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Патент USA US2406291

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Aug. 20, 1946.‘
E. s. HALL ‘
2,406,291
STEAM'ENGINE
Filed Sept.‘ 9, 1943
2- Sheets-Sheet 1
Aug§2o,1946. -
~ E. SQHALL
2,406,291
STEAM ENGINE‘
Filed Sept. 9, 1945
‘2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
‘
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
.y 2,406,291
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFlCEl
2,406,291
STEAM ENGINE
Edwin S. Hall, Farmington, Conn.
Application September 9, 1943, Serial No. 501,653
11 Claims. (oi. 121_50>
1
2
The invention relates to steam engines espe
cially, and to expansible chamber engines in gen
eral. A particular object is to provide an im
proved steam engine of about one-third the bulk
and weight of an ordinary steam engine of equiv
alent piston displacement, an engine capable of
running two to ?ve times faster, to deliver six to
?fteen times the horsepower from a given amount
of room and weight of metal. The engine is of
the barrel type, having cylinders parallel to the
the cylinder cup- is evacuated. Another object is
to provide construction tending to minimize heat
flow from high pressure steam headers to exhaust
steam headers, and in general to prevent unde
sirable heat flow.
shaft. In discussing barrel engine mechanisms,
confusion has been prevalent, such terms as
“swashplate” and “wabbler” having been used in
discriminantly or incorrectly. To avoid confu
sion, these terms are avoided, and herein a plate
member inclined to and rotating with the shaft
is called a “slant”; a plate member mounted on
bearings on and inclined to the shaft, and having
arms operably connected to the reciprocating
members, is called a “starp-late”; and the recip
rocating members may be conveniently abbrevi
ated to “recipers.”
Another object of the invention is toprovide
an e?icient steam engine, mechanically balanced
to permit high speed, and having large ports and
free ?owing valves for e?icient handling of the
working medium at high speed, with low throt—
tling losses and low heat losses, an engine capable
of operation on an unusually low water rate, an
Anothercbject is to‘ provide a practical, double- ,
acting steam engine having no piston rods or
piston rod seals, the cylinders and crosshead be
ing combined in one member, reciprocating in the
crosshead guides, the pistons being ?xed. Other
objects are to isolate the working medium from
the lubrication oil; and to prevent, so far as prac
ticable, passage of lubricating oil into the cylinder
or of the working medium into the casing which
houses the mechanism. Reciprocating cylinders,
opening away from the mechanism, effectively
prevent contamination of the lubricating oil by
the working medium and prevent passage of lu~
bricating oil into the working cylinders. Other‘
objects are to provide oil control rings and drain
age chambers operable ‘to prevent oil from enter
ing the exhaust header, the means for keeping
lubricating oil separate from the working me
dium operating between the pressure and temper
ature in the casing which houses the mechanism
and exhaust pressure and temperature, not be
tween the casing conditions and those of high
pressure steam.
'
Other'objects are to provide inlet valves in the
engine in which the steam enters the cylinder at 30 ?xed pistons, pressure balanced poppet valves, of
a type permitting rapid opening and closing, with
one end and exhausts at the other end of the cyl
inder as in a “uni?ow” engine.
free ?ow of the steam; to provide an improved
In such an engine, another object is to provide
valve gear for operating the valves, capable of
a balanced poppet valve, light enough to be
controlling steam inlet from zero to maximum
opened and closed quickly, one having a large
effective opening and excellent ?ow character
istics, a poppet valve axially symmetrical to the
cylinder and permitting a small and symmetrical
cutoff, forward or reverse; to use the high steam
presure as the valve spring to return the valve to
its seat; and to connect the valve operating means
clearance volume, correctly proportioned for the
optimum compression pressure when running
condensing under predetermined conditions of
other end, by pull rods thru the slants, making
it possible to feed always the same amount of
steam in the same way to both ends of- the engine
high pressure and exhaust pressure.
from a single governor.
Another
object is to provide means _for automatically
at one end of the engine directly to that at the
maintaining the clearance volume such that
These and other objects of the invention will
be apparent in greater detail by reference to the
compression will always be substantially correct, 45
drawings in which
' even if operation should ‘become non-condensing
'
Fig. l is a longitudinal section of a steam en
gine constructed in accordance with the inven
or otherwise vary from those conditions designed
for. Another object is to provide effective means
tion:
for blowing out condensate when warming up the
Fig; 2 is a transverse section substantially on
engine together with automatic safety means for 50 the lines 2-4! of Fig. l; and
relieving any pressure in the engine cylinders
Fig. 3 is a transverse section substantially on
higher than that of the high pressure steam.
the line 3—3 of Fig. 1.
Another object is to provide a cylinder whose
In the drawings, 'frame members H] are held
high pressure end will stay hot, to minimize in
together upon croshead guide tubes II by thru
itial condensation. To this end the space around 55 bolts I2. Reciprocating members 20 are operable
2,406,291
3
4
in crosshead guides ll. Each reciper 29 is com
posed of a crosshead 2| and a pair of cup-shaped
cylinders 22 set in the ends thereof, the spaces
25 being evacuated to discourage heat ?ow from
ciated parts by the operable connection of the
starplate mechanism as is well known. Wristpins
33 being tangential to a circle in the plane of star
plate as, practically no torque is on starplate 30
and its motion is correctly controlled by the co
cylinders 22 to crosshead 2|.
‘
action of the spherical ends of wristpins 33 with
Each crosshead 2| has a transverse bore 24 in
internal surfaces 23 of crossheads 2!. Oil is fed
which pinhead 34 is operable. Wristpin 33 is
under pressure thru shaft 453, lubricating slippers
similarly operable in bushings 35 ?xed in pinhead
36 as they slip over slants E2, and is fed out thru
34, and wristpin 33 is clamped by screws 32 in an
arms 3! to wristpins 33, pinheads 3i, and cross
, arm 3i of starplate 30. The ends of wristpin 33
heads 2 5. Oil control rings [5, assisted by drain
are spherically adapted ‘to coact with the inner
age chambers‘ l3, prevent oil from passing into
surfaces 23 of crosshead 2| to‘ control correctly
exhaust header chambers 19 and also prevent
the motion of starplate 36. Wristpin 33 is ad‘
exhaust steam from passing inwardly into the
justable axially when screws 32 are loosened.
starplate 3B is piloted on spherical boss M 15 casing formed between frame members Ill.
With cams 64 in neutral position shown in Fig.
splined to shaft 4b, and starplate slippers 36,
1, no steam is permitted to flow into cylinders 22.
pivoted on starplate 30, are operable with ?lm
from steam chests 66. Movement of cams B4
lubrication on slants 42, also splinedto shaft 40.
axially in one direction will produce admission of '
Shaft 49 hasinvolute splines M extending al
most its entire length. A single key might be used 20 steam for forward rotation of shaft ?ll with in
creasingly late cutoff, while movement in the
insteadv of splines 44. Adjacent the slants G2 on
shaft at are collars 43 which operably support
other direction produces similar action with re
verse rotation of shaft Ml. Cams 64 operate cam
and axially locate shaft Ali) and its associated ro
tating parts in journal bearings ill. Another pair
followers 63 and 62, bellcranks 6i, and poppet
of splined sleeves d5 are also splined to shaft 40, 25 valves 52 to admit steam to cylinders 22 in proper
timed relationship for the desired operation.
and then the outer journal collars 66, operably
supported in journal bearings i5. Nuts 41 at both
Steam pressure acting on cam followers 62 return
ends of shaft 680 may clamp all the rotating parts
them and close valves 52 after the toes of cams 64
solidly together, the shaft 49 serving as a splined
have passed. -After closing of a valve 52, the
thrubolt with nuts ill at both ends, or with driv 30 steam in cylinder 22 expands as it moves away
ing ?ange 458 integral at one end and a single nut
from piston 59, until exhaust ports 26, uncover,
£2": at the other end.
when discharge takes place thru the exhaust
header 58 to the condenser if such there be.
On return stroke of cylinder 22 compression
.
at each end of the engine, ?xed pistons 50 are
supported by cover i1. Covers H and I8 together
form ‘steam chest Gil.
Piston rings 5| are in
should build up pressure less than that of the
grooves in ?xed pistons 59, and oil control rings l5
high pressure steam in steam chest 60; higher
are in grooves in crosshead guides I I, piston rings
compression would lead to waste as the com
coacting with the interior cylindrical surfaces
pressed steam surged thru valve 52 in the wrong
of recipers 2b and oil control rings l5 coacting
direction, delaying inlet of high pressure steam
with the exterior cylindrical surfaces, both sets of 40 until after cylinder 22 had started away from pis
rings being in substantially the same planes and
ton 50. To prevent this, even if operating condi
traversing‘ the same length of recipers 29. Oil
tions should change from those prescribed, dis-v
wiped oii recipers 20 by oil control rings i5 is
placer piston 53 will move away from cylinder
22 if compression pressure exceeds high pressure,
drained thru drainage chambers 53.
In each of the '?Xed pistons 58, is a poppet 45 increasing clearance volume 29 to prevent over
valve 52, operated by bellcrank 6| and cam fol
compression. Immediate return of displacer pis
ton 53 is prevented by the dashpot action of dash
lower 62, the latter having a ball or roller 63 co
acting with cam 62. Cam 34 is axially slidable on
pot piston 56 and its valve 51 which permits easy '
splined sleeve 45, and is tied to another cam 64
passage of steam into but not out of dashpot
at the other end of the engine by tie-rods 65 50 chamber 59, suspending displacer piston 53 in
whatever position it is pushed by overcompres
which pass thru collars 4,3, slants 42, and spheri
cal boss M ( in a plane at right angles to the plane
of these parts in Fig. 1, as indicated in Fig, 3).
Both cams 54 are operable by a governor and
sion. However, since the area of the underside
of dashpot piston 156 is less than its head area,
steam pressure in dashpot chamber 59 will be
manual control as usual.
higher than that in chamber 69, and leakage
,
Poppet valve 52 looks like a sleeve and is pres
sure balanced, the only unbalanced area being the
area of the narrow valve seat when the valve
is closed. Poppet valve 52 may be “masked” or
set down into a counterbored seat as shown, to 60
from chamber 59 to chamber 69 tends to return
displacer piston 53 to its normal position with
minimum clearance volume 29.
When starting a cold steam engine it is desir
rermit'more rapid effective opening and closing.
With this type of poppet valve, clearance cham
cylinders. Vent valve 6'! may be opened to out-
her 29 may be axially symmetrical and as small
as desired for optimum compression pressure.
push displacer piston 53 outward, uncovering un
loading grooves 55 permitting ?ow, thru piston 53
able to vent condensate which may form in the
side air whereupon steam in each cylinder 22 will
To adjust clearance chamber 23, displacer pis 65 to conduit 66 and out thru valve 61. When no
ton 53 is operable in cylinder member 54, and may
more condensate is discharged, valves 6‘! may be
even uncover unloading grooves 55. Outer end of
closed, and opened to steam chest Ell, to permit
displacer piston 53 is provided wth dashpot pis~
high pressure steam to return displacer pistons
ton Eiloosely operable in cylinder 69 and hav
53 to their normal position. Displacer pistons 53
ing valve 5?‘ and valve spring 58. All the cham 70 also serve as safety releases to prevent any pres
here 69 are interconnected thru conduit 66 which
sure of steam or liquid in cylinders22 from ever
exceeding high steam pressure.
,
‘may be vented either to outside air or to high
‘7 pressure steam in steam chest 6i! by vent valve 61.
In operation, reciprocation of recipers 20 is ac
companied by rotation of shaft 40 and its asso
Having thus described the construction and op
eration of the invention, it is evident that the ob
75 jects of the invention as stated have been attained
2,406,291
in a reasonable manner.
6
While a speci?c em
bodiment of the invention has been shown and
described, it is understood that changes may be
made in the construction and operation of the
invention without departing from the spirit or
'
ated to open said valves by said shaft and to
close said valves by steam pressure acting onsaid
.
1. In a barrel engine mechanism, a reciprocat
operating mechanism as valve springs.
ing cylinder member having a double wall, the
outer Wall forming a crosshead and the inner wall
forming a cylinder bore, a non-reciprocating pis
.
'7. In a double-acting steamengine of the bar
rel type, a shaft, reciprocatingmembers parallel»
to said shaft, mechanism operably connecting said a
reciprocating members to said'shaft, a casing en~
ton operably received by said cylinder bore,'and
ports in the inner cylinder wall, said ports open
closing said mechanism, an exhaust steam cham
ing axially of said cylinder member intov the space
around said non-reciprocating piston.
axially in concert.
6. In a steam engine, a shaft, cylinders parallel
thereto, inlet valves for admitting steam to said
cylinders, and valve operating mechanism actu
scope of the following claims. v
I claim:
means with the other to compel them to move
ber, and sealing means coacting with said recipro
cating members to prevent the passage of oil or
working medium between said casing and said
chamber, said sealing means sealing between oil at
_
2. In a barrel engine mechanism, ‘a shaft, and
reciprocating cylinder members parallel to said
shaft, each of said cylinder members being
no pressure and exhaust steam pressure.
double-walled and including a cylindrical cross‘
' 8. In asteam engine, a shaft, cylinders parallel
head operably connected to said shaft and a cup. 20 thereto,ja balanced poppet valve for admitting
shaped cylinder mounted in the end of said cross
steam toreach of said cylinders, and valve mech
head with its head and cylindrical walls spaced
anism’ operable by said shaft and including a cam -‘
from the adjacent portions of said crosshead.
3. In an engine mechanism, a shaft, recipro
cating cylinder members operably connected to,
said shaft, and ?xed ‘pistons operably received by
and a cam follower, said cam follower movable by
said cam to open said valve and movable by steam
‘ pressure to‘close said valve.
, 9. In a steam engine, a reciprocating cylinder
said cylinder members, each of said cylinder mem
,rncmber, a non-reciprocating piston operably re
bers being double-walled and including a cylin
ceived by said cylinder. member, a balanced pop
drical crosshead and a cup-shaped cylinder
pet valve having the form ‘of a sleeve coaxially op
mounted in the end of ,saidcrosshead with a cup 30 erable within said piston‘ member, a sleeve mem
shaped closed chamber between said cylinder and
ber Within said’ valve, a piston operable within
said crosshead, said chamber evacuated to dimin
said sleeve member by the difference between
ish heat ?ow from said cylinder to said cross
high steam pressure on one end thereof and com
head.
pression pressure within said cylinder member
4. In a steam engine designed to operate well 35 on‘ the other end thereof. '
' '
under prescribed conditions of high pressure '
10. In a steam ‘engine, a reciprocating cylinder
steam and condenser vacuum, a reciprocating
member, a non-reciprocating piston operably re
cylinder member having a cup-shaped cylinder
‘,ceiVed by said cylinder member, a balanced pop
closed at oneend and open at the other, exhaust
pet valve having the form of a sleeve coaxially
ports at the open end of said cylinder, a non-re 40 operable within said piston member, a ?xed sleeve
ciprocating piston operably received by said cyl
inder with a certain minimum clearance volume
between said piston and the closed end of said
cylinder, an inlet valve coaxial with and oper
ably mounted in said non-reciprocating piston, ‘
said cylinder and said piston and said valve sov
constructed that said clearance volume is axially
scribed.
‘
5. In a double-acting steam engine of the bar
rel type having a shaft, double-ended reciprocat
ing members parallel thereto, and mechanism op
erably connecting said reciprocating members to
able within said sleeve member-for automatically
varying the clearance volume between said‘ cylin
der member and said non-reciprocating piston,
and means for moving said smaller piston to
maintain substantially optimum compression in
said reciprocating cylinder member. '
symmetrical and small enough for optimum com
pression in said engine under said prescribed
conditions, and means movable within said pis
ton for increasing said clearance volume to main
tain substantially optimum compression if or
when operating conditions change for those pre
member within said valve, a smaller piston oper
11. In a steam engine, a reciprocating cylinder
51
member, a non-reciprocating piston operably'.
received by said cylinderlmember, a, balanced
poppet valve coaxially operable within said pis
ton member, a ?xed ‘sleeve member within said
valve, a smaller piston operable within said sleeve
member, one end of said smaller piston engaging
55 the pressure in said cylinder member and the
other end normally engaging high steam pressure,
and manually operable means for changing the
pressure on said other end from high steam pres
said shaft: an inlet valve system at each end of
sure to atmospheric pressure and vice versa to
said engine, means on and rotating with said shaft 60
permit ready adjustment of the position of said
for operating each inlet valve system, and tie rods
parallel to said shaft and connecting one of said
‘ smaller piston within said sleeve member.'
EDWIN. S. HALL.
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