Патент USA US2406288код для вставки
Aug. 2o, 1946. J. M. HAl'r ' 2,406,288 AMPHIBIAN Filed Feb. 15, 1943v 2 sheets-sheep 1 ¿rra/Afr Aug. 20,1946. . J. M. HAlT‘> > 2,406,288 > AMPHIBIAN _ Filed Eeb..15, 1945 ' 2 sheets-sheet 2 Patented Aug. 20, 1946 2,406,288 UNITED STATES ' , PATENT OFFICE` 2,406,288 AMPHIBIAN James M. Hait, San Gabriel, Calif., assignor to Food Machinery Corporation, San Jose, Calif., a corporation of Delaware 1 Application February 15, 1943, Serial No. 475,934 l0 Claims. (Cl. 115-1) 2 This invention relates to amphibians, and has an amphibian in which the heavier items of particular utility in cargo-carrying amphibians equipment are so disposed as to give the am employed in amphibious naval warfare. phibian good balance in the water when travel Amphibians provided for this purpose have ing loaded or light, and at the same time leave track-laying belts mounted on opposite sides thereof, and must be relatively short to permit 5 one end of the amphibian free for the installa tion of a door therein. them to turn readily by differential driving of The manner of accomplishing the foregoing these belts. The cargo-carrying compartment in objects, as well as further objects and advan the ship must therefore be fairly deep with its tages, will be made manifest in the following de floor well below the water level to accommodate v10 scription taken in connection with the accom the load they are designed to carry. Access t0 panying drawings, in which: the .cargo compartment in the loading or un loading of cargo is had by lifting the cargo over the topside, and this constitutes a serious draw back Where heavy pieces of cargo are carried, 15 as it requires a large force of men or special equipment to accomplish the loading or unload ing of the ship. Another serious handicap inherent in this de sign is found in the hazards to which soldiers 20 carried by _the amphibian are subjected when they have to climb over the top side in the face of enemy ñre, either to enter or leave the am phibian. Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of a pre ferred embodiment of the invention. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic sectional View taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 3. v Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. 1, and showing the v mounting of the motor of the amphibian be neath the yfloor thereof. Fig. 4 is _an enlarged fragmentary cross sec tion taken on the line 4_4 in Fig. 3. Referring specifically to the drawingathe am /phibian I0 shown therein includes a hull II hav ing a central bottom plate I2, an arcuate bow It is an object of my invention to provide an amphibian onto which cargo may be loaded and 25 plate I3, a sloping stern bottom plate I4, side walls I5, a bulkhead IB, a stationary turret I'I from which it may be unloaded Without passing and a forward deck I 8. l, f ' over the topside of the ship. Built integrally with each of the side walls I5 Contrary to amphibians, the common design of is a pontoon 20. Mounted upon each pontoon landing boats is to make these relatively long and shallow, with their deck disposed above the 30 20 is a track-laying belt mechanism 2l which includes a series of bogie »wheels 22 provided Water level, and provide an end door which may along the lower edge of the pontoon, a pair of be lowered onto the beach to serve as a ramp over idle rollers 23 mounted on top of the pontoon, l which men and cargo, including wheeled ve an idle sprocket 24 mounted on the rear upper hicles, may be transferred from the deck onto the 35 corner of the pontoon, a drive sprocket 25 beach, or vice versa. However, amphibians have heretofore been thought bound by certain de sign limitations vwhich. prevented their being mounted on one end of a transmission 26 pro vided in the front end of the hull, and a track-laying belt 30 which is trained about the sprock equipped with any such door. For an amphibian ets 24 and 25, rollers 23 and bogie wheels 22. to be well balanced in the water, either' when loaded or light, it is necessary that the heavier 40 This belt has a series of grousers 3I which sup port and propel the amphibian when operating elements of the equipment, such as theengine, on land and which engage the Water to propel transmission, control cabin, and fuel tanks be distributed about the ship in balancing relation the amphibian when it is afloat. ~ When traveling on land, the grousers support with the center of buoyancy. It has become the practice, therefore, to occupy and block each end 45 the hull II so that the bottom plate I2 has ade quate clearance to pass over obstacles normally of the ship with one or more of these heavier encountered in such travel. ' equipment items. As the track-laying mecha The transmission 26 has a high speed shaft 35 nisms are mounted on the side walls of the ship, carrying a sprocket 36, through which power is it is simply not practical in conformity with this accepted principle of design for amphibians, to 50 adapted to be delivered to the transmission, the provide a door in a hull wall of the amphibian for introducing cargo into or unloading it from the cargo compartment of the ship. ' latter being controllable to differentially drive the track-laying belts 30 forwardly at various speeds or to drive these in reverse. Some of the levers for controlling this transmission are shown, It is a further object of my invention to provide 55 butv it is unnecessary to illustrate or describe the 2,406,288 to enemy fire, by turning the amphibian with i details or’ this transmission as theseare well the door 85 away from the enemy and allowing understood in the art. Provided on the hull il and cooperating with Ithe side walls l5 and bulkhead I6 to form a the soldiers to disembark and keep covered by the amphibian until they are ready for deploy >cargo compartment 4G, is a cargo floor 4l which Another great advantage of the disposition of the heavy equipment on the amphibian lß of ing and going into action. is well below the water line and is spaced from `the hull bottom I2 to form a shallow bilge Aand y `engine compartment e2. Mounted in the en my invention, is that the engine is here located at a low level on the hull, thereby greatly in creasing the stability of the craft. Fuel may be i gine compartment 42 is an engine 43, which is `dat in design and is preferably an opposedfY cylinder internal combustion engine. The en gine ¿i3 is preferably provided with a water i jacket 50 which is connected by tubes 5l and ‘ ‘carried in tanks i '52 with a water radiator 53'. Air l 56 are provided along the upper bulkhead IB. The vvent 55 is connected by ccnl' ' 1 duit 51 which the exhaust side of the radiator ~ 53. The vent 56 is connected by a conduit 53 l . „ which delivers' l M ' 98, mounted in the pontoons 2Q, and fed by gravity to the engine 43.. I claim:l f »1; An amphibian, comprising: a hull having two track-laying belts; a bottom», fand -side walls; said belts means for mounting on said side walls ' or" said hull,V said belts being equipped with means for propelling said amphibian when afloat, and for supporting and propelling the same when traveling on'land, and at a height to The 20 give adequate lclearanceto permitl said` bottom blower> 68 Vis preferably driven by belts (ilV di to pass over obstacles kencountered in landY travel; means forming a cargo compartment in rectly from the engine 43. ' ~ ' ` ~ said hull, having a floor spaced from ¿said Journalledin vsuitable bearings mounted on the» hull Il s0 as to‘be parallel with and directly bottom to form a relatively shallow engine corn-V below the shaft 35, is a jack shaft-.'10 having a 25 partment between said bottom and said floor; a to the intake end of a blower Si! ` air to the intake end of the radiator 53. sprocket 'Il which is connected to the sprocket 36 by an endless chain 12'trained about these relativelyV flat internal combustion engine mounted in said engine compartment, said en-~ sprockets. The engine'43 is connected with thevshaft '1B through suitableV universal joints gine being disposed between one end of said amphibian and the center of buoyancy there 'i5 and 16 and a shaft-'11. Thus power is trans-Y 3.0. of; a gear boX disposed on the opposite side of mitted from the engine rIt?) to the transmission said center of buoyancy from said engine for transmitting power from said engine to said Closing the back end of the cargo comparte beits; and means for transmitting power from ment 40 is a gate or drop doorY 85' which said engine to said gear box. is strongly constructed'and mounted on hinges 35 2. An amphibian, comprising: a hull having 26. ^ ’ ' Y l 86 provided on the hull il adjacentßthefrear g Híngedly connected to the bottom,.and side walls; two track-laying belts; means for mounting said belts on said .side walls lower edge of the door 85 is a, plate 81 which ofY said hulïl, said ybelts being equipped with overlies the gap between the lower edge ofthe means for propelling said .amphibian when door and the floor M when the door is open as 40 aiioat, and for supporting and propellingthe indicated by broken Ylines 89 -in Fig. 3.; The same when traveling on land, and at a height openingV and closing of the door 85 is controlled to give adequate clearance to permit said bot by cables "9U which are adapted to be wound up tom to pass over obstacles encountered in land on orpaid out from Winches 9i provided in the travel; means forming a cargo compartment in 45 hull walls l5. The Idoor 85 has tongues `92 said hull, having a iioor spaced from saidrbottom which ñt into grooves 93 in the rear edges ci“` the to vform a relatively shallow engine compart walls I5 so as to solidly integrate this »door and ment between said bottom and «said door; a ` the rear ends of these walls whensaid door is relatively flat internal . combustion engine closed». »Suitable sealing means, such as strips mounted in said engine compartment, said en 50 95 of rubber or other elastic material, are pro gine being disposed between one end of said . edge of the floor 4I. vided about the opening into which the door‘SE ñts, sothat these strips are compressed between the door and the hull when the door is closed, to produce Va satisfactorily water-tight seal, pre amphibian and the center of buoyancy thereof, a transmission disposed on the opposite side ofV said center of buoyancy from said engine for transmitting power from said engine to said the 55 belts; means for transmitting power from Vsaid engine to said transmissian; and means form It is to be noted that in the construction Vof ing a door in one end of said hull. 3. An amphibian, comprising: a hullhaving a my invention the engine 43 is located on theV opposite side of thecenter of buoyancy of the bottom, and side walls; means forming Aa control amphibian l!! from the transmission 26. These 60 cabin and for closing one end of said hull; two are the two heaviest pieces of equipment on the` track-laying belts; means for mounting said belts amphibian, and they must be disposed so as to on said side walls of said hull, said belts being have a substantal balancing effect upon each equipped with means for propelling said vam other in order for the ship to» be properly phibian when afloat, and for supporting and pro trimmed when it is traveling empty. This >dis 65 pelling the same when traveling on land, and at position of these pieces of equipment in my in a height to give adequate clearance to permit said vention permits the installation of the door 85 bottom to pass over obstacles encountered in land in one yend of the hull, so as to eliminate the travel; means-forming a cargo compartment in disadvantages inherent in the amphibian which said hull at the rear of said control cabin, said must be loaded or unloaded by passing rthe cargo 70 compartment having a floor spaced from said or men carried thereby over the topside. bottom to’form a relatively shallow vengine com The door 85 not only renders it much easier partment between said bottom and said ñoor; la to load or unload heavy articles of carbo carried relatively flat internal combustion engine mount by the amphibian but permits the >discharge of ’ ed in, said engine compartment; gear power trans ventingV the entrance of water into amphibian. soldiers carried thereby without exposing them 75. 2,406,288 5 6 mission means in said control cabin for selectively. transmitting power to said belts; and means for transmitting power from said engine to Said transmission means. low engine compartment between said bottom and said floor; a relatively flat internal combustion engine mounted in said engine compartment; dif ferential and transmission means disposed sub 4. An amphibian, Comprising: a hull having a 5 stantially on the level of said sprocket means at bottom, and side walls; means forming a control . one end of said amphibian for driving said belts cabin and for closing one end of said hull; two through said sprocket mea s; and means trans~ track-laying belts; means for mounting said belts mitting power from said engine to said transmis on said side walls of said hull, said belts being sion means, equipped with means for propelling said amphib- 10 . 8. An amphibian, comprising: a hull having a ian when añoat, and for supporting and propel- bottom, and side walls; two track~laying belts; ling the same when traveling on land, `and at a means for mounting said belts on said sidewalls, height to give adequate Clearanoe topel‘mlt Saïd said belts vbeing equipped with means for pro bottom to pass over obstacles encountered in land peiling Said amphibian when agent and for Sup travel; means forming a cargo >compartment in l5 porting and propelling the same when traveling said hull at the rear of said control cabin, said Compartment having a floor spaced from said bottom t0 form a relatively ShalloW engine compartment between said bottom and Said floor; a rela- on land and at a height to give adequate clearance to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles encountered in land travel, upper runs of said belts being normally above the water line and tiVely hat internal combustion engine mounted >20 lower’runs of said belts being normally/'below the in said engine Compartment; gear pOWer traIlSwater line when said amphibian is afloat; sprocket mission means in said control cabin for selectively means disposed at opposite ends nf said upper transmitting power to Said beltS; means fOr ‘ runs of said belts for guiding said upper runs and transmitting power from said engine to Said driving said belts; means forming a cargo oom transmission means; and means forming adoor 25 partment in said hull, having a ñoor disposed a in the opposite end. of Said hull, and for closing substantial distance below said water line, and the corresponding end of Said Cargo compartspaced from said bottom to form a relatively sha1» ment. low engine compartment between said bottom and 5. A combination aS in Claim 2, in Which Saïd said floor; a relatively ñat internal combustion transmission is located a substantial distance 30 engine mountedin Said engine Compartment,- dii above Said engine and lies Substantially in a llOl‘lferential and transmission means disposed sub zontal plane, and in which said means for tranSstantially on the level of said sprocket means at mitting power from Said engine to Said tranSmlSone end of said amphibian for driving'said belts sion includes a power transmitting element disthrough said sprocket means; means transmit poSed in a Vertical tranSverSe plane .lying be- 35 ting power from said engine to said transmission tween said engine and Said tranSmiSSîO - ' means; and means forming a door in the opposite 6. An amphibian, Comprising: a hull having a bottom, and side walls and means forming a con- en'd of »said hull from said control cabin. 9_ An amphibian, comprising; a 11u11 having a trol cabin in one end thereof; two track-laying bottom, and Side Wa11s;'two track-laying belts; beltS; meaIlS fOI' mounting Saïd belts 011 Saïd Side 40 means for mounting said belts on said side walls, walls, said belts being equipped with means for pl‘opelllng Saïd 2llïlplllblàn When afloat and fol' Supporting and propelling the same when travel~ said belts being equipped with means for pro pelling said amphibian when afloat and for’sup~ porting and propelling the same when traveling ing on land, and at a height to give adequate on land and at aheight to give adequate clearance Clearance to permit Said bottom t0 PaSS Over Ob- 45- to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles en stacles encountered in land travel; means f_erm- countered in land travel, upper runs of said belts ing a Cargo Compartment in said hull, having a » floor spaced from said bottom to form a rela- being normally above the water line and lower runs of said belts being normally below 'the water tively shallow bilge; a transmission disposed in vline when Said amphibian is affoaii; Sprocket said control cabin in a substantially position for transmitting power to saidhorizontal belts; an 60 means disposed ai; Opposite ends 0f Said upper engine mounted on said hull; a. substantially driving said belts; means forming a cargo com horizontal shaft disposed in said bilge transmitpartment in said 11u11 having a floor disposed a ting POV/e1' from Saïd engine t0 a point below Said substantial distance below said water line, and Control Cabin; and vertically disposed means fol' 55 spaced from said bottom to form a relatively shal transmitting power from said shaft to said translow engine compartment between said bottom and mission. said hoor; a relatively flat internal combustion 7. An amphibian, CompriSing: a hull having a engine mounted in said engine compartment; dif bottom, and Side Walls; liWO track-laying belts; ferential and transmission means disposed sub~ means for mounting said belts on said side Walls, 60 stantially on the level of said sprocket means at said belts being equipped with means for proone end of said amphibian for driving said belts peiling said amphibian when afloat and for supporting and propelling the same when traveling through said Sprocket means; means eransrnitting` power from said engine to Vsaid transmission on land and at a height to give adequate clearmeans; means forming a door in the opposite end ance to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles of said 11u11 from said control cabin, said door encountered in land travel, upper runs of said 65 being hinged to said hull at the level of said door; belts being normally above the water line and and means for maintaining a water-tight seal belower runs of said belts being normally below the tween said door and said hull when said door is water line when said amphibian is aiioat; sprockClosed, ’ et means dispo-Sed at opposite ends of said upper 70 l0. An amphibian, comprising: a hull having a runs of said belts for guiding said upper runs and bottom, and side walls; two track-laying belts; driVlhg Said beltS; meanS forming a cargo commeans for mounting said belts on said side walls, partment in Said hull, having a ñoor disposed a said belts being equipped Iwith means for propel substantial distance below said water line, and ling said amphibian when añoat and for support- ' spaced from said bottom to form arelatively shal- u ing and propelling the same when traveling on ‘ A amazes "8A f ` ferential and transmission lmeans disposed sub stantialltr 0n the levelof said sprocket meansrat land andat> a height to Vgive adequate clearancev to permit said bottom to pass over obstacles en-A countered in landtravel, upper runs of said belts being normally above the water line and lower one end of said amphibian for driving said belt-s through said sprocket means; means transmit ting power from said engine to said transmission runs of said belts being lnormally below the water means; means forming a door in the opposite end line When »said amphibian is afloat; sprocket of said hull from said control cabin, said door being hinged to said hull at the level of 'said ñoor; ` l runs of said beltsfor guiding vsaid upper runs and means for maintainingqa Water-tight seal be driving said belts; meansrforrning a cargorcom 10 tween said door and said'hull when said door is ypartment in said hull, having añoor disposed a closed; and rneansfor lowering said door into meansïdisposed at vopposite ¿ends çf‘said upper, substantial distance below said water line, and spaced from said `bottom to form a relatively 'sbal-v low engine compartment between said bottom and said floer; a relatively flat internal combustion contact with the ground. when said amphibian is ' resting on land, to form a ramp engine mounted in said engine compartment; din 15 loading said amphibian. for loading or un p JAMES M. HAIT.