Патент USA US2406291код для вставки
Aug. 20, 1946.‘ E. s. HALL ‘ 2,406,291 STEAM'ENGINE Filed Sept.‘ 9, 1943 2- Sheets-Sheet 1 Aug§2o,1946. - ~ E. SQHALL 2,406,291 STEAM ENGINE‘ Filed Sept. 9, 1945 ‘2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ‘ Patented Aug. 20, 1946 .y 2,406,291 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFlCEl 2,406,291 STEAM ENGINE Edwin S. Hall, Farmington, Conn. Application September 9, 1943, Serial No. 501,653 11 Claims. (oi. 121_50> 1 2 The invention relates to steam engines espe cially, and to expansible chamber engines in gen eral. A particular object is to provide an im proved steam engine of about one-third the bulk and weight of an ordinary steam engine of equiv alent piston displacement, an engine capable of running two to ?ve times faster, to deliver six to ?fteen times the horsepower from a given amount of room and weight of metal. The engine is of the barrel type, having cylinders parallel to the the cylinder cup- is evacuated. Another object is to provide construction tending to minimize heat flow from high pressure steam headers to exhaust steam headers, and in general to prevent unde sirable heat flow. shaft. In discussing barrel engine mechanisms, confusion has been prevalent, such terms as “swashplate” and “wabbler” having been used in discriminantly or incorrectly. To avoid confu sion, these terms are avoided, and herein a plate member inclined to and rotating with the shaft is called a “slant”; a plate member mounted on bearings on and inclined to the shaft, and having arms operably connected to the reciprocating members, is called a “starp-late”; and the recip rocating members may be conveniently abbrevi ated to “recipers.” Another object of the invention is toprovide an e?icient steam engine, mechanically balanced to permit high speed, and having large ports and free ?owing valves for e?icient handling of the working medium at high speed, with low throt— tling losses and low heat losses, an engine capable of operation on an unusually low water rate, an Anothercbject is to‘ provide a practical, double- , acting steam engine having no piston rods or piston rod seals, the cylinders and crosshead be ing combined in one member, reciprocating in the crosshead guides, the pistons being ?xed. Other objects are to isolate the working medium from the lubrication oil; and to prevent, so far as prac ticable, passage of lubricating oil into the cylinder or of the working medium into the casing which houses the mechanism. Reciprocating cylinders, opening away from the mechanism, effectively prevent contamination of the lubricating oil by the working medium and prevent passage of lu~ bricating oil into the working cylinders. Other‘ objects are to provide oil control rings and drain age chambers operable ‘to prevent oil from enter ing the exhaust header, the means for keeping lubricating oil separate from the working me dium operating between the pressure and temper ature in the casing which houses the mechanism and exhaust pressure and temperature, not be tween the casing conditions and those of high pressure steam. ' Other'objects are to provide inlet valves in the engine in which the steam enters the cylinder at 30 ?xed pistons, pressure balanced poppet valves, of a type permitting rapid opening and closing, with one end and exhausts at the other end of the cyl inder as in a “uni?ow” engine. free ?ow of the steam; to provide an improved In such an engine, another object is to provide valve gear for operating the valves, capable of a balanced poppet valve, light enough to be controlling steam inlet from zero to maximum opened and closed quickly, one having a large effective opening and excellent ?ow character istics, a poppet valve axially symmetrical to the cylinder and permitting a small and symmetrical cutoff, forward or reverse; to use the high steam presure as the valve spring to return the valve to its seat; and to connect the valve operating means clearance volume, correctly proportioned for the optimum compression pressure when running condensing under predetermined conditions of other end, by pull rods thru the slants, making it possible to feed always the same amount of steam in the same way to both ends of- the engine high pressure and exhaust pressure. from a single governor. Another object is to provide means _for automatically at one end of the engine directly to that at the maintaining the clearance volume such that These and other objects of the invention will be apparent in greater detail by reference to the compression will always be substantially correct, 45 drawings in which ' even if operation should ‘become non-condensing ' Fig. l is a longitudinal section of a steam en gine constructed in accordance with the inven or otherwise vary from those conditions designed for. Another object is to provide effective means tion: for blowing out condensate when warming up the Fig; 2 is a transverse section substantially on engine together with automatic safety means for 50 the lines 2-4! of Fig. l; and relieving any pressure in the engine cylinders Fig. 3 is a transverse section substantially on higher than that of the high pressure steam. the line 3—3 of Fig. 1. Another object is to provide a cylinder whose In the drawings, 'frame members H] are held high pressure end will stay hot, to minimize in together upon croshead guide tubes II by thru itial condensation. To this end the space around 55 bolts I2. Reciprocating members 20 are operable 2,406,291 3 4 in crosshead guides ll. Each reciper 29 is com posed of a crosshead 2| and a pair of cup-shaped cylinders 22 set in the ends thereof, the spaces 25 being evacuated to discourage heat ?ow from ciated parts by the operable connection of the starplate mechanism as is well known. Wristpins 33 being tangential to a circle in the plane of star plate as, practically no torque is on starplate 30 and its motion is correctly controlled by the co cylinders 22 to crosshead 2|. ‘ action of the spherical ends of wristpins 33 with Each crosshead 2| has a transverse bore 24 in internal surfaces 23 of crossheads 2!. Oil is fed which pinhead 34 is operable. Wristpin 33 is under pressure thru shaft 453, lubricating slippers similarly operable in bushings 35 ?xed in pinhead 36 as they slip over slants E2, and is fed out thru 34, and wristpin 33 is clamped by screws 32 in an arms 3! to wristpins 33, pinheads 3i, and cross , arm 3i of starplate 30. The ends of wristpin 33 heads 2 5. Oil control rings [5, assisted by drain are spherically adapted ‘to coact with the inner age chambers‘ l3, prevent oil from passing into surfaces 23 of crosshead 2| to‘ control correctly exhaust header chambers 19 and also prevent the motion of starplate 36. Wristpin 33 is ad‘ exhaust steam from passing inwardly into the justable axially when screws 32 are loosened. starplate 3B is piloted on spherical boss M 15 casing formed between frame members Ill. With cams 64 in neutral position shown in Fig. splined to shaft 4b, and starplate slippers 36, 1, no steam is permitted to flow into cylinders 22. pivoted on starplate 30, are operable with ?lm from steam chests 66. Movement of cams B4 lubrication on slants 42, also splinedto shaft 40. axially in one direction will produce admission of ' Shaft 49 hasinvolute splines M extending al most its entire length. A single key might be used 20 steam for forward rotation of shaft ?ll with in creasingly late cutoff, while movement in the insteadv of splines 44. Adjacent the slants G2 on shaft at are collars 43 which operably support other direction produces similar action with re verse rotation of shaft Ml. Cams 64 operate cam and axially locate shaft Ali) and its associated ro tating parts in journal bearings ill. Another pair followers 63 and 62, bellcranks 6i, and poppet of splined sleeves d5 are also splined to shaft 40, 25 valves 52 to admit steam to cylinders 22 in proper timed relationship for the desired operation. and then the outer journal collars 66, operably supported in journal bearings i5. Nuts 41 at both Steam pressure acting on cam followers 62 return ends of shaft 680 may clamp all the rotating parts them and close valves 52 after the toes of cams 64 solidly together, the shaft 49 serving as a splined have passed. -After closing of a valve 52, the thrubolt with nuts ill at both ends, or with driv 30 steam in cylinder 22 expands as it moves away ing ?ange 458 integral at one end and a single nut from piston 59, until exhaust ports 26, uncover, £2": at the other end. when discharge takes place thru the exhaust header 58 to the condenser if such there be. On return stroke of cylinder 22 compression . at each end of the engine, ?xed pistons 50 are supported by cover i1. Covers H and I8 together form ‘steam chest Gil. Piston rings 5| are in should build up pressure less than that of the grooves in ?xed pistons 59, and oil control rings l5 high pressure steam in steam chest 60; higher are in grooves in crosshead guides I I, piston rings compression would lead to waste as the com coacting with the interior cylindrical surfaces pressed steam surged thru valve 52 in the wrong of recipers 2b and oil control rings l5 coacting direction, delaying inlet of high pressure steam with the exterior cylindrical surfaces, both sets of 40 until after cylinder 22 had started away from pis rings being in substantially the same planes and ton 50. To prevent this, even if operating condi traversing‘ the same length of recipers 29. Oil tions should change from those prescribed, dis-v wiped oii recipers 20 by oil control rings i5 is placer piston 53 will move away from cylinder 22 if compression pressure exceeds high pressure, drained thru drainage chambers 53. In each of the '?Xed pistons 58, is a poppet 45 increasing clearance volume 29 to prevent over valve 52, operated by bellcrank 6| and cam fol compression. Immediate return of displacer pis ton 53 is prevented by the dashpot action of dash lower 62, the latter having a ball or roller 63 co acting with cam 62. Cam 34 is axially slidable on pot piston 56 and its valve 51 which permits easy ' splined sleeve 45, and is tied to another cam 64 passage of steam into but not out of dashpot at the other end of the engine by tie-rods 65 50 chamber 59, suspending displacer piston 53 in whatever position it is pushed by overcompres which pass thru collars 4,3, slants 42, and spheri cal boss M ( in a plane at right angles to the plane of these parts in Fig. 1, as indicated in Fig, 3). Both cams 54 are operable by a governor and sion. However, since the area of the underside of dashpot piston 156 is less than its head area, steam pressure in dashpot chamber 59 will be manual control as usual. higher than that in chamber 69, and leakage , Poppet valve 52 looks like a sleeve and is pres sure balanced, the only unbalanced area being the area of the narrow valve seat when the valve is closed. Poppet valve 52 may be “masked” or set down into a counterbored seat as shown, to 60 from chamber 59 to chamber 69 tends to return displacer piston 53 to its normal position with minimum clearance volume 29. When starting a cold steam engine it is desir rermit'more rapid effective opening and closing. With this type of poppet valve, clearance cham cylinders. Vent valve 6'! may be opened to out- her 29 may be axially symmetrical and as small as desired for optimum compression pressure. push displacer piston 53 outward, uncovering un loading grooves 55 permitting ?ow, thru piston 53 able to vent condensate which may form in the side air whereupon steam in each cylinder 22 will To adjust clearance chamber 23, displacer pis 65 to conduit 66 and out thru valve 61. When no ton 53 is operable in cylinder member 54, and may more condensate is discharged, valves 6‘! may be even uncover unloading grooves 55. Outer end of closed, and opened to steam chest Ell, to permit displacer piston 53 is provided wth dashpot pis~ high pressure steam to return displacer pistons ton Eiloosely operable in cylinder 69 and hav 53 to their normal position. Displacer pistons 53 ing valve 5?‘ and valve spring 58. All the cham 70 also serve as safety releases to prevent any pres here 69 are interconnected thru conduit 66 which sure of steam or liquid in cylinders22 from ever exceeding high steam pressure. , ‘may be vented either to outside air or to high ‘7 pressure steam in steam chest 6i! by vent valve 61. In operation, reciprocation of recipers 20 is ac companied by rotation of shaft 40 and its asso Having thus described the construction and op eration of the invention, it is evident that the ob 75 jects of the invention as stated have been attained 2,406,291 in a reasonable manner. 6 While a speci?c em bodiment of the invention has been shown and described, it is understood that changes may be made in the construction and operation of the invention without departing from the spirit or ' ated to open said valves by said shaft and to close said valves by steam pressure acting onsaid . 1. In a barrel engine mechanism, a reciprocat operating mechanism as valve springs. ing cylinder member having a double wall, the outer Wall forming a crosshead and the inner wall forming a cylinder bore, a non-reciprocating pis . '7. In a double-acting steamengine of the bar rel type, a shaft, reciprocatingmembers parallel» to said shaft, mechanism operably connecting said a reciprocating members to said'shaft, a casing en~ ton operably received by said cylinder bore,'and ports in the inner cylinder wall, said ports open closing said mechanism, an exhaust steam cham ing axially of said cylinder member intov the space around said non-reciprocating piston. axially in concert. 6. In a steam engine, a shaft, cylinders parallel thereto, inlet valves for admitting steam to said cylinders, and valve operating mechanism actu scope of the following claims. v I claim: means with the other to compel them to move ber, and sealing means coacting with said recipro cating members to prevent the passage of oil or working medium between said casing and said chamber, said sealing means sealing between oil at _ 2. In a barrel engine mechanism, ‘a shaft, and reciprocating cylinder members parallel to said shaft, each of said cylinder members being no pressure and exhaust steam pressure. double-walled and including a cylindrical cross‘ ' 8. In asteam engine, a shaft, cylinders parallel head operably connected to said shaft and a cup. 20 thereto,ja balanced poppet valve for admitting shaped cylinder mounted in the end of said cross steam toreach of said cylinders, and valve mech head with its head and cylindrical walls spaced anism’ operable by said shaft and including a cam -‘ from the adjacent portions of said crosshead. 3. In an engine mechanism, a shaft, recipro cating cylinder members operably connected to, said shaft, and ?xed ‘pistons operably received by and a cam follower, said cam follower movable by said cam to open said valve and movable by steam ‘ pressure to‘close said valve. , 9. In a steam engine, a reciprocating cylinder said cylinder members, each of said cylinder mem ,rncmber, a non-reciprocating piston operably re bers being double-walled and including a cylin ceived by said cylinder. member, a balanced pop drical crosshead and a cup-shaped cylinder pet valve having the form ‘of a sleeve coaxially op mounted in the end of ,saidcrosshead with a cup 30 erable within said piston‘ member, a sleeve mem shaped closed chamber between said cylinder and ber Within said’ valve, a piston operable within said crosshead, said chamber evacuated to dimin said sleeve member by the difference between ish heat ?ow from said cylinder to said cross high steam pressure on one end thereof and com head. pression pressure within said cylinder member 4. In a steam engine designed to operate well 35 on‘ the other end thereof. ' ' ' under prescribed conditions of high pressure ' 10. In a steam ‘engine, a reciprocating cylinder steam and condenser vacuum, a reciprocating member, a non-reciprocating piston operably re cylinder member having a cup-shaped cylinder ‘,ceiVed by said cylinder member, a balanced pop closed at oneend and open at the other, exhaust pet valve having the form of a sleeve coaxially ports at the open end of said cylinder, a non-re 40 operable within said piston member, a ?xed sleeve ciprocating piston operably received by said cyl inder with a certain minimum clearance volume between said piston and the closed end of said cylinder, an inlet valve coaxial with and oper ably mounted in said non-reciprocating piston, ‘ said cylinder and said piston and said valve sov constructed that said clearance volume is axially scribed. ‘ 5. In a double-acting steam engine of the bar rel type having a shaft, double-ended reciprocat ing members parallel thereto, and mechanism op erably connecting said reciprocating members to able within said sleeve member-for automatically varying the clearance volume between said‘ cylin der member and said non-reciprocating piston, and means for moving said smaller piston to maintain substantially optimum compression in said reciprocating cylinder member. ' symmetrical and small enough for optimum com pression in said engine under said prescribed conditions, and means movable within said pis ton for increasing said clearance volume to main tain substantially optimum compression if or when operating conditions change for those pre member within said valve, a smaller piston oper 11. In a steam engine, a reciprocating cylinder 51 member, a non-reciprocating piston operably'. received by said cylinderlmember, a, balanced poppet valve coaxially operable within said pis ton member, a ?xed ‘sleeve member within said valve, a smaller piston operable within said sleeve member, one end of said smaller piston engaging 55 the pressure in said cylinder member and the other end normally engaging high steam pressure, and manually operable means for changing the pressure on said other end from high steam pres said shaft: an inlet valve system at each end of sure to atmospheric pressure and vice versa to said engine, means on and rotating with said shaft 60 permit ready adjustment of the position of said for operating each inlet valve system, and tie rods parallel to said shaft and connecting one of said ‘ smaller piston within said sleeve member.' EDWIN. S. HALL.