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Патент USA US2406318

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Aug. 27, 1946;
P, H, BWE
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SUPERVISORY
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APPARATUS
Original Filed March 4, 1941
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72,406,318
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WITNESSES:
INVENTOR
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Parz‘erHBraae.
BY
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ATTORNE
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>Aug. 27, 1946.
P. H. BRACE
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" 2,406,318 ‘
SUPERVISOR? APPARATUS‘
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Original Filed March 4, 1941 ' 42 Sheets-‘Sheet 2
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VINVENTOR
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Porter /-/’.' B71266’.
BY
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ATTORNEY
2,406,318
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,318
SUPERVISORY APPARATUS
Porter H. Brace, Forest Hills, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Original application March 4, 1941, Serial No.
381,672. Divided and this application Decem
ber 3, 1942, Serial No. 467,731
5 Claims.
(CI. 88-14)
2
1
This invention relates to devices useful for the
control of metallurgical processes, and more par
the optical system cooperating with a photo-cell;
and,
Fig. 6 illustrates the pattern obtained in ac
cordance with the operation of the arrangement
ticularly to supervisory apparatus for indicating
the progress of chemical reactions due to com
bustion at high temperatures.
,
This is a division of my Patent 2,339,754 issued
January 25, 1944. This application is directed
toward speci?c embodiments for the control of
metallurgical processes described in the original
patent‘ above-identi?ed.
.
rate of change of the radiation incident on a
point of observation, e. g. a slit at the focus of
shown in Fig. 5.
In metallurgical operations involving acceler
ated oxidation reactions, for example, in com
v10
The primary object of this invention is to
utilize the radiation properties accompanying
bustion processes involving high temperatures,
the radiations from the ?ames of gaseous or
solid products are frequently depended upon as
a means for estimating the progress of the re
combustion for indicating the progress of the
action in order to decide upon the measures for
combustion process.
controlling the process. ‘For example, inv produc
15
Another object of the invention is to analyze
ing steel by means of’ the Bessemer converter, it
the combustion process by means of the radia
is the practice'to depend upon the trained eye of
tion in such manner as to produce an instantan
the individual in charge of the control of the
eous visual indication proportional to the in
operation. Very accurate timing is necessary to
tensity of the radiation and at the same time
maintain satisfactory uniformity in the product
provide an indication of a standard radiation for V20 ‘and the inevitable human error frequently leads
comparative observance.
’ to so-called “off heats” resulting in considerable
A further object of the invention is to produce
economic losses. In’ accordance with the inven
visual indication at a rate higher than the time
tion herein described a continuous indication can
constant of the persistence of vision in rapid suc
be effected of the changing distribution of the
cession of the radiation properties of a radiating
radiation from the ?ame of a converter.
source including its spectral components and the
Referring to Fig. 1, a Bessemer converter -| is
rate of change of the radiation received at an
schematically indicated, the ?ame of which emits
observation point at any instant.
Another object of the invention is to provide
‘an apparatus for generating a series of electrical
impulses proportional to the radiation character
istics and spectral components of the radiation
to be analyzed and proportional to the radiation
of a standard source, and utilizing said impulses
in a predetermined order and sequence of time
to form a pattern onthe screen of a cathode ray
oscilloscope.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
from the following description of the invention
pointed out in particularity by the appended "
claims and taken in connection with the accom
panying drawings in which:
Figure 1 is a schematic view of one embodi
visible, infrared and ultraviolet radiations. These
‘radiations are passed through an optical system
indicated by the lens 2 and through a suitable
diaphragm 3 and are directed upon a second lens
4 which focuses the beam on a photo-cell 5. The
anode and cathode elements ii and 1, respectively
of the cell 5 are connected to the vertical sweep
circuit of a cathode ray oscilloscope '21.
Oscilloscopes of this type are standard instru
ments for comparing various properties of alter
nating currents and serve as a useful tool in the
?elds of research and industry. The invention
does not concern itself with the particular type
of oscilloscope and therefore its mechanical or
electrical features need ‘not be described in de
tail. It is to be understood that the oscilloscope
contains elements for producing an adjustable
linear time axis for the horizontal sweep of the
cathode ray and that the currents to be traced
cause Vertical movement of the cathode ray.
A scanning mechanism comprising a series of
ment of an apparatus for analyzing the general
radiation of a flame;
Fig. 2 is a modi?ed arrangement for analyzing
the spectral radiation of a ?ame;
‘Fig. 3 shows the resultant pattern in accord
ance with the operation of the embodiment
50 alternating light ?ltering elements 8, and opaque
shown in Fig. 1;
members 9 is interposed between the diaphragm
Fig. 4 illustrates the pattern resultant from the
3 and the lens 4. The ?lter members and the
operation of the arrangement of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5' is a schematic view of the apparatus for
analyzing simultaneously the total radiation
characteristics, the spectral radiation, and the
opaque members are so arranged as ‘to form a
revolving drum Which maybe roated at a uni
iorm speed by the motor I‘il through suitable
3
2,406,318
gearing. In order to synchronize the sweep of
the oscilloscope with the rotation of the scanning
4
spectral analysis of a chosen portion of the spec
trum of a ?ame. Greater discrimination may be
mechanism, a small permanent magnet I! is car
obtained through the use of suitable prisms or
ried thereby and is arranged to cooperate with
an inductance coil I2 to deliver a voltage pulse UK gratings to develop the “line” spectrum of the ra
diation. By this is meant the successive viewing
to the sweep control of the oscilloscope on each
of the spectral lines of the ?ame as they are de
revolution of the scanning mechanism.
veloped by a refracting prism, diffraction grating
The opaque members 9 acting as shutters for
or equivalent optical element. A different type
the light from the radiation of the ?ame, carry
of scanning system is employed for this purpose
re?ecting surfaces l3, which are at such an angle 10
as shown in Fig. 2. Radiation from the con
as to re?ect upon the photo-cell 5 the radiation
verter ?ame is focused on a slit :0 by a suitable
from a standard source shown here by the lamp
optical system represented here by the lens 2!.
M, the illumination of which is focused by means
The light is focused by another lens 22 upon a
of the lens l5 upon the re?ecting surfaces when
one of them obstructs the opening of the dia 15 refracting prism 23, from which it is directed on
the scanning mechanism 34. The latter consists
phragm 3. The illumination is arranged by
of a series of re?ecting surfaces 25 having a cer
proper physical placement of the light source M
tain angular position. Alternating with these
in such manner that an opaque member 9 will
surfaces are re?ecting surfaces 25 which have a
cut off the light beam when a ?ltering element 8
is directly opposite the opening of the diaphragm 20 different angular position for the purpose which
shall be described hereinafter. By means of the
3. The number of opaque members 9 around the
prism 23 the light is broken up into its spectrum
circular support is so arranged that Whenever a
and is then thrown upon a light gate 28 behind
?ltering element is placed directly opposite the
which is a photo-electric cell 5. The output of
opening in the diaphragm 3, an opaque member
the latter is connected to the vertical de?ecting
‘ cuts oil’ the light from the source M. On the
25 circuit of a cathode ray oscilloscope in the same
other hand, whenever an opaque member 9 is di
rectly opposite the opening in the diaphragm 3
and thereby cuts off the light entering from the
.lens 2, a ?ltering element 8 will be so positioned
that light from the source l4 must pass there
through. The light beam passing through the
?lter 8 being directed to the center of the open—
ing in the diaphragm 3 encounters a re?ector sur
face I3 from which it is then re?ected and di
rected through the lens 4 onto the photo-cell 57.
As the drum revolves the next instant, a ?ltering
member will take the place of the opaque member
before the opening in the diaphragm 3, and at
manner as shown in Fig. 1. An ampli?er It may
be interposed between thephoto-cell 5 and the
oscillograph 21 if the output of the photo-cell
should not be of su?icient magnitude to energize
the'oscilloscope. The rotation of the scanning
mechanism. by the motor In causes the spectral
radiation to sweep across the opening of the light
gate 28 every time one of the re?ecting surfaces
25 is in proper alignment therewith. Thus the ra
35 diation reaching the photo-cell varies with time
during the movement of the spectrum across the
opening of the light gate and in such a manner
that it is dependent upon thespectral distribu
the same time an opaque member 9 will take the
place of the ?lter member 8 before the lens l5 40 tion of the radiation. The alternate re?ectors 26
of the scanning mechanism are so positioned that
and thereby cut off the light from the source M.
they de?ect the spectrum away from the light
It is clearly seen that in alternate succession the
gate while re?ecting the light from a standard
photo-cell will be energized from the light source
source
shown here by the lamp M in cooperation
to be analyzed and the standard source l4. Each
with the lens l5 upon the light gate as the scan
of the light ‘?ltering elements 8, has different pre 45 ning
mechanism rotates.
determined spectral transmittance and they are
The timing of the oscilloscope sweep is con
so arranged that as the scanning mechanism ro
trolled as in Fig. 1 by a series of permanent mag
tates each successive ?lter progressively com
nets “ and inductance l2 so that the oscilloscope
pletes the desired spectrum.
In the operation of the, apparatus abovede 50 sweep returns to its starting point after the pas
sage of each pair of de?ecting surfaces. The
scribed when the scanning mechanism is rotating
result is that the oscilloscope receives the series
the photo-cell receives interrupted illumination
of impulses from the photo-cell evoked altere
whose magnitudes depend upon the intensity of
nately
by the light from the standard source and
the radiation of the ?ame and the transmission
coel?cients of the ?lters. The photo-cell also 55 the radiation from the converter ?ame. The
resultant pattern on the oscilloscope screen will
receives a series of impulses originating from the
be of the type shown in Fig. 4 where the portion
standard source I4 in alternate succession. This
A represents a steady de?ection due to the stand
results in a pattern on the oscilloscope screen l6
ard radiation and the portion B a variable de?ec
as shown in Fig. 3 where the series of de?ections
N of the cathode ray beam diifer in amplitude al 60 tion due to the passage of successive spectral
regions of the ?ame radiation across the light
ternatingly from a series of de?ections O. The
gate. In the operation the oscilloscope sensi
former are due to the energization of the photo
tivity is to be adjusted to keep the de?ection due
cell from the radiation source to be analyzed and
to the standard radiation at some predetermined
the latter from the constant source [4. For the
purpose of comparison the sensitivity of the oscil 65 amplitude value as indicated by the mark “C.”
loscope may be adjusted by the control I’! until
the de?ections due to the standard radiation
It frequently happens that signi?cant lines of
the spectrum are obscured by general radiation‘
which gives a more or less continuous background
reach some predetermined amplitude which is in
of high intensity. Such radiation might arise
dicated by the mark Q. The standard source l4
may conveniently be a tungsten ?lament lamp 70 from incandescent solid particles in suspension
in the ?ame gases. In order to separate the lines
with means for accurately measuring and adjust
from the continuous background, and provide a
ing the ?lament current. The motor I0 for driv
?exible arrangement in which the general radia
ing the scanning mechanism should have a rea
tion and the spectral lines can be simultaneously
sonably constant speed.
7
The above arrangement provides Qontinuous 75 observed, together with some indication of the
progress of reaction, the arrangement shown in
2,406,318
{5 can be ;utilized. :By -.this :modi?cation -,of
,the ‘invention the 1fol~lowingwsequence =:of ‘opera
:46, the; stationary contacts 'of the switch~43, and
. conductors 1-48 r and 41 to the input of the'oscil
loscope.
:The' operation is repeated ‘in: uniform‘v sequence,
and [the resultant ;_pattern {on the oscilloscope
tion will take place — automatically:
: 1. ‘One 1- complete sweep of the 1 oscilloscope ~re
.cords the'illumination from .a standard source;
.2. The-next sweep records-the “spectral”'~var
screen .will ‘be as shown in
iation ‘of the ‘total. radiation zfromthe .fiame ras
of :radiation. reachingthenphotoecell ‘slit' andi-thus
serves :to emphasize :spectral "lines ‘with :respect
to'the general background.
6, comprising
threedistinctiw'e cathode ray-sweeplines-D being
arwhole.
>3..'A ‘third sweep records the rate of :change
6
the connected directlythrough-conductors 45:.an'd
that- of the :radiation of .the standard "source, .E
10 a recordof the ispectralclines .of the general radia
Radiation from’ thesource shown herein .as'rthe
:?ame .‘of pa Bessemer converter 5| vis ‘focused aby
-tion,~and F, ;a recordof the traterof *change :of
, the radiation when "the transformer is tin-.opera
“tion.
TI‘ claim-as my invention: 7
‘.1. ‘Ina ‘deviceforranlyzing ‘combustion processes
meansofj'lens‘ 2 onra spectroscope l8 ‘ from 'which 15 by means > of :the :-radiationucharacteristics- of ;the
‘the dispersed light emerges andrisidirecteld rupon
‘a scanning mechanism comprising :a ‘polyhedral
x?arne, means :for- dispersing said irradiation to io'b
,mirror ‘.2 9 ‘ having ‘two identical facets :38 and :30’
-; and another facets l disposed in; a differentrangu
vrotating polyhedral mirror having
tain the spectral ‘ distribution gof said :?ame, 1a
'iseriesxof
facets, at least one at :a certain angular position
.lar position. Themirror'iB:is-rdrivenby a motor 20 and ‘others . at a differentiangular -_positi'on,ra.ilight
'I'Uby ‘means of gears '34 and '35. The, gear drive
.is merely for the purpose .of illustration vand
other suitable driving anechanisms may the em
ployed. Another. gear B?similar in.size<~to gear
- gate, a ; photo-electric cell cooperating'therewith,
meansincluding said dispersing means for direct
ing the spectral radiation _'of : said‘v ?ame-uponi'one
set of f acets-and therefrom ,-.uponisaid light gate,
-'35 is in mesh with the latter :and rotates a cam 25 a source ‘of constant radiation of .knownwalue,
31 upon which ride the rollers :38, '39 and-4B each
actuating a switch M, 243 and "42, respectively.
vTillie“moving ‘contacts of ‘the switches M, Aland
=43 ‘are connected :in parallel by 'means ofwon
.ductors ‘45 and ‘45 ‘and :connect ito .the output of
.the photo-cell :5 fthrough a suitable ampli?er 1| 9.
The stationary .contactsqof the .iswitchestl and
43 are connected in parallel by means of con
,ductors (4:1 {and :48 iand'connect to the input cir
cuitiof the oscilloscope 1 ~ and also to the sec
ondarywinding 49 of a transformer 59 the pri
mary VJiI'IdiIlQ‘I-?l .of'which is connected to the
stationary contacts of the switch 6.2.
The synchronization of the oscilloscope sweep
is effected as previously described by means of
magnets H carried by the gear 35 cooperating
with inductance coil l2. The facets 30 and 38'
of the mirror 29 are so arranged that the light
from the spectroscope i8 is re?ected thereby
upon the light gate 28 behind which is the photo
cell 5, whereas the facet 3| is in such angular
position that it re?ects the light from the stand
ard source l4 focused by the lens I5 upon the
light gate 28.
means ' forv directing said» lastqnentioned.‘radiation
uponsaid other'set' of‘facets andtherefrom upon
said ~:light gate whereby the vrotation :of :‘said
mirror causes energization‘of'tsaid -cell‘insuc
cession at rapidly ,Jrecurring ‘intervals "in ‘accord
ance with " the ‘spectral :distribution of isaidti?ame
and in accordance with the radiation .ofcsaid
source, ‘means :forindicating. the 'relativeirma'g
.nitudes of the currents ‘generated ‘by’s-saiid cell
comprising» a 303113110216‘ ray zoscilloscope: and-means
forsynchronizing the sweep of said oscilloscope
with the movement of said mirror.
2. In an apparatus for analyzing combustion
processes by means of the radiation character
istics of the ?ame, an optical system for dis
persing the radiation into its elementary spec
trum, a rotating polyhedral mirror having at least
two consecutive re?ecting surfaces at a certain
angular position and another surface at a dif
ferent angular position, a light gate, a photo
electric cell cooperating therewith, said optical
system, said light gate and said two consecutive
re?ecting surfaces being so related that the rota
tion of said mirror causes energization of said
The mirror 29 is so geared to the cam 37 that 50 photocell by action of each of said two consecu
the switches 41, 42 and 43 are closed in succes
tive re?ecting surfaces through said gate by suc
sion during the intervals when the photo-cell is
illuminated. In Fig. 5 the position illustrates the
instant when the record of the general radiation
cessive wave lengths of the spectral radiation of
said ?ame in uniform time sequence, a source of
standard radiation, means for causing said last
55
of the flame is being indicated, the facet 3i]
mentioned radiation to be re?ected from said sur
sweeping over the light gate, and the switch 4!
face having a different angular position upon said
being closed. With the rotation as indicated by
gate and thereby energizing said 0911' after suc
the arrow the next event will be the indication
cessive energizations from said spectral radiation,
of the spectral lines as distinguished from the
a cathode ray oscilloscope, a circuit interconnect
general radiation. The radiation from the spec' 60 ing the output of said cell with the input of said
troscope will be re?ected by the facet 39' of the
oscilloscope means for synchronizing the rotation
mirror 23 While the cam 31 will have closed the
of said mirror with the linear sweep of said oscil
switch 42 so that the impulse from the photo
loscope, and means included in said circuit for
electric cell 5 will be transmitted to the cathode
changing the output current of said photo-cell
65
ray tube through the transformer 59. The trans
during the time interval when one of said con
former, due to its characteristics, will develop
secutive re?ecting surfaces transmits radiation to
signals which are proportional to the rate of
said cell to vary said current in proportion with
change of the radiation at any instant rather
the rate of change of intensity of successive wave
than to its intensity. As the rotation continues
lengths of said spectral radiation.
the next occurrence is that the facet 3| is placed 70
3. In an apparatus for analyzing combustion
in operative relation between the light gate 28
and the source M, sweeping the light gate by the
standard radiation. At this time the switch 43
is in the closed position whereas switches 42 and
4| are open. The output of the photo-cell 5 will 75
processes by means of the radiation character- ‘
istics of the ?ame, an optical system for dis
persing the radiation into its elementary spec
trum, a rotating polyhedral mirror having at
7
2,406,318
8
least twov consecutive re?ecting surfaces at a
‘ re?ecting surfaces being so related that the rota
tion of said mirror‘ causes energization of 'sair
photo-cell by action of each of said two consecu
certain angular position and another surface at a
different angular position, a light gate, a photo
electric cell cooperating therewith, said optical
tive re?ecting surfaces through said gate by suc
system, said light gate and said two consecutive ,.
reflecting surfaces being so related that the rota
'
tion of said mirror causes energization of said
photo-cell by action of each of said two consecu
’ tive re?ecting surfaces through said gate by suc
cessive wave lengths of the spectral radiation of. Pd O
said ?ame in uniform time sequence, a source of
> standard radiation, means for causing said last
mentioned radiation toybe re?ected from‘said
cessive wave lengths of the spectral radiation oi
said ?ame in uniform time sequence, a source 01
standard radiation, means for causing said last
mentioned radiation to be re?ected from said sur
face having a di?erent angular position upon said
gate and thereby energizing said cell after suc
cessive energizations from said spectral radiation,
a cathode ray oscilloscope, a circuit comprising
surface having a different angular position upon
means having an output voltage responsive to the
‘ said gate and thereby energizing said cell after
successive energizations from said spectral radia
tion, a cathode ray oscilloscope, a circuit inter
plurality of switching means conjointly operable
rate of change of input current thereto and a
with the rotation of said mirror for connecting
during the sweep interval of one of said consecu
ti've surfaces the output of said cell directly with
' of said oscilloscope, means for synchronizing the
the input of said oscilloscope and for interposing
' rotation of said mirror with the linear sweep of 20
at the sweep interval of said next consecutive sur
said oscilloscope, and means comprising a trans—
face said means having an output Voltage respon
. former for changing the output current of said
sive to ‘the rate of change of input current thereto
photorcell during the time interval when one of
between the output of said cell and said oscillo
said ' consecutive re?ecting surfaces transmits
connecting the output of said cell with the input
radiation to said cell to vary said current in pro- “ ' scope and for restoring said direct connection at
the sweep interval of said surface having dif
ferent angular position.
portion with the rate of change'ofv intensity of
successive wave lengths of said spectral radiation.
4. In an apparatus for analyzing combustion
processes by means of the radiation character
istics of the ?ame, an optical system for dis
persing the radiation into its elementary spec
trum, a rotating polyhedral mirror having at least
two consecutive re?ecting‘ surfaces at a certain
processes by means of radiation characteristics,
an optical system adapted to transmit radiation
along a path which embodies means for dispers
ing radiation into a spectrum beam, a source of
standard radiation, a radiation-responsive device
electric cell cooperating therewith, said optical
and said beam to be swept across said‘ device.
5. In an apparatus for analyzing combustion
~ in said path and means for alternately causing
angular position and another surface at a dif
ferent angular position, a light gate, a photo- ; radiation from said source to strike said device
system, said light gate and said two consecutive
PORTER H. BRACE. ‘
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