Патент USA US2406234код для вставки
Aug- 20,- 1946- J. v. MARANCIK ET AL EXPANSION JOINT ' v ' Filed May 18,1945 2 Sheets-Sheet l A _, .. -------_--.~ 2,406,234 ‘ Hi: // Aug. 20, 1946. t J. v. MARANCIK ET AL. ' 2,406,234 EXPANSION JOINT Filed May 18, 1945' ' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 , 2,406,234 Patented Aug. 20, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,406,234 EXPANSION JOINT Joseph V. Marancik, Roselle, and Roy F. Mildrum, Hillside, N. J ., assignors to Standard Oil Devel opment Company, a corporation of Delaware Application May 18, 1943, Serial No. 487,448 2 Claims. (Cl. 285-90) 2 stream-lined ?ow. This invention relates to ?exible pipe joints and particularly to bellows-type joints adapted considerably the absorption of angular and mis alignment e?ects without preventing substantial amount of the material being transported through the piping from getting in between the liner and for installations carrying suspended solids’ and corrosive liquids. _ , In constructional engineering, provision has to the corrugated element. The leakage of an inert ?uid into the space between the corrugated ele be made for the dimensional changes occurring in supporting steel and in piping due to tempera ture variations. The expansive and contractive movements in the piping of process equipment must, moreover, be absorbed in the system with out causing such strains as may subsequently lead to breakages and leakages in the equipment. ment and the liner is not usually particularly 10v disadvantageous; but, when the fluid is of a cor rosive nature or when suspended solids are being transported, the in?ltration is highly disadvan tageous and often the cause of premature destruc tion of the expansion element. In the prior art it has been proposed to pre vent the in?ltration oi' corrosive materials and problem has to be particularly considered in the piping installations carrying suspended solids, such as in constructions for the heat treat ment of minerals and for many types of petro leum re?nery equipment. In the bellows-type joints commonly employedJshere is a tendency for such suspended material to become deposited in the corrugations when the joint is in the ex panded position, and thus to cause rupture of the bellows when the joint is forced to take the con tracted position. The device of this invention overcomes this disadvantage. The device has also Such an arrangement limits ?nely divided solids into the space between the liner and the expansion element by the use of packing material. placed in a groove located at the free end of the liner. The packing material may be any suitable wear-resistant composition, a or it may be of a suitable metal in the form of a piston ring. The effect is thus to seal off the space between the liner and the ?exible element, and to reduce still further the capacity of the been found particularly suitable as an expansion 25 joint to absorb angular and misalignment changes. joint in equipment constructed for the handling In the present invention an improvement over of ?nely divided solids and corrosive liquids. such type packed expansion joints is in the e1imi-‘ It is an ‘object of the invention to provide a nation of the packing element and the injection ?exible pipe joint adapted to absorb the longitu or” a ?uid——usually steam or air-into the space dinal, angular, and misalignment changes as between the expansible element and the liner may occur due to temperature variation. at a slightly greater pressure than that of the Another object of the invention is to provide ?uid. passing through the piping system. The an expansion joint with a ?exible sealing mem injected ?uid then. escapes into the pipe line ber and an auxiliary sealing member which sub through the annular clearance provided around , stantially limits contact of the ?uid being trans the end of the liner by eliminating the packing. ported through the joint with the ?exible mem Thus, the infiltration into the expansible element ber, and also aids in the production of stream of harmful material is prevented by the ?ow of lined ?ow through the joint. fluid into the piping installation from the bellows A further object of the invention is to furnish for known bellows-type joints a ?exible liner . chamber of the expansion joint. The same ob jective may be achieved by substituting spacer which minimizes contact of the ?uid being trans rings attached to the ?xed pipes‘ instead of ?ang ported with the bellows element, and also con ing the ends of the liner.. tributes to stream-lined flow of the ?uid through In order to provide particularly for movements the joint. causing both misalignment and angular displace Other objects of the invention‘ will be apparent ment and at the same time permit maintaining from the following description and illustration provision to prevent deposition of solids in the of the invention: corrugations of the bellows element, ‘the added In expansion joints of general usage, there are feature is presented of ?anging the free end of often circular bellows or corrugated expansible the liner outwards so that the end of‘ the liner elements connected to the piping, coupled with acts as a spacer between the liner and the inner surface of the pipe with a small clearance be an inner liner element attached at one end to the piping thus allowing‘ the other end of the liner to slide'inside the other portion of the piping. The purpose of the liner is to reduce Wear on the expansible element, and to assist tween the ?anged end'a‘nd the pipe. Provision for greater misalignment and angular movements 55 may be had by having a ?oating liner with both 2,406,234 4 3 ends having an outwardly directed ?ange sep from the ends of the sleeve 2'! are inwardly arated by a small clearance from the inner sur directed ?anges 24 and 25 (which act as stops . to maintain the position of the liner) .. There face-of’ the pipe. As steam, air, or other ?uid under a pressure slightly greater than that pre vailing in'the inside of the liner is injected into the space between the liner and the bellows ele ment, there is always a relatively uniform ?ow of ?uid through the spacer clearance into the piping system. This action prevents any mate rial from the inside of the liner getting between the liner and the flexible element. For economic is a ?uid inlet jet 26 through which the ?uid usually steam-is passed into the space between the bellows and the liner element at a slightly higher pressure than that upon the material passing through the inside of the joint. The ?uid thus injected passes through the clearance between the spacer element 22' and. the stop 24; and the spacer element 23 and the stop 25. In Figure II the sleeve 2| is outside of the bellows reasons the clearance must be held to a prac element 20 and the ?uid inlet 26 is connected tical minimum in order to limit the amount of by ?exible tubing ,2? to the outside casing 23 injected ?uid which will be required to ‘secure positive unidirectional ?ow through the entire 15 connected to the system from which the stream carrying the suspended solids are obtained. area of the annular space formed by the clear In Figure III, illustrating misalignment, two ance. The clearance will vary somewhat with bellows elements 2'!) are shown as being con the pipev size but will normally not exceed'l/lg”. nected by an annular member 29. Located in In some cases the ?uid carrying the sus pended solids may be exterior to the bellows 20 the annular member may be suitably placed the ?uid inlet 26. In Figure IV, illustrating angu element and some other ?uid may be passing lar displacement, two bellows elements 20 through the interior of the bellows element. In again are shown as being connected by an an-I these cases the liner, now more properly called nular member 29 carrying the ?uid inlet 26, a shield is placed outside the bellows element, the liner freely moving subject to the restric and this protects the element from the in?ltra tion of the ?nely divided solids getting in be 2:5 tion of the stops 24 and 25. Thus the angle of contact of the liner element with the rigid pip ‘ tween the corrugations. When protection of ing portions of the device need be only half the bellows element is necessary onrthe two that which occurs when the liner element is sides, both liner and shield may be employed. ?xed at one end, as in the devices of the prior As anillustration of the invention, example art. This is a particular feature of improve may be taken of the device incorporated in thev ment over the devices of the prior art, since piping installation of a catalytic cracking unit more uniform conditions of ?ow prevail employing clay in a ?ne state of division in through the joint‘as a result of the reduction suspension as a catalytic material. A similar form of the device may be employed for instal 3.5 in angular displacement. Moreover, due to the ‘ ' lations in petroleum coking equipment and in ‘ free movement of the liner ‘element between the heat treatment of minerals. Figure I presents diagrammatically a simple the stops, the ?uid distribution through the spacer clearance from the space between the bellows and liner elements is not greatly dis form of an embodiment of the invention. Fig ure II shows another embodiment with the liner element exterior to the expansion element. Figure III shows a third embodiment of the invention under misalignment conditions. Fig f10 turbed upon de?ection due to angular or mis ' alignment changes. I The device of this vinvention is particularly ‘7 suited as part of equipment adapted to the heat treatment of hydrocarbons but the invention is ure IV shows an embodiment under angular dis placement conditions. In the Various draws >~ Cl not restricted to such application but may be utilized in any piping system in which tem ings the same numerals refer to the correspond perature changes may be encountered. In the, ing parts. cracking of hydrocarbons with a powdered In Figures I and II two aligned pipes iii and catalyst, temperatures of between 700° F. and H ‘are shownas having ?anged end pieces l2 1100° F. or higher are often used and in the and i3 for connection by means of bolts 14 and regeneration of the powdered catalyst tempera I5, ?tted through bolt holes l6 and I‘! to ends tures as high as 1400° F. may be used. With I8 and IQ of the piping system. Betweenthe such high temperatures the expansion of the pipes liland H is the bellows element 20 and piping system frequently involving pipe sizes up connected thereto, preferably by welding. In x. these drawings only one bellows element re-‘ to about '72 in. in diameter becomes a factor of spectively is shown as connecting the pipes Ill bellows elements are employed—the number be ing determined by the conditions of the in importance and one of the problems in existing equipment'was concerned with the development of suitable expansion joints which could be used under such conditions. Also, in the cata stallation especially as to‘the probable extent lytic cracking of hydrocarbons using powdered of the dimensional changes and the probable catalyst of between 200 and 400 standard mesh, the, pipe sections may be large conduits or pipes and maybe as large as 8 ft. in diameter. With such large pipes and high temperatures the and ii. In many cases however two or more occurrence of angular movement or misalign ment at the expansion ‘joint. In Figures III and IV two bellows elements are shown as a means for adequately providing for the angular 65 expansion joint of this invention with the pro vision for movements causing both misalign and misalignment displacements at the joint. ment and angular displacement has been found Encased and wholly surrounded by the, to function very satisfactorily. bellows element 20 and the ends by portions of What is claimed is: . pipes Hi and l I is a liner or sleeve element 2|, 1. An expansion pipe joint comprising two and‘having a diameter su?iciently’ different as 70 aligned pipes for conveying ?uid‘ carrying in to allow the terminal ?anged spacers or rings jurious materials of the type of suspended 22 and 2,3 to give a clearance in normal posi tion from the pipes i9 and II of approximately, solids and corrosive materials, a bellows sec a‘; of an inch. , . g ‘ On pipes l0 and II at some short distance 75 tion connecting the adjoining ends of the pipes to permit longitudinal, angular and misalign- 2,406,234 ment movements of the pipes due to tempera ture variation, a longitudinal annular member protecting said bellows section permitting lon gitudinal, lateral and angular play of ends of said pipes, an annular spacer near at least one end of said annular member reducing the clear ance between said pipe and said annular mem her, and means for introducing a gas under slightly greater pressure than that of said ?uid into the space between said bellows sectionv and 10 annular member so that said ?uid is prevented from in?ltration into corrugations of said bellows section. 2. An expansion joint according to claim 1 in which the said annular spacer is attached to the end of the liner forming an annular ?ange protruding from said liner. » JOSEPH v. MARANCIK. ROY F. MILDRUM.