthroughV
end of the agitator hub, which` is at the geometric
center _of the basket, describes a circle about the
center of gravity having a radius equal to the
l displacement of the center of gravity due to static
unbalance. The motion of the spinner basket
can be divided into two components, rotation on>
its -geometric axis andfgyration about an axis
passing through the center of gravity of the spin- -
the critical speed is the friction damping vpro
vided by the brake` shoes |05which frictionally
resist tilting of the axis of rotation and accord
ingly limit the> amplitude of the >vibration at- the
critical speed. This'limitation on the amplitude
at the critical speed keeps thenspinner basket in
ner, _basket and through the center of the gear
a more` nearly centralposition in which. it,> can
casing. (the spinnershaft I 6 and the gear cas->
» At
thjeilr'st critical‘fs'pe'e
f ` ,. '
).f @there
75 be
¿areägyrcfscopic svibrati'ons Ißlmonmjrascpreeession. v
ïto "eirectively' cushion `this,` axial -‘Kforce -and upre
Iventîtrìinsmissiontothe door.
ívibrationsconsistfor:eitnerëaiorvvardror a
‘ ‘ The ¿above :described construction producesi-a
fcórnpact arrangement Vofìith'e
Y Thacilsiíva‘rdar‘otationíoi-îthe basket aboutfitsëlaxisiof
«andßbackwardrprecession. f'Du'riîng 11a-recession lthe '
ïthe resilientT -`support, " and ‘ 'the `îfrict‘ion damper.
'contained "Witl?n a Y
The ' 'ïdrîiving :mechanism ’is
basket gyrates around the positionfof perfectibal» f ‘spherical'îhousing
-concentric vwith the :friction
fïaìnceïwith the -resultant vVibration. "Precession,
fdamper and lwith the brake for controlling Vthe
lwhich »is` ¿usually " important v'iat ‘speeds near the
«drïivingf‘mechanism.f ISince the driving >'finecha
«centrifugal vextractingi peedg'lis decreased-'or' pre-v 10 -nismbccupiesáa 'minimum of,> space, it. canß'be
yvented" by the friction damping-effect of the‘brake
made :relatively ISlight and. accordingly- will h
shoes |05 which act through the sleeve 93-'ïi‘n
«ti'onalilyf ¿resist “tilting L»of .the '1 axis` fof ' rotation of
tth'feàbas‘ket. Forwardfprece'ssion, which is ¿due `to
Viî’ric'ti: inthe ‘rotating system, isi 'kept to «a Ln‘lïin
4»imum'iby:makin'g 'the ring `îZ-G'Iof'a .'rnaterial having
ilòw ínternal’fri‘ctiomsuchas spring steel, andlby
».desi'gningkthe »connectionsfto the ring Iso
niininmmy of inertia reaction on the' bearingsfsivli
.and 95 ‘during theextracting operation lwheniit
is .forcedîtofgyratewith'the basket. The reaction
-due' to ‘the iforiced :gyr’ation ofthe gear .casing lis
-further‘- decreased by 'the »fact that the casing
Vspherical#and rotates :atfthe same `speed` as ¿the
basket. .In 'perfect -'sphere `4while rotating can :be
tilted about l"any axis >without producing VIan'ylre
has ¿been Ademonstrated by '
faction. ¿In the present lgear »'casin‘gfthe ïin’ertia
«adding'ifriction'intthe supporting ring"126'that for-` 20 reactionfdue :toiits `forcedgyration `is .due to ilthe
fward-preces'sion may be ‘excited `to a value diiiie f
deviation - of '.th'e gear i» casing ffro'm fa. theoretically
`fcuf'ltiit’o control by the brake shoes P05.
’The ìresilient" support for ¿tilting >'of the basket
u‘e'latiiìe î=to 4thevs'ha’ft is designed for-a minimum
«of ïfriction while ithe'resili'ent support for «g'yfraf
perfectly'balanced sphere. L 'Ifhisëdeviation can ‘be
ikept toria minimum by counterweights lsuch as
the >Jo'ossîßi) .and .the "counterwei‘ght Y88.
What I claim as new and desire âto `'secure-»by
itibnzof 'the shaft is Adesigned V‘to have friction
Letters'î-Patentof Ythe UnitedStates is: f
damping providedlin the present construction by
r¿thebrakeis'hoe's i105. The friction in the resilient'
support for the basket is low compared tothe '
lthe resilient support for the shaft. i;
tion ihaving spaced ‘points alternatelycbnneeted
relationbetween the -`friction 'in the respec
to the `shaft and Vbasket for Y resiliently‘supporting
vftivefsupports is ßan‘impor-tant ‘factor in the de
'1. îIn Aa laundry machine, a 'spiïner'lbasketg fa
vertical drive shaft forV the basket, »a Aiieiri'ble
member of a material ïha‘vingïallow‘internalfric-~
the vbasket for tilting and »axial moveméntfwith
respect tothe shaft, means resil-i'ëntlylsupporting
»- ¿Forward îprec‘ession 4is also decreased by de
thes'ha-ft for gyratory movement, saidïshaft-sup
@signing fthe friction damper so 'that its lTfr-10131011
porting means bei-ng 4proportioned so that ythe
critical lspeed :due to suchl means ‘is 4below the
normal speed of the-basketr during y-cer'itfrifugal
v>:dampr~ifn'g increases asr the basket tilts 'from the
vertical; 'In Ythe >present construction thi-sffric
‘tiónnampingcharacteristic Íis obtainedby initially
drying, a part »in which the shaft is journaled,
:compressing 'the «rubber íring -`-|01 ‘to a point 'at
and ¿friction Idarn-ping means_acti-ng throught-'said
‘part Y¿forv ïfrictionally vresisting -gyration _lofA the
which'l its modulus of »elasticity increases. This
means that the pressure <on ‘
itandfçaccordingly the f-fr'i'ctional resistance Lor
=2. YIn a laundry machine, a spinner basket, fa
" Y camping) is a -minimum when the masker is in
'vertical v'dr'iïve Ishaft for `the basket; means‘resili- ` 1
'the vertical position. By 'ltests VÍin which the «fric
ently supporting the basketfor tilting “and axial
tion ydamper was replaced ïby a >damper in which 45 movement
relative to the shaft, means resiliently>
fthe ìfriction damping ‘was a `minimum when the
supportingjthe shaft for «gyratory >movement,¿sa'ïiìi
shaft supporting’means -'being proportioned ¿so
axis' of rotation» of the lbasket «was-tilted «from
thewefrïtical, it ïhasfbeen found íthat »the basket
‘tended to assume vthe îpos'itionof‘ minimum -da-mp'f
ingïand' that «objectionablewf'orward pre'cessi'on
built- up. For a minimum of `'forward precession
it isf-important that fthe friction damping vdoes
not, increase toward the :cer-rter.
vÄìlïllfien fthereis beth preces'sion and unbalance,
'thereeis anaXía-l «force off haft ‘frequency- ‘tending
'tel-»move the basket up and I'downalongthe axis
that the critical speed vdu'e to such means ‘isbe
-l'ówçthe ¿normal speed’of the Vbasket `during en@
v`trifugaldrying,a part in whichthe vshaf‘tis’jour
naled, and ‘friction 'damping' `-means ` ‘acting
through said part for >frictionally resisting'gyra
tion of the sha-ft.
3'. vfin a ‘washing “machin-e, ldriving lrnecl'raríisn‘i `
comprising Ya rotatable frame, a driving shaft
‘shaft frequency gyration »of the spinner basket
about itsfaxïis of rotation is »superimposed »ilporî
ljourna'led in ysaid framejmeans jfor Vselectively
holding 'the frame "stationaryv or vcouplingr vthe
'driving‘s'haftto 'the‘frarna aspinn'er basket, 'shaft
aixis'fo‘f' rotation. ThisY results Iin _af-variable dis»
sha-ift frequencyof 4»the spinner
1basket ’Ír'o'm'fth'e Vpos'tion ~of perfect balance.
having 'a minimum of internal friction'connected
to the basket ‘and tthe -shaft means supporting
fof rotation. F11-'his axial iorcelarise's when 'the
theëlovv 'frequency >rotation or prec'essfion ofthe 60 means for connecting the frame vto `the spinner
basket, Ameans comprising, ‘a flexible '-m'etalri'n'g
From- another aspect-fthe angulariïty 4of the rlshaft
the basket for tilting relative to-said shaft means', `
varies fat ‘shaiît freque'ríicy.` f lSincel either `the
ary' member.; ‘means ‘connected lto -said `mernb'ejr‘in-
feach angular 'position-#of *the
sha-ft, there is a resulta-nt up :and «down or axial
force which",y unles‘s‘ycus'hioned; wouldresn‘lt in »ob-Y
jectionable »vibration.`
lforce `lis' 'partial-ly
cushioned bythe agaisenniay Offrire ring' »261.
in the `present machine the natural 'frequency ‘of
the' basket Von the ring‘zsiisióf thecrcer (5f-20o
Iovif ’the normal ext?actinglspeed 'of’120'0 R; P." M.
a. tub> surrounding the spinner basket, la station
cluding> a sleeve `in which 'the shaftv means> >is
‘journaled for supporting ‘the 'shaft means, spin-V
ner 'basket and ‘frame'on said stationary ‘member
to permit >'gyratory movement relative >to ‘the tub;
and friction daml'ïîng ,meansI between lsai'd„_1as't
means .and the stationary member for friction;
ally resistingfthfegyratory movement; j, .A _
1n 'a Washing machine, a spinner1ba'skîeät;Á „a
support 'having an upwardly presented spherical
friction surface, a vertical sleeve having its lower '
end depending around and seated on said surface
whereby tilting of the sleeve is frictionally re
sisted, spring means holding the lower end of
said sleeve against said spherical surface, said
spring means having a modulus increasing with
the deflection of the sleeve from the central po
sition, and a shaft journaled in said sleeve rotat
tionary member for frictionally resisting the gy
ratory movement.
6.`In a Washing machine, driving mechanism
comprising a rotatable frame, a driving shaft
journaled in said frame, means for selectively
holding the frame stationary or allowing it to be
coupled to the driving shaft, a spinner basket,
shaft means for connecting the frame to `the
spinner basket, flexible metal spring means hav
5. In a Washing machine, a driving mechanism
ing lovv internal friction connected at spaced >
comprising a rotatable frame, a driving shaft
points to said basket and said shaft means and
journaled in said frame, means for selectively
extending radially from said shaft means, Where
holding the frame stationary or coupling the
by the basket is supported for tilting and axial
driving shaft to the frame, a spinner basket, shaft
means for connecting the frame to the spinner 15 movement relative to said shaft means, a tub
surrounding the spinner basket, a stationary
basket, a joint connecting the basket to the shaft
ably supporting the spinner basket.
means comprising flexible arms of a material hav
member, means connected to said member in- ’
cluding a sleeve in which the shaft means is
ing a low internal friction, a tubsurrounding
journaled for supporting the shaft means, spin
the spinner basket, a stationary member, means
connected to said member including a sleeve in 20 ner basket and frame on said stationary member
to permit gyratory movement relative to the tub,
which the shaft means is journaled for support
and friction damping means between said last
ing the shaft means, spinner basket and frame
means and the stationary member for friction
on said stationary member to permit gyratory
ally resisting the gyratorymovement.
movement relative to the tub, and friction damp
ing means between said last means and the sta
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