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Патент USA US2406304

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Aug. 20, 1946. I
Filed May 4, ‘1943
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Aug. 20, 1946.
2 2,406,304
Filed May 4, '1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 20, 1946.
Filed May 4, _l943
' 3 Sheets-Sheet 3
M. w.
J'n1/e n {'07- :
?i'i'ornweys. Y
Patented Aug‘. 20, :194-6
' 2,406,304 I‘
René Lucien Levy, Paris, France, assignor to So- ciete
niques S. I. A. M., Geneva, Switzerland
, .
> I» -
v r
. Application May 4, 1943,.‘Serial No. 485,665v
In France June?'l, 1941 ‘ *
'4 Claims. ‘ (o1. nae->152)‘ V." v
This invention ‘relates to vbraking mechanism
of the type use'din-connection with vehicles and
has for its object to provide an improved brake
pipe 25 which goes ‘to a radiator v26. The cir
cular plate .6 is perforated by‘ holes 21 at_.a spot.
diametrically opposed to the exits of. p1pes,_.l8
system wherein ?uid is utilized as a medium
and‘ 25 in the half-crowns I I and I2. ‘
for applying the brakes, the system including a
trolled means for regulating the application ‘of
Pump liquid from reservoir28 by a
pipe 29. .The exit from radiator 25 is made by
‘pipe 30 connected with the lower extremity of
?uid pressure.
liquid reservoir and ' manually operably con
I In {the following description, made by Way of
example, reference is made to the diagrammatic
This regulator comprises a cylindrical body 32‘
which is divided into two chambers‘ 34 and 35 by
drawings attached, in which: -
an interior partition 33.
Fig. 1 is a general View of a braking system
These chambers are
putinto communication .by ori?ce 36 in parti-.
' according to the invention,‘ the ‘ wheel being
tion 33 and controlled by’needle 31. Needle 31;
shown in axial section;
is carried‘ by piston 38 mountedtightly in cylin
v‘Fig. 2 shows, in axial ‘section, a wheel of modi 15 drical body 32. A spiral spring 39 is interposedv
?ed form furnished with a brake. according to
between partition 33 and piston 38. , Needle 3'!
theinvention, wherein the pump is actuated by
has a ?ange 40, and a spring 4|. is interposed.
the rotation of the ‘wheel.’ ‘
between the said .?ange and piston 38. On the,
?ange 40 there is a circular Washer 4|a capable
the circular plate being supposed removed in 20 of cooperating with an annular seat 42 formed
order to show the part with deformable wall; 7
in partition 33. The lower compartment 43,_
Fig. 4 shows, on a larger scale, in axial section,
which is limited by piston 38 in chamber 34, is
half of a. further modi?ed form of. wheel
in communication with reservoir. 28 by a pipe .
Fig. 3 is a, front view of one of the said wheels,‘
equipped with a brake according‘ to the inven
Fig.5 is a front view of this wheel'in section
along line 5—-5 following the direction'of arrow
7‘, .only a quarter of the wheel being shown;
59., The upper compartment45 is connectedby
25 a pipe 46 with a transmitting device 41, which
comprises a cylindrical body 48, ‘wherein may
be displaced a piston 49 providing with the cyl
inder an. annular space. 50. In this annular
' Fig. ,6 shows diagrammatically the device pro
space a tube 5| coming from reservoir 28 termi
vided for the circulation of the. liquid-in. the 30 hates. Piston 49 is pierced by a channel 520a
wheel according to this modi?cation.
pable of puttingin communication the ,annular
Reference is made ?rst to Figs. 1 and.3.> The
wheel I rests on the axis 2:by the intermediary
of bearings 3 and. 4. The pro?le of the wheel
space 50 and chamber 53 in‘vwhich vtube 46
terminates, This communication ' may be in-_:
terruptedby a valve 54 of'which thefstem .55
carries a. rod 56 capable of ‘being displaced in
groove. 51 of piston 48. ‘This piston is engaged
rim is suitable to receive a tyre. On the axis 2"
is ?xed, by a ring 5, a. circular plate 6. Around
this plate, on its margin, are welded, at their
edges, respectively. ‘(-8 and 9—l0, two half
crowns II and I2, for exampleof thin steel.
Facing the half-crown l 21 is disposed braking
material I3 ?xed on the body l4 of the wheel.
Facing the half-crown II is disposed another
braking material l5, ?xed on an annular plate It,
placed in a recess I1 formed also in the body
of wheel I.
In the half-crown I2 is led a pipe I8 con
, nected with the outlet of ‘a pump I9 which is,
for example, of the gear type. On pipe I8_is
mounted, a small hydro-pneumatic accumu
lator 20 constituted by a cylindrical vessel 2| in
which a piston 22 divides a lower chamber 23
?lled with liquid, and an upper chamber 24
charged with a gas’ under pressure. In the
half-crown l I-—at a point situated close to the
discharge of pipe I8 in half-crown l2-is led a
by rod 58 hinged on the brake pedal 59.
. v Theoperation of this system is as follows:
When pedal 59 is depressed, in order to apply
the brake, the?rst phase of the movement closes
communication between reservoir28 and cham
ber 53 by reason ‘of the closing of valve 54.
Simultaneously, according to‘ the invention, in
the course of this ?rst phase, pump l9_is put
4.5 in rotation, for instance by its clutching vwith
the motor of the vehicle.
The liquid which pump I9 sucks from reser
voir 28 is delivered through pipe l8 to half
crown I2, then in half-crown II through holesv
2'7, arrives at the regulator through pipe 25, ‘and
returns to reservoir 28 by tube 60. The ori?ce
36 of partition 33 is of suf?cient diameter to in
surethat‘no notable loss of pressure shall result
at its passage, in course of this ?rst phase of
the movement of. pedal 59, in the, circulation of
. v2,406,304
,and has numerous cooling ribs‘lS. On half
crown ‘H arellugs ‘#9 received in corresponding
the’ liquid.v The liquid is therefore not under
pressure in the half-crowns l l and I2, and wheel
I turns without the half-crowns being in con
tact with the braking material l3 and‘ I5.
recesses Bil provided in projection 69. ' A similar
device is provided on the other side of the wheel,
' When the__ depression ‘of pedal 59 is continued
the needle 3‘l-restricts‘the passage of» the liquid
throughori?’ce" 36'; causing thev pressure to in
When the pressure
in relation
liquid in annular A’
space ‘It! increases, the half-crown“ is applied
.at its bottom 12 against braking material 13,.‘
thus causing the braking. The lugs ‘I9 prevent
pand and come into contact with brake material
I3 and I5; this contact, under pressure, causes 10 the entrainingof half-crown ‘H by the material
.13. The effect of the braking is similar on the
friction which ensures the braking of the v‘vej-i
other side of the wheel. When the pressure falls
hicle. This friction rises in degreeastherde
‘ intheannular space ‘HQ the half-crown ‘H
pression of pedal 59 is continued, thefcl'osin'glof
returned to its position of rest by the'action of
ori?ce 36 becoming more absolutei, The heat
springs 16;
caused by the braking is generated" at the place ‘
crease in half-crowns I‘! and I2 which then ex- '
r The ribs 18' assure the cooling of the liquid
of contact of the half-crowris-E'H and‘IZ "with
the braking materials 13 and I5; by reason of ‘ ' circulating in annular space ‘H! which permits the
7 radiation ‘of the heat caused by the braking.
theconductibility of the half-crowns ill and [2'
and I5 the wheel is protected and the heat does
not penetrate in it excessively. j'I‘he interior
space in half-crowns H and '12 being ?lled con‘
this is not sui'?cient'the liquid‘ issuing, from
annular vspace l9 discharges into, a radiator, as in
, and of the poor conductibility‘ of materials I3
the-embodiments above described.
‘The circulation of the liquid
ay be assuredv
_ i. 7
by the device shown ‘diagrammaticallyron Fig._v6'.'
stantly' by‘ the liquid, this liquid absorbs, the '
> The liquid arrives at the wheel by tube 8| which,
heat which‘ is ‘dissipated intothe atmosphere by
discharges into annular space ‘Ill. Tube 8! is
inclinedin relationto the-mid-plan of "the wheel
‘ means of fradiator. 25'. .The e?lcacy of "the
cooling is such that, with a ‘brake according to,
so that the liquid circulates in the said space in.‘
a well-determined direction; a de?ecting‘shield
the ~invention, the ‘ maximum braking :force ‘may
be applied without excessivejheating of the
82 further prevents the movement of the liquid
brake ‘device and of the wheel; ' '
I If, when the vehicle'is at ‘rest,'the driver’ de 30'. in the opposite direction.’ After having c‘ir‘cu:
' latécl' in the annular space ‘16 _following thefcire
presses‘ pedal'59 to‘ its utmost limit the‘ vehicle
cum'f'er'ence of the wheel 'the‘liqu'id is evacuated , _'
:re'mains' braked. Under this condition the liquid
by tube 83 issuing from thewheel in“the.imme;
remains underpressure' between the‘ partition 33
diate vicinity of the tube‘__8l. ' Theltquid islled‘
rendered‘ fluid ti‘ght'by the cooperation of circular
washer ‘41a and‘ the "tightening ‘ring 42, and on 35 towards tub/e 83by a de?ecting shield’ 84 which I
is solid with ‘end l‘lg‘a part of shield 85 solidwith
the otherjhandris prevented from returning to the
end ‘l2 of half-crown ‘H prevents the passage
reservoir "28 through pipe l8b'y a non-return valve
of the liquid between 'shield'84 and thesaid
6'] ‘situated between pump 19 and the deformable
In the modification according to Figs. 2 and
. az'pump 62 is provided‘ whichis actuated not by
the motor of the vehicle but by wheel I to be
braked. To this end the wheel has a toothed
crown 63 which engageswith a pinion 54 mounted
on the shaft of the pump 62.
,The' inlet. and .
outlet'tubes of thispump, 65 and 66, 'are'for'the
crossing ofv the wheel lodged inside the axle 2.
Inthis modi?cation, during the ?rst phase of the
What I claim vas my invention and desire to
secure by Letters Patent is;
. 1'..In a brake system, hollow expansiblefbrakei
shoes, a ‘reservoir for pressure ?uidrsupply and 7
return connections between saidfshoes and said
reservoir, a power operated pump connected with
the supply connection, a. control valve ' inter-1
posed‘in the return connection, a piston for oper-j .
depression 'of brake pedal ' 55,‘ the ‘pinion’ 64 is
engaged with‘the toothed crown‘63. In this em; 7
ating said control valve‘, means for conducting‘
?uid from said reservoir to said piston, and'means
for varying the pressure ‘of the fluidapplied to‘ '7
bodiment, it may ‘be necessary/to provide a corn~
plem'entary braking device in order'to maintain
the'blocking of the wheels in‘ case of aprolonged
2.,A brakesyStemaSclaimedin claim 1 char~
'acterisedby the-provision’ of ajnon'éreturn valve. 7.
stopping of the'vehicle.
saidpistonto operate-‘said control valve.‘
‘in the supply connection between the ‘pumpialnd
' I
Reference is now made to Figs. 4 and 6 relating 55 thev brake shoes‘ preventing return of ‘the Vfluidr \ I
to another embodiment. In this embodiment
axle 2 of_ the wheel carries on one side of‘ 1111s
X—X a disc 5‘! which terminates, at its periphery
in two concentric projections 68 and ‘69 forming‘.
an annular space ‘19. . In this annular space ‘is
mounted a sliding half-crown of U form in sec
tion ‘formed of‘ ‘thin metal and‘ of I which the
from the shoes to the reservoir. 7
.3. A brake-system as claimed infclaim .1 wherein
said control valve includes means rendered effec;
tive in ‘one plositioniofy ‘said pistonto completely
close passage through‘ said return connection. I
ll; A brake systema's claimed in claim 1 char~
acterised by the provision of a non-return valve . 7.
bottom is situatedin front of. braking material
‘!31carried by wheel I. Two packing rings ‘M
inthe supply connection between thepump and
T2 of the half-crown ‘H and at the other endon
tion of said piston to completely ‘closespa‘ssage '
the brake shoes preventing return of the ?uid,
.- and '15 are placed in the projections 68 and t9. 65 from the shoes to the reservoir, said control valvei V _
including means rendered effective in. one posi
Springs ‘K6 are attached at one end to the bottom
the bottom ‘H' of annular space ‘iii. ' This end,
whichformspart of disc 61,,is preferably convex
through Said return connection.
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