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Патент USA US2406288

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Aug. 2o, 1946.
J. M. HAl'r
' 2,406,288
AMPHIBIAN
Filed Feb. 15, 1943v
2 sheets-sheep 1
¿rra/Afr
Aug. 20,1946.
.
J. M. HAlT‘>
>
2,406,288
> AMPHIBIAN
_ Filed Eeb..15, 1945
'
2 sheets-sheet 2
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,406,288
UNITED STATES '
,
PATENT
OFFICE`
2,406,288
AMPHIBIAN
James M. Hait, San Gabriel, Calif., assignor to
Food Machinery Corporation, San Jose, Calif.,
a corporation of Delaware
1
Application February 15, 1943, Serial No. 475,934
l0 Claims. (Cl. 115-1)
2
This invention relates to amphibians, and has
an amphibian in which the heavier items of
particular utility in cargo-carrying amphibians
equipment are so disposed as to give the am
employed in amphibious naval warfare.
phibian good balance in the water when travel
Amphibians provided for this purpose have
ing loaded or light, and at the same time leave
track-laying belts mounted on opposite sides
thereof, and must be relatively short to permit 5 one end of the amphibian free for the installa
tion of a door therein.
them to turn readily by differential driving of
The manner of accomplishing the foregoing
these belts. The cargo-carrying compartment in
objects, as well as further objects and advan
the ship must therefore be fairly deep with its
tages, will be made manifest in the following de
floor well below the water level to accommodate v10 scription
taken in connection with the accom
the load they are designed to carry. Access t0
panying
drawings,
in which:
the .cargo compartment in the loading or un
loading of cargo is had by lifting the cargo over
the topside, and this constitutes a serious draw
back Where heavy pieces of cargo are carried, 15
as it requires a large force of men or special
equipment to accomplish the loading or unload
ing of the ship.
Another serious handicap inherent in this de
sign is found in the hazards to which soldiers 20
carried by _the amphibian are subjected when
they have to climb over the top side in the face
of enemy ñre, either to enter or leave the am
phibian.
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of a pre
ferred embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic sectional View taken
on the line 2-2 of Fig. 3.
v
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view taken
on the line 3--3 of Fig. 1, and showing the v
mounting of the motor of the amphibian be
neath the yfloor thereof.
Fig. 4 is _an enlarged fragmentary cross sec
tion taken on the line 4_4 in Fig. 3.
Referring specifically to the drawingathe am
/phibian I0 shown therein includes a hull II hav
ing a central bottom plate I2, an arcuate bow
It is an object of my invention to provide an
amphibian onto which cargo may be loaded and 25 plate I3, a sloping stern bottom plate I4, side
walls I5, a bulkhead IB, a stationary turret I'I
from which it may be unloaded Without passing
and a forward deck I 8.
l, f '
over the topside of the ship.
Built integrally with each of the side walls I5
Contrary to amphibians, the common design of
is a pontoon 20. Mounted upon each pontoon
landing boats is to make these relatively long
and shallow, with their deck disposed above the 30 20 is a track-laying belt mechanism 2l which
includes a series of bogie »wheels 22 provided
Water level, and provide an end door which may
along
the lower edge of the pontoon, a pair of
be lowered onto the beach to serve as a ramp over
idle rollers 23 mounted on top of the pontoon, l
which men and cargo, including wheeled ve
an idle sprocket 24 mounted on the rear upper
hicles, may be transferred from the deck onto the
35
corner
of the pontoon, a drive sprocket 25
beach, or vice versa. However, amphibians have
heretofore been thought bound by certain de
sign limitations vwhich. prevented their being
mounted on one end of a transmission 26 pro
vided in the front end of the hull, and a track-laying belt 30 which is trained about the sprock
equipped with any such door. For an amphibian
ets 24 and 25, rollers 23 and bogie wheels 22.
to be well balanced in the water, either' when
loaded or light, it is necessary that the heavier 40 This belt has a series of grousers 3I which sup
port and propel the amphibian when operating
elements of the equipment, such as theengine,
on land and which engage the Water to propel
transmission, control cabin, and fuel tanks be
distributed about the ship in balancing relation
the amphibian when it is afloat.
~
When traveling on land, the grousers support
with the center of buoyancy. It has become the
practice, therefore, to occupy and block each end 45 the hull II so that the bottom plate I2 has ade
quate clearance to pass over obstacles normally
of the ship with one or more of these heavier
encountered in such travel.
'
equipment items. As the track-laying mecha
The
transmission
26
has
a
high
speed
shaft
35
nisms are mounted on the side walls of the ship,
carrying a sprocket 36, through which power is
it is simply not practical in conformity with this
accepted principle of design for amphibians, to 50 adapted to be delivered to the transmission, the
provide a door in a hull wall of the amphibian for
introducing cargo into or unloading it from the
cargo compartment of the ship.
'
latter being controllable to differentially drive
the track-laying belts 30 forwardly at various
speeds or to drive these in reverse. Some of the
levers for controlling this transmission are shown,
It is a further object of my invention to provide
55 butv it is unnecessary to illustrate or describe the
2,406,288
to enemy fire, by turning the amphibian with
i details or’ this transmission as theseare well
the door 85 away from the enemy and allowing
understood in the art.
Provided on the hull il and cooperating with
Ithe side walls l5 and bulkhead I6 to form a
the soldiers to disembark and keep covered by
the amphibian until they are ready for deploy
>cargo compartment 4G, is a cargo floor 4l which
Another great advantage of the disposition of
the heavy equipment on the amphibian lß of
ing and going into action.
is well below the water line and is spaced from
`the hull bottom I2 to form a shallow bilge Aand
y `engine compartment e2. Mounted in the en
my invention, is that the engine is here located
at a low level on the hull, thereby greatly in
creasing the stability of the craft. Fuel may be
i gine compartment 42 is an engine 43, which is
`dat in design and is preferably an opposedfY
cylinder internal combustion engine. The en
gine ¿i3 is preferably provided with a water
i jacket 50 which is connected by tubes 5l and
‘ ‘carried in tanks
i '52 with a water radiator 53'. Air
l 56 are provided along the upper
bulkhead IB. The vvent 55 is connected by ccnl' '
1 duit 51 which the exhaust side of the radiator ~
53. The vent 56 is connected by a conduit 53 l
.
„
which delivers'
l
M
'
98, mounted in the pontoons
2Q, and fed by gravity to the engine 43..
I claim:l
f
»1; An amphibian, comprising: a hull having
two track-laying belts;
a bottom», fand -side walls;
said belts
means for mounting
on said side walls '
or" said hull,V said belts being equipped with
means for propelling said amphibian when
afloat, and for supporting and propelling the
same when traveling on'land, and at a height to
The 20 give adequate lclearanceto permitl said` bottom
blower> 68 Vis preferably driven by belts (ilV di
to pass over obstacles kencountered in landY
travel; means forming a cargo compartment in
rectly from the engine 43.
'
~ '
`
~
said hull, having a floor spaced from ¿said
Journalledin vsuitable bearings mounted on
the» hull Il s0 as to‘be parallel with and directly
bottom to form a relatively shallow engine corn-V
below the shaft 35, is a jack shaft-.'10 having a 25 partment between said bottom and said floor; a
to the intake end of a blower Si!
` air to the intake end of the radiator 53.
sprocket 'Il which is connected to the sprocket
36 by an endless chain 12'trained about these
relativelyV flat internal combustion engine
mounted in said engine compartment, said en-~
sprockets. The engine'43 is connected with
thevshaft '1B through suitableV universal joints
gine being disposed between one end of said
amphibian and the center of buoyancy there
'i5 and 16 and a shaft-'11. Thus power is trans-Y 3.0. of; a gear boX disposed on the opposite side of
mitted from the engine rIt?) to the transmission
said center of buoyancy from said engine for
transmitting power from said engine to said
Closing the back end of the cargo comparte
beits; and means for transmitting power from
ment 40 is a gate or drop doorY 85' which
said engine to said gear box. is strongly constructed'and mounted on hinges 35
2. An amphibian, comprising: a hull having
26.
^
’
'
Y
l
86 provided on the hull il adjacentßthefrear g
Híngedly connected to the
bottom,.and side walls; two track-laying belts;
means for mounting said belts on said .side walls
lower edge of the door 85 is a, plate 81 which
ofY said hulïl, said ybelts being equipped with
overlies the gap between the lower edge ofthe
means for propelling said .amphibian when
door and the floor M when the door is open as 40 aiioat, and for supporting and propellingthe
indicated by broken Ylines 89 -in Fig. 3.; The
same when traveling on land, and at a height
openingV and closing of the door 85 is controlled
to give adequate clearance to permit said bot
by cables "9U which are adapted to be wound up
tom to pass over obstacles encountered in land
on orpaid out from Winches 9i provided in the
travel; means forming a cargo compartment in
45
hull walls l5. The Idoor 85 has tongues `92
said hull, having a iioor spaced from saidrbottom
which ñt into grooves 93 in the rear edges ci“` the
to vform a relatively shallow engine compart
walls I5 so as to solidly integrate this »door and
ment between said bottom and «said door; a `
the rear ends of these walls whensaid door is
relatively flat internal . combustion engine
closed». »Suitable sealing means, such as strips
mounted in said engine compartment, said en
50
95 of rubber or other elastic material, are pro
gine being disposed between one end of said
. edge of the floor 4I.
vided about the opening into which the door‘SE
ñts, sothat these strips are compressed between
the door and the hull when the door is closed,
to produce Va satisfactorily water-tight seal, pre
amphibian and the center of buoyancy thereof,
a transmission disposed on the opposite side ofV
said center of buoyancy from said engine for
transmitting power from said engine to said
the 55 belts; means for transmitting power from Vsaid
engine to said transmissian; and means form
It is to be noted that in the construction Vof
ing a door in one end of said hull.
3. An amphibian, comprising: a hullhaving a
my invention the engine 43 is located on theV
opposite side of thecenter of buoyancy of the
bottom, and side walls; means forming Aa control
amphibian l!! from the transmission 26. These 60 cabin and for closing one end of said hull; two
are the two heaviest pieces of equipment on the`
track-laying belts; means for mounting said belts
amphibian, and they must be disposed so as to
on said side walls of said hull, said belts being
have a substantal balancing effect upon each
equipped with means for propelling said vam
other in order for the ship to» be properly
phibian when afloat, and for supporting and pro
trimmed when it is traveling empty. This >dis 65 pelling the same when traveling on land, and at
position of these pieces of equipment in my in
a height to give adequate clearance to permit said
vention permits the installation of the door 85
bottom to pass over obstacles encountered in land in one yend of the hull, so as to eliminate the
travel; means-forming a cargo compartment in
disadvantages inherent in the amphibian which
said hull at the rear of said control cabin, said
must be loaded or unloaded by passing rthe cargo 70 compartment having a floor spaced from said
or men carried thereby over the topside.
bottom to’form a relatively shallow vengine com
The door 85 not only renders it much easier
partment between said bottom and said ñoor; la
to load or unload heavy articles of carbo carried
relatively flat internal combustion engine mount
by the amphibian but permits the >discharge of ’
ed in, said engine compartment; gear power trans
ventingV
the
entrance
of
water
into
amphibian.
soldiers carried thereby without exposing them 75.
2,406,288
5
6
mission means in said control cabin for selectively.
transmitting power to said belts; and means for
transmitting power from said engine to Said
transmission means.
low engine compartment between said bottom and
said floor; a relatively flat internal combustion
engine mounted in said engine compartment; dif
ferential and transmission means disposed sub
4. An amphibian, Comprising: a hull having a 5 stantially on the level of said sprocket means at
bottom, and side walls; means forming a control . one end of said amphibian for driving said belts
cabin and for closing one end of said hull; two
through said sprocket mea s; and means trans~
track-laying belts; means for mounting said belts
mitting power from said engine to said transmis
on said side walls of said hull, said belts being
sion means,
equipped with means for propelling said amphib- 10
.
8. An amphibian, comprising: a hull having a
ian when añoat, and for supporting and propel-
bottom, and side walls; two track~laying belts;
ling the same when traveling on land, `and at a
means for mounting said belts on said sidewalls,
height to give adequate Clearanoe topel‘mlt Saïd
said belts vbeing equipped with means for pro
bottom to pass over obstacles encountered in land
peiling Said amphibian when agent and for Sup
travel; means forming a cargo >compartment in l5 porting and propelling the same when traveling
said hull at the rear of said control cabin, said
Compartment having a floor spaced from said bottom t0 form a relatively ShalloW engine compartment between said bottom and Said floor; a rela-
on land and at a height to give adequate clearance to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles
encountered in land travel, upper runs of said
belts being normally above the water line and
tiVely hat internal combustion engine mounted >20 lower’runs of said belts being normally/'below the
in said engine Compartment; gear pOWer traIlSwater line when said amphibian is afloat; sprocket
mission means in said control cabin for selectively
means disposed at opposite ends nf said upper
transmitting power to Said beltS; means fOr ‘ runs of said belts for guiding said upper runs and
transmitting power from said engine to Said
driving said belts; means forming a cargo oom
transmission means; and means forming adoor 25 partment in said hull, having a ñoor disposed a
in the opposite end. of Said hull, and for closing
substantial distance below said water line, and
the corresponding end of Said Cargo compartspaced from said bottom to form a relatively sha1»
ment.
low engine compartment between said bottom and
5. A combination aS in Claim 2, in Which Saïd
said floor; a relatively ñat internal combustion
transmission is located a substantial distance 30 engine mountedin Said engine Compartment,- dii
above Said engine and lies Substantially in a llOl‘lferential and transmission means disposed sub
zontal plane, and in which said means for tranSstantially on the level of said sprocket means at
mitting power from Said engine to Said tranSmlSone end of said amphibian for driving'said belts
sion includes a power transmitting element disthrough said sprocket means; means transmit
poSed in a Vertical tranSverSe plane .lying be- 35 ting power from said engine to said transmission
tween said engine and Said tranSmiSSîO -
'
means; and means forming a door in the opposite
6. An amphibian, Comprising: a hull having a
bottom, and side walls and means forming a con-
en'd of »said hull from said control cabin.
9_ An amphibian, comprising; a 11u11 having a
trol cabin in one end thereof; two track-laying
bottom, and Side Wa11s;'two track-laying belts;
beltS; meaIlS fOI' mounting Saïd belts 011 Saïd Side 40 means for mounting said belts on said side walls,
walls, said belts being equipped with means for
pl‘opelllng Saïd 2llïlplllblàn When afloat and fol'
Supporting and propelling the same when travel~
said belts being equipped with means for pro
pelling said amphibian when afloat and for’sup~
porting and propelling the same when traveling
ing on land, and at a height to give adequate
on land and at aheight to give adequate clearance
Clearance to permit Said bottom t0 PaSS Over Ob- 45- to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles en
stacles encountered in land travel; means f_erm-
countered in land travel, upper runs of said belts
ing a Cargo Compartment in said hull, having a »
floor spaced from said bottom to form a rela-
being normally above the water line and lower
runs of said belts being normally below 'the water
tively shallow bilge; a transmission disposed in
vline when Said amphibian is affoaii; Sprocket
said control
cabin in a substantially
position
for transmitting
power to saidhorizontal
belts; an 60 means disposed ai; Opposite ends 0f Said upper
engine mounted on said hull; a. substantially
driving said belts; means forming a cargo com
horizontal shaft disposed in said bilge transmitpartment in said 11u11 having a floor disposed a
ting POV/e1' from Saïd engine t0 a point below Said
substantial distance below said water line, and
Control Cabin; and vertically disposed means fol' 55 spaced from said bottom to form a relatively shal
transmitting power from said shaft to said translow engine compartment between said bottom and
mission.
said hoor; a relatively flat internal combustion
7. An amphibian, CompriSing: a hull having a
engine mounted in said engine compartment; dif
bottom, and Side Walls; liWO track-laying belts;
ferential and transmission means disposed sub~
means for mounting said belts on said side Walls, 60 stantially on the level of said sprocket means at
said belts being equipped with means for proone end of said amphibian for driving said belts
peiling said amphibian when afloat and for supporting and propelling the same when traveling
through said Sprocket means; means eransrnitting`
power from said engine to Vsaid transmission
on land and at a height to give adequate clearmeans; means forming a door in the opposite end
ance to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles
of said 11u11 from said control cabin, said door
encountered in land travel, upper runs of said 65 being hinged to said hull at the level of said door;
belts being normally above the water line and
and means for maintaining a water-tight seal belower runs of said belts being normally below the
tween said door and said hull when said door is
water line when said amphibian is aiioat; sprockClosed,
’
et means dispo-Sed at opposite ends of said upper 70
l0. An amphibian, comprising: a hull having a
runs of said belts for guiding said upper runs and
bottom, and side walls; two track-laying belts;
driVlhg Said beltS; meanS forming a cargo commeans for mounting said belts on said side walls,
partment in Said hull, having a ñoor disposed a
said belts being equipped Iwith means for propel
substantial distance below said water line, and
ling said amphibian when añoat and for support- '
spaced from said bottom to form arelatively shal- u ing and propelling the same when traveling on
‘
A
amazes
"8A
f `
ferential and transmission lmeans disposed sub
stantialltr 0n the levelof said sprocket meansrat
land andat> a height to Vgive adequate clearancev
to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles en-A
countered in landtravel, upper runs of said belts
being normally above the water line and lower
one end of said amphibian for driving said belt-s
through said sprocket means; means transmit
ting power from said engine to said transmission
runs of said belts being lnormally below the water
means; means forming a door in the opposite end
line When »said amphibian is afloat; sprocket
of said hull from said control cabin, said door
being hinged to said hull at the level of 'said ñoor;
` l runs of said beltsfor guiding vsaid upper runs and
means for maintainingqa Water-tight seal be
driving said belts; meansrforrning a cargorcom 10 tween said door and said'hull when said door is
ypartment in said hull, having añoor disposed a
closed; and rneansfor lowering said door into
meansïdisposed at vopposite ¿ends çf‘said upper,
substantial distance below said water line, and
spaced from said `bottom to form a relatively 'sbal-v
low engine compartment between said bottom and
said floer; a relatively flat internal combustion
contact with the ground. when said amphibian is
' resting on land, to form a ramp
engine mounted in said engine compartment; din 15
loading said amphibian.
for loading or un
p
JAMES M. HAIT.
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