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Патент USA US2406308

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Aug. 20, 1946.>
c. G. VOKES ETAL-
"
'
FILTER
Filed Sept. l, 1_943
, y2,406,308
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ö-sheets-sheet 2 '
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' Attbrney
V Aug. 20, 1946.
>
c. G. voKEs ETAL
2,406,308
FILTER
-
Filed Sept. l. 1945
3 Sheetsf-Sheet 3
, ,2;
` A.
'Ilm-f
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INVENTORS
' 'à ATTORNEY
,
Patented Aug. 20, 1946
2,400,308
UNITED STATES PATENT vOFFICE
íFILTER
VCecil ‘Gordon Vokes and Edward Arthur'Stokes,
ALon'domî‘England; said Stokes assigner to Vokes
",Limited;` London,` England
Application 1september 1, 1943, seria1N0.500,s73
.
uInzGrreatBritain September 17,.,„1942
l7- claims. V(o1. V21o-»164)
1
rinthe specification -of pending application No.
`344,583 (C. G. Vokes) there is described a filter
`in which filtration is maintained in a parallel
circuit which returns iinely lfiltered ,oil Vto a
reservoir or the like, even when back pressure
on less ñne main flow ñltering means has caused
the latter to be automatically -by-passed. The
present invention provides a simple and com
sarily be -completely fluid-tight (though -it will
preferably stop large particles rof dirt or other
impurity) because a certain amount of addi
tional ilow in the lower chamber caused by some
leakage at this'point will help to maintain an
even favourable temperature of the oil in the
ñlter.
'I-‘he filter ñltering unit is of a _ form
which is the subject of a cci-pending applica
pact construction suitable foil' `functioning in
tion, iiled September l, 1943, Serial No. 500,872,
its outlet _being preferably merely ladded _in an
` `-iiuid to be filtered and cleanable by the scrap~
extra length or (possibly) diameter, or both of
ing action of spring knives I5 when relatively
rotated.
such a manner. In its preferred forms the 10 being built up of Ydeeply grooved discs I4 of
>finely porous ceramic material so as to ,provide
Vfiner and'less ñnefiltering means take the form
a lhollow cylinder with deep hollouT peripheral
of ñlter units mounted substantially _co-axially in
ñns giving a substantial area exposed to the`
Aa common casing, the iiner filtering means and
the enclosing ¿shell of whatis substantially `or
exactly one> of the present »standard types of
Turning now specifically to the form of Fig.
l, the less fine unit has at its inlet alguiding
Vokes’ oil ñlters embodying a unit like that of
ltube I6 with ports I_Ga. The tube I5, open at
the main circuit filter shown in the above men
tioned specification. In this invention the IY20 the ends is slidably guided Ain an appropriately
formed part of the header casting, and the ports .
main ñow can by-pass the less ñne iiltering
Ilia therein are closed by the wall of the cast
unit completely when clogging has raised its
ing when the less fine filtering unit is in Anor
mal yoperative position, _that is, when the filter
the ñner unit is intended to remain normally
fixed 'in the parallel circuit (though a safety 25 ing unit is raised as indicated in‘Fig. l. The
¿tube I 6 ‘is ~movable with the less fine filteringk
valve may be used to prevent excessive differ
element 'being preferably welded -or otherwise
ence of pressure when oil or the like is cold and
secured _to the plate 9. Obviously, when under
until its warms up) and appropriate cleaning
conditions Ato be deñned the less fine ñltering
enables it to continue to perform a useful func
element is'lowered, the openings Ißa are, in the
tion almost indefinitely.
movement of the tube I6 in position to establish
Other parts of the invention are embodied in
communication in the interior of the tube It
typical forms shown upon the accompanying
and the space between the `less fine ñltering
drawings, the parts for which a monopoly is de
element and the outlet 2 of the header. When
sired being those delimited by the claims.
In the drawings:
35 the‘back pressure ofthe screen 1 is suñicient to
cause the unit to move against the pressure of
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of one >such
spring I2 the fluid from the header inlet- I
form and
y
y
passes through `the ports Ißa, directly to the
Fig. 2 is a similar View of another vsuch form.
main ñow outlet 'i 2, by-passing the -screen 1.
Fig. 3 is a section on line 3_3 of Fig. '1.
40 The fluid passing to vtheparallel.circuit through
Fig. 4 is a section on line 4_4 of Fig. 2.
the ‘liner ¿unit lenters-a `central rod I'I by Vports
'In each form a header is formed by a cast
I'Ia ywhich are at least a sufficient distance
ing with an inlet connection I and a main ñow
above the bottom of the'less iine unit to avoid
outlet connection Zand a main enclggire com
picking up accumulated dirt or sludge. 'The
-fpleted by a shell or casing 3 secured, by a clamp
ing ring vIl and bolts v5, against joining mate 45 rod I'I passes through the header and is remov
ably ñxed relative thereto against Alongitudinal
rial 6.
ymovement by shoulder I'Ib bearing against the
‘The less ñne filtering vunit is of the Well
back pressure toa predetermined value, while
known form in which an appropriate deeply
header from beneath and removable securing
pleated or star-shaped screen 'I in a _cylinder
Imeans above the‘header. 'The rod il' extends
y8 of perforated metal is held between end plates
9, I0 and carries a joint or joints `II resiliently
lpressed against the header by a spring I2. The
spring I2 -bears against a diaphragm I3 which
longitudinally through the tube I6 and the less
ñne filtering` ‘means said rod being formed,
vrestson a swaged'internal bead 3a inthe shell
:3 :and forms »apartition which need not neces
within the less ñne filtering means with the
ports I'Ia communicating With the Vupper end
of a longitudinal »bore ofthe >rod I'I which opens
55 "through-its lower end. `'The krod I'I carries ‘the
2,406,308
_
3
A 4
A
diaphragm I3 in a groove or by means of spring
ring clips or the like and has a substantial
shoulder I1b and a gland at lßwhere it passes
through the header. It delivers the ñuid to the
is in parallel circuit, because the oil entering
`the heater is directed through the two units
in parallelism. That is, a main now circuit
through the coarser unit and a parallel flow cir
`engage a complementary part of a vspider I9
cuit through ports I'la. The oil through the
coarser filter reaches outlet 2 while the oil
through the ñner filter reaches outlet 22.~
forming part of the structure that carries the
Turning >,next to the speciñc form of Fig. 2,
space beneath the diaphragm and has a screw
driver `or squared or other suitable lower end to'
spring knives I5. Rotation of the rod I'lv by
means of atommy-bar 2i! or other operating
member outside the filter enclosure thus pe
- the inlet to the less fine unit _is through> ports
9a from a substantially annular space4 la in the
header. A central tube 33 connects the end
riodically cleans and scrapes away asmall sur- ' `plates 9 and I0 and yby-passing takes place di- l
face layer of the material of the grooved discs
f rectly from the space la to the main flow outlet
2 when clogging of the screen ‘l represents the
i4. Fluid passing through the Ífinely porousv
predetermined back pressure. The unit is mov
material of the discs'enters the hollow clamp
ing bolt 2I by ports 2Ia and emerges at `the
outlet 22.
e
The clamping bolt is used to mount
‘
the finer filtering unit‘and holds >the discs I4
Y assembled between plates 2‘3.
When oil is cold
Y able on the fixed hollow central rod I1 4which
carries the diaphragm YI3 and feeds the space
below the diaphragm withfluid from the inlet
i by passages Ib.
Y
'
The finer unit is of similar construction to
>a very considerable back pressure is exerted by 20
the material ofthe discs I4V even though the
that shown in Fig. 1, but is rotatable by rotat
surface is kept clean ¿by the knives and may
crush or damage them. A safety valve consist
ing the hollow clamping bolt 2‘I with packing
at 2lb under its nut or head 2! c by tommy bar
20 or the like. A iixed plug 3| in the bottom of
' ing of ball 24 and spring 25 may therefore be
Y ñtted to limit the diiïerence between external 25 the casing aiTords a gland at 32 and abottom v
and internal pressure. A restriction aty 2| b in
outlet at 22 for the finely filtered fluid: it sup
the lower part of the‘bore of the hollow bolt 2l
ports the washer 33 on which the filter unit ro
tates. The knife-carrying structure is pre
causes the internal pressure to build up `and
prevents mere by-passing when such conditions
vented irom rotating by lugs 34 secured in the
obtain. The restriction 2lb is not designed to 30 casing 3. The tube I6 of Fig.. 1 *andl the joint
prevent passage therethrough, but .is partícu
members Il of Figs'. 1 and 2 obviously serve as
larly formed to prevent more than a limited
valves for providing direct flow from the inlet
flow. Thus, if the normal oil pressure when the
to the outlet of the header when the less-fine
oil is hot should be, for example, 10 lbs. per sq.
filter is inoperative. While the term “coarse”
in., such pressure may approximate 50 lbs per 35 and “fine” has been applied to the filtering ele
sqfin. when the` oil is cold. The restriction 2lb
ments in the claims, it will be understood that
the terms are used simply to distinguish the two y
is formed to allow the internal pressure to build
up to, in the example quoted, 40 lbs. per sq. in.,
and are relative only. l
so that the walls of the discs I4 are subjected
only Yto a diiîe'rence of pressure, outside and in 40
1. In a filter, a generally cylindrical casing
' side, of approximately 10 lbs. per sq. in. When
having a central axis and a closed lower end, Va
the oil is hot and the viscosity low, the ball 24
header closing the upper end of said casing, said
- will be seated and the effect of the restriction
header having internal wallY means defining Va .
to flow of 2lb will be so small as to be negligible.
In operation the ñuid enters the apparatus
at the inlet I and if the oil is cold it may for
a short time by-pass 4the less. fine filtering unit.
While ordinarily the oil is not at a temperature
to compel this by-pass, yit will under these con
chamber, there being an inlet in said header ,in ’
communication with said chamber, thereV also
being an outlet in saidA header exteriorly of said
chambena partition in said casing forming ñrst
and second compartments spaced along said
axis, a coarse ñltering» element< in said first
ditions, move the ball 24k so thatrthe flow of oil ._
compartment and having a iirstrclosedrend hav
into the finer unit, through the walls of that
"ing an opening therein, a second/ and imperio
Vunit through its exterior Vwalls is» relatively
rate end remote fromY said wall and perfcrate
small and there will be some delivery or `by-V
side walls, resilient means between said second
passing through the restriction 2lb. As the oil
end and partition yieldingly urging said ñrst
warms up, ball 24 returns to its seat, and :the
end of said coarse filtering element into fluid
packing ring II of the coarser unit moves to its
tight engagement with the end of said chamber
seating position, assuming that the' coarser unit
Awall means, whereby ñuid passes from said in
has been depressed at all in the initial ñow of
let to said chamber, thence through the opening
the cold oil. The parts are then in the posi
in the iirst end of said coarse ñltering element
tion shown in Fig. 1 and function normally for 60 to the interiorv of the same and through said
' filtering purposes. When the filter screen 'I'is
perforate side wall to said outlet, a fine ñltering
choked or clogged to the predetermined extent
element in said second compartment having an
the coarser unit moves down against the> tension
of spring I2. This does not reduce the oil pres
sure on the liner unit, except by thel amount of .
the predetermined back pressure, say 10% of
the total, since the finer unit is in circuit to the
bearings or other`point of lubrication applica
tion. The ñner unit continues to function and
passes substantially its full quota as long as
it is >kept substantially clean by the scrapingV
operation described. The inlet pressure will
not suflice to lift the ball 24 so long as the oil
internal passage, a second outlet in the lower
end of said casing-and means including a tube
extending axially through the second end ofy said
coarse filtering element and partition and form
ing a passageway to said second compartment
and the exterior of said fine filtering element,
`the interior passage of said fine «ñltering ele
ment having means providing communication
with said second outlet.
Y
'
2. In a ñlter, a» generally cylindrical casing
having a central axis and closed ends, a header
is hot. Y It will, of course, be obvious that ‘the
closing the upper end of said casing, said header
ñow of oil through _the‘coarser'and finer units 75 having an internal walll means coaxial of' said
2,406,308
5
6 Y
and second compartments spaced along said
axis and defining a chamber, there being an in
let in said header in communication with said
chamber, there also being an outlet in said header
from the exterior of said chamber, a partition in
said casing forming upper and lower compart
ments spaced along said axis, a coarse filtering
axis, a coarse filtering element in said first com
partment and having a first end having an open
ing axially thereof, a second and imperforate end
remote from said wall, and perforate side Walls,
ment having spaced imperforate closed ends and
filtering material extending between and periph
resilient means between said second end and
partition yieldingly urging said first end of said '
coarse ñltering element into fluid-tight engage
ment with the end of said chamber wall means,
whereby fluid normally passes from said inlet, to
said chamber through said' opening, thence to
said space interiorly of said filter and through
the same to said outlet in the lower compart
ment, a fine filtering element in said lower com-A
partment having an internal passage in `commu
nication with said second outlet and a tube hav
lower end of said casing, andmeans including
an open-ended tube extending axially through
the second end of said coarse filtering element
and partition to said second compartment, said
fine filtering element having means providing
communication with said second outlet.
5. In a filter, a generally cylindrical casing
element in said upper compartment, said _ele- »
erally of said ends to denne an internal space, 10 whereby fluid passes from vsaid inlet to said
chamber, thence through the opening in the first
one of said ends having an opening therein in
end of said coarse filtering element to- the inte
communication with said inlet, resilient means
rior of the same and through said perforate side
yieldingly urging said coarse filtering element so
walls to said outlet, a fine filtering element in
that its upper end is in huid-tight engagement y
with the lower end of said internalv wall means, 15 said second compartment, a second outlet in the
having a central axis and a closed lower end, a
header closing the upper end of said casing, said
filtering element and said partition into the 25 header having internal wall means defining a
chamber, there being an inlet in said header in
header, means providing a passageway from the
ing one end in the lower compartment and ex
tending centrally through the ends of saidA coarse
communication With said chamber, there also
being an outlet in said header exteriorly of said
chamber, a partition in said 'casing forming first
chamber communicating with the other end of
said tube, said coarse filtering element movable
axially on and along said tube in response to a
predetermined pressure in said chamber, to place 30 and seco-nd compartments spaced along said axis,
a coarse filtering element in said ñrst compart
ment and having a first closed end having an
said inlet and first outlet in direct communica
tion about the end of said wall means.
Y
casing having a central axis, one end of said cas
opening therein, a second and imperforate end
remote from said wall arid perforate side walls,
ing having an internal wall means extending
about said axis to form a chamber, there being
an inlet in said end leading to said chamber and
tition yieldingly urging said first end of said
coarse filtering element into fluid-tight engage
3. A filter comprising a generally cylindrical
an outlet from said end exteriorly of said cham
I ber, a partition dividing said casing into first and
resilient means between said second end and par
ment with the end of said chamber Wall means, Y
. whereby fluid passes from >said inlet to said
second compartments, spaced along said axis, a 40 chamber, thence through the opening in the'first>
end-of-said coarse filtering element to the -inte
coarse filter in said first compartment,'said fil-„
rior of the same and thro-ugh said perforate side
ter having spaced imperforate end walls and fil
wall to said outlet, a ñne filtering element in said
-tering material extending peripherally thereof`
second compartment having an internal passage»
to define a space internally thereof, spring means
between said partition and the adjacent end .wall 45 a second outlet in the lower end of said casing,
of said coarse filter, urging the other wall of said Y and means forming a passageway from the in
`terior o'f saidA coarse filtering element to said
?lter into fiuid~tight engagement with the end
lower compartment, whereby a portion of the
of said chamber vwall means, there being an
fiuid entering said coarse filtering element passes
opening in said adjacent end to the interior of
said coarse filter, said filter being axially trans 50 to said lower compartment, thence through said
fine filtering element to said second outlet.
latable against the action of said spring means,
by and in response to a predetermined fluid pres
sure in said chamber to form a direct passage be
tween said inlet and outlet about the end of said ,
6. A filter as claimed in claim l, said fine fil
tering element comprising a cylindrical filtering
body, means mounting said body with its axis co
internal wall means, a second outlet in the other 55 incident with said central axis, there being’a plu
end of said casing, a fine filtering element in said -
second chamber having means internally there
of in communication with said second outlet, and
means forming a passageway axially of said cas
rality _of circumferential axially-spaced grooves
in said body, a plurality of scrapers each fitting
a respective groove in said filtering body, and
means including said tube operable from the eX
ing through the lower Wall ofV said coarse filter 60 terior of said casing, for rotating said scrapers
as a unit to cause them to traverse said grooves
ing element and said partition to said second
and clean the same.
compartment, said fine filtering element includ
7. A filter as claimed in claim 2, said fine filter
ing a normally closed valve in said internal
ing element comprising a generally cylindrical
means adapted to open in response to a predeter
mined pressure in said second compartment to 65 filter body, coaxial of said casing and having ax
ially-spaced, circumferential grooves, a pluralityv
by-pass fluid directly from said second compart
of Scrapers flxedly mounted in said lower com
ment to said second outlet.
partment, eachl engaging within a respective
4. In a filter, a generally cylindrical casing
groove, and means operable from the exterior of
having a central axis and a closed lower end, a
header closing the upper end of said casing, said 70 said casing toV rotate said filter body to cause said
scraper to traverse its groove and clean the same.
header having internal wall means defining a
chamber, there being an inlet in said header in
CECIL ’G'oRDoN1 voKEs.
communication with said chamber, there also be
y EDWARD ARTHUR s'roxEs.v
ing an outlet in said header exteriorly of said
chamber, a partition in said casing forming first 75
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