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Патент USA US2406234

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Aug- 20,- 1946-
Filed May 18,1945
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Hi: //
Aug. 20, 1946.
' 2,406,234
Filed May 18, 1945'
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ,
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
Joseph V. Marancik, Roselle, and Roy F. Mildrum,
Hillside, N. J ., assignors to Standard Oil Devel
opment Company, a corporation of Delaware
Application May 18, 1943, Serial No. 487,448
2 Claims.
(Cl. 285-90)
stream-lined ?ow.
This invention relates to ?exible pipe joints
and particularly to bellows-type joints adapted
considerably the absorption of angular and mis
alignment e?ects without preventing substantial
amount of the material being transported through
the piping from getting in between the liner and
for installations carrying suspended solids’ and
corrosive liquids.
, In constructional engineering, provision has to
the corrugated element. The leakage of an inert
?uid into the space between the corrugated ele
be made for the dimensional changes occurring
in supporting steel and in piping due to tempera
ture variations. The expansive and contractive
movements in the piping of process equipment
must, moreover, be absorbed in the system with
out causing such strains as may subsequently
lead to breakages and leakages in the equipment.
ment and the liner is not usually particularly
disadvantageous; but, when the fluid is of a cor
rosive nature or when suspended solids are being
transported, the in?ltration is highly disadvan
tageous and often the cause of premature destruc
tion of the expansion element.
In the prior art it has been proposed to pre
vent the in?ltration oi' corrosive materials and
problem has to be particularly considered
in the piping installations carrying suspended
solids, such as in constructions for the heat treat
ment of minerals and for many types of petro
leum re?nery equipment. In the bellows-type
joints commonly employedJshere is a tendency
for such suspended material to become deposited
in the corrugations when the joint is in the ex
panded position, and thus to cause rupture of the
bellows when the joint is forced to take the con
tracted position. The device of this invention
overcomes this disadvantage. The device has also
Such an arrangement limits
?nely divided solids into the space between the
liner and the expansion element by the use of
packing material. placed in a groove located at
the free end of the liner. The packing material
may be any suitable wear-resistant composition,
a or it
may be of a suitable metal in the form of
a piston ring. The effect is thus to seal off the
space between the liner and the ?exible element,
and to reduce still further the capacity of the
been found particularly suitable as an expansion 25 joint to absorb angular and misalignment
joint in equipment constructed for the handling
In the present invention an improvement over
of ?nely divided solids and corrosive liquids.
such type packed expansion joints is in the e1imi-‘
It is an ‘object of the invention to provide a
nation of the packing element and the injection
?exible pipe joint adapted to absorb the longitu
or” a ?uid——usually steam or air-into the space
dinal, angular, and misalignment changes as
between the expansible element and the liner
may occur due to temperature variation.
at a slightly greater pressure than that of the
Another object of the invention is to provide
?uid. passing through the piping system. The
an expansion joint with a ?exible sealing mem
injected ?uid then. escapes into the pipe line
ber and an auxiliary sealing member which sub
through the annular clearance provided around ,
stantially limits contact of the ?uid being trans
the end of the liner by eliminating the packing.
ported through the joint with the ?exible mem
Thus, the infiltration into the expansible element
ber, and also aids in the production of stream
of harmful material is prevented by the ?ow of
lined ?ow through the joint.
fluid into the piping installation from the bellows
A further object of the invention is to furnish
for known bellows-type joints a ?exible liner . chamber of the expansion joint. The same ob
jective may be achieved by substituting spacer
which minimizes contact of the ?uid being trans
rings attached to the ?xed pipes‘ instead of ?ang
ported with the bellows element, and also con
ing the ends of the liner..
tributes to stream-lined flow of the ?uid through
In order to provide particularly for movements
the joint.
causing both misalignment and angular displace
Other objects of the invention‘ will be apparent
ment and at the same time permit maintaining
from the following description and illustration
provision to prevent deposition of solids in the
of the invention:
corrugations of the bellows element, ‘the added
In expansion joints of general usage, there are
feature is presented of ?anging the free end of
often circular bellows or corrugated expansible
the liner outwards so that the end of‘ the liner
elements connected to the piping, coupled with
acts as a spacer between the liner and the inner
surface of the pipe with a small clearance be
an inner liner element attached at one end to
the piping thus allowing‘ the other end of the
liner to slide'inside the other portion of the
piping. The purpose of the liner is to reduce
Wear on the expansible element, and to assist
tween the ?anged end'a‘nd the pipe. Provision
for greater misalignment and angular movements
may be had by having a ?oating liner with both
ends having an outwardly directed ?ange sep
from the ends of the sleeve 2'! are inwardly
arated by a small clearance from the inner sur
directed ?anges 24 and 25 (which act as stops .
to maintain the position of the liner) .. There
face-of’ the pipe. As steam, air, or other ?uid
under a pressure slightly greater than that pre
vailing in'the inside of the liner is injected into
the space between the liner and the bellows ele
ment, there is always a relatively uniform ?ow
of ?uid through the spacer clearance into the
piping system. This action prevents any mate
rial from the inside of the liner getting between
the liner and the flexible element. For economic
is a ?uid inlet jet 26 through which the ?uid
usually steam-is passed into the space between
the bellows and the liner element at a slightly
higher pressure than that upon the material
passing through the inside of the joint. The
?uid thus injected passes through the clearance
between the spacer element 22' and. the stop 24;
and the spacer element 23 and the stop 25. In
Figure II the sleeve 2| is outside of the bellows
reasons the clearance must be held to a prac
element 20 and the ?uid inlet 26 is connected
tical minimum in order to limit the amount of
by ?exible tubing ,2? to the outside casing 23
injected ?uid which will be required to ‘secure
positive unidirectional ?ow through the entire 15 connected to the system from which the stream
carrying the suspended solids are obtained.
area of the annular space formed by the clear
In Figure III, illustrating misalignment, two
ance. The clearance will vary somewhat with
bellows elements 2'!) are shown as being con
the pipev size but will normally not exceed'l/lg”.
nected by an annular member 29. Located in
In some cases the ?uid carrying the sus
pended solids may be exterior to the bellows 20 the annular member may be suitably placed the
?uid inlet 26. In Figure IV, illustrating angu
element and some other ?uid may be passing
lar displacement, two bellows elements 20
through the interior of the bellows element. In
again are shown as being connected by an an-I
these cases the liner, now more properly called
nular member 29 carrying the ?uid inlet 26,
a shield is placed outside the bellows element,
the liner freely moving subject to the restric
and this protects the element from the in?ltra
tion of the ?nely divided solids getting in be 2:5 tion of the stops 24 and 25. Thus the angle of
contact of the liner element with the rigid pip
‘ tween the corrugations. When protection of
ing portions of the device need be only half
the bellows element is necessary onrthe two
that which occurs when the liner element is
sides, both liner and shield may be employed.
?xed at one end, as in the devices of the prior
As anillustration of the invention, example
art. This is a particular feature of improve
may be taken of the device incorporated in thev
ment over the devices of the prior art, since
piping installation of a catalytic cracking unit
more uniform conditions of ?ow prevail
employing clay in a ?ne state of division in
through the joint‘as a result of the reduction
suspension as a catalytic material. A similar
form of the device may be employed for instal 3.5 in angular displacement. Moreover, due to the
‘ ' lations in petroleum coking equipment and in
‘ free movement of the liner ‘element between
the heat treatment of minerals.
Figure I presents diagrammatically a simple
the stops, the ?uid distribution through the
spacer clearance from the space between the
bellows and liner elements is not greatly dis
form of an embodiment of the invention. Fig
ure II shows another embodiment with the liner
element exterior to the expansion element.
Figure III shows a third embodiment of the
invention under misalignment conditions. Fig
turbed upon de?ection due to angular or mis
' alignment changes.
The device of this vinvention is particularly ‘7
suited as part of equipment adapted to the heat
treatment of hydrocarbons but the invention is
ure IV shows an embodiment under angular dis
placement conditions. In the Various draws >~ Cl not restricted to such application but may be
utilized in any piping system in which tem
ings the same numerals refer to the correspond
perature changes may be encountered. In the,
ing parts.
cracking of hydrocarbons with a powdered
In Figures I and II two aligned pipes iii and
catalyst, temperatures of between 700° F. and
H ‘are shownas having ?anged end pieces l2
1100° F. or higher are often used and in the
and i3 for connection by means of bolts 14 and
regeneration of the powdered catalyst tempera
I5, ?tted through bolt holes l6 and I‘! to ends
tures as high as 1400° F. may be used. With
I8 and IQ of the piping system. Betweenthe
such high temperatures the expansion of the
pipes liland H is the bellows element 20 and
piping system frequently involving pipe sizes up
connected thereto, preferably by welding. In
these drawings only one bellows element re-‘
to about '72 in. in diameter becomes a factor of
spectively is shown as connecting the pipes Ill
bellows elements are employed—the number be
ing determined by the conditions of the in
importance and one of the problems in existing
equipment'was concerned with the development
of suitable expansion joints which could be
used under such conditions. Also, in the cata
stallation especially as to‘the probable extent
lytic cracking of hydrocarbons using powdered
of the dimensional changes and the probable
catalyst of between 200 and 400 standard mesh,
the, pipe sections may be large conduits or pipes
and maybe as large as 8 ft. in diameter. With
such large pipes and high temperatures the
and ii.
In many cases however two or more
occurrence of angular movement or misalign
ment at the expansion ‘joint. In Figures III
and IV two bellows elements are shown as a
means for adequately providing for the angular 65 expansion joint of this invention with the pro
vision for movements causing both misalign
and misalignment displacements at the joint.
ment and angular displacement has been found
Encased and wholly surrounded by the,
to function very satisfactorily.
bellows element 20 and the ends by portions of
What is claimed is:
pipes Hi and l I is a liner or sleeve element 2|,
1. An expansion pipe joint comprising two
and‘having a diameter su?iciently’ different as 70
aligned pipes for conveying ?uid‘ carrying in
to allow the terminal ?anged spacers or rings
jurious materials of the type of suspended
22 and 2,3 to give a clearance in normal posi
tion from the pipes i9 and II of approximately,
solids and corrosive materials, a bellows sec
a‘; of an inch.
‘ On pipes l0 and II at some short distance 75
tion connecting the adjoining ends of the pipes
to permit longitudinal, angular and misalign-
ment movements of the pipes due to tempera
ture variation, a longitudinal annular member
protecting said bellows section permitting lon
gitudinal, lateral and angular play of ends of
said pipes, an annular spacer near at least one
end of said annular member reducing the clear
ance between said pipe and said annular mem
her, and means for introducing a gas under
slightly greater pressure than that of said ?uid
into the space between said bellows sectionv and 10
annular member so that said ?uid is prevented
from in?ltration into corrugations of said
bellows section.
2. An expansion joint according to claim 1
in which the said annular spacer is attached to
the end of the liner forming an annular ?ange
protruding from said liner.
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