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2,406,319
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,400,319
_
msomrsn ELECTRICAL oonnuc'ron
Lester A. Broolm, Stamford, Vt., and Mathew Naz
aewski, Adams, Mass, assignors to Sprague
Electric Company, North Adams, Mass., a cor
poration of Massachusetts
No Drawing. Application November 19, 1943,
Serial No. 510,918
10 Claims. (Cl. 117—128.4)
2
1 .
.
electric compounds which possess high dielectric
constants, low electrical losses, high resistance to
moisture transmission and relatively high soften
ing points. Another object is to produce new
polymers of dichloro-styrenes, in which the chlo
This invention relates to electrical conductors
insulated with improved dielectric compositions
containing polymers of halogenated styrene and
more particularly refers to compositions contain
ing certain of said polymers and processes for
their production and use.
It is well known that the polymer of styrene
exhibits to a certain extent desirable electrical
properties, in particular a low electrical loss,
which results in a low power factor in an electrical 10
rine atoms are in positions on the nucleus ortho
to each other.
An additional object is to produce
new ?uorinated styrene compounds.‘ Still an
other object is to produce new ?uoro-chloro
styrene compounds. These and additional objects
will become apparent from a consideration of the
condenser containing polystyrene as the dielectric
following description and claims.
material. The dielectric constant for this mate
In accordance with this invention, certain
rial is not high, being about 2.5.
halogenated styrenes. particularly ?uorinated
However, styrene in its polymerized form pos
sesses several undesirable characteristics. One 15 and/or chlorinated styrenes, are polymerized and
the products used as dielectric compositions. In
of these is its relatively low softening point. It
is softened at temperatures in the neighborhood
of 75° C.
When used as a dielectric material in
electrical condensers, either as a ?lm or as an
impregnant, this low softening point is undesir
able since the operating temperature or more
a more restricted sense this invention is con
cerned with ortho-dlchloro-, -dl-iluor- and/or
-chlor-?uor styrene, polymerized and used as di
20 electrics with or without the addition of ?llers,
plasticizers, hardeners, inhibitors, accelerators
and/or other polymerization additives. In its
preferred embodiment the invention is concerned
with the foregoing compounds and/or mixtures
polystyrene to soften and ?ow. This ?ow may be
attributed to the fact that most rolled or stacked 25 thereof wherein the halogen groups are substi
tuted on the 3- and 4-positions in the styrene
condensers are under compression and the dielec
nucleus. The invention also pertains to condens
trio, if soft or liquid, tends to "squeeze out” from
particularly the “hot-spot" temperature may well
exceed its softening temperature, causing the
ers, coated electrical conductors and other elec
trical devices containing the foregoing and re
or weak spots which may subsequently lead to
sparking, corona and breakdown of the condenser. 30 lated polymers as the sole or partial component
of their dielectric compositions. Likewise, it is
Another of the undesirable characteristics of
directed to processes for producing the foregoing
polystyrene is the action of moisture thereon.
between the metal foils. This action causes bare
While polystyrene will not itself absorb moisture, ‘
monomeric materials,
it will transmit moisture from one point to an
other quite readily. If used in an electrical con
denser, the presence of moisture between the
metal electrodes will cause an undesirable in
crease in power factor. Further, the presence of
pounds exhibit surprisingly superior electrical
It has been found that among the halogenated
monomeric styrene derivatives, certain com
properties when in the polymerized form. These
are 3:4 dichloro-styrene, 3:4 dlfiuoro-styrene, 3
chloro-‘l-?uoro-styrene and 3-?uoro-4-chloro
moisture may well lead to damaging chemical
reactions, such as the formation of metal hy 40 styrene. When polymerized these compounds,
and to a lesser extent the corresponding 2-3
ciroxides on the foil. For this reason, electrical
styrenes, possess a high dielectric constant, very
devices employing polystyrene must be carefully
low electrical loss (power factor), relatively high
dried and sealed.
softening point and a very high resistance to the
In recent years research has been directed to
transmission of moisture. This may be attributed
the manufacture of polystyrene type resins with
in part to the fact that when the chlorine or
higher softening points. Various alkyl groups,
?uorine atoms are situated on the ring in posi->
such as methyl, ethyl, etc., have been substituted
tions which are ortho to each other, a very high
on the nucleus, as well as halogen and other
electrical moment and dielectric constant, as well
elements on the side chain. Some of these resins
possess higher softening points but their electrical 50 as the other unusual properties described above,
are obtained. For this reason, the dichloro, di
properties leave much to be desired.
?uoro, and ?uoro-chloro monomers and polymers
It is an object of this invention to produce new
in which the halogen atoms are in ortho positions
styrene compounds which when polymerized pos
to each other on the styrene ring are preferred
sess outstanding physical and electrical proper
ties. It is a further object to produce new di 55 embodiments of the invention. The polymers of
3
2,406,319
similar di?uoro compounds are generally more
stable in an electrical field than the correspond
ing chlorine compounds, and for this reason are
of outstanding value. The di?uoro styrenes do
not, however, polymerize as readily as the di
4
a halogenated benzene, for example, ?uoro-ben
zene using ethyl chloride or ethylene in the pres
ence of a condensing agent such as aluminum
chloride.
The
resulting
?uoro-alkyl-benzene
may be subsequently treated as in the synthesis
chloro styrenes, which in some cases is an advan
described above, to form the fiuoro styrene de
tage, as will be hereinafter mentioned.
rivative desired.
Other compounds of this invention which have
It is to be understood that these methods for
been found to possess superior electrical proper
reduction, dehydration, etc., are but a few of
ties are the polymers of ortho-, meta- and para 10 many which are applicable. In like manner dif
chloro and ?uoro-styrene, as well as other isomers
ferent Grignard reagents may be used such as
of dihalogenated styrenes, such as 2,4 dichloro
methyl magnesium bromide or iodide. For re
styrene, 2,6-dichloro-styrene, 2,5 dichloro-sty
duction, for example, catalytic hydrogenation
rene, etc. The various isomers of ?uoro-chloro
may be used. For the dehydration process, the
styrene have been found to be quite suitable, with 15 unsaturated vinyl chain might be obtained by
an intermediate ease of polymerization and a
heating at a high temperature with or without
high stability in an electrical ?eld. Among
pressure; by heating with alcoholic potash; by
these, the monomers in which the ?uorine and
heating with excess sulfuric acid: by heating with
chlorine atoms are in positions on the ring ortho
zinc chloride; by heating with phosphorous pent
to each other are preferred, as mentioned here 20 oxide; passage of the alcohol over alumina or
tofore. Likewise, tri~halogeno-styrenes corre
tungsten oxide at 250-400° C.; distillation of the
sponding to the foregoing may be used, such as
benzoic ester of the carbinol; or by other suit
trichlor styrene having adjacent chlorine atoms,
able chemical means, all under favorable con
etc.
trolled conditions, well known to one familiar
While pyrolysis of an ethyl benzene derivative 25 with this art.
may be used to obtain the styrene derivative,
It is further to be understood that the mono
other syntheses are described herein, which do
and di?uoro-, the chloro- and dichloro- and the
not require elevated temperature and/or pressure
fluoro-chloro-styrenes, as well as mixtures there
to obtain the desired styrene derivative monomer.
of, may be manufactured by the above general
The ?rst general method which may be used 30 methods by selection of the proper benzene or
to synthesize these compounds is to start with a
benzaldehyde derivatives with which the syn
chloro-, fluor0-, dichloro-, di?uoro- or ?uoro
theses are begun.
chloro-benzaldehyde and react this with a Gri
To further clarify the methods of obtaining the
gnard reagent, such as methyl magnesium chlo
aforementioned styrene derivatives, the following
ride, in ether'solution to produce, e. g., a chloro-, 35 descriptive examples are included.
fluoro-, dichloro-, di?uoro- or a ?uoro-chloro
EXAMPLE 1
phenyl methyl carbinol, respectively. This com
pound is dehydrated by one of several methods,
Preparation of ortho-chloro styrene
for example, by dropping the carbinol onto fused
Ortho-chlor benzaldehyde is treated with the
potassium bisulfate and heating the mixture. 40
Grignard reagent of methyl bromite in ether so
Dehydration occurs and the chloro-, ?uoro-, di
chIoro-, di?uoro-, or the fluoro-chloro-styrene
formed is removed and puri?ed by distillation.
The second general method is to react a chloro-,
?uoro-, dichloro-, di?uoro- or a fluoro-chloro
benzene with acetyl chloride and/or acetic anhy~
dride in the presence of anhydrous aluminum
chloride to produce, upon extraction and puri
?cation, a ring-halogenated acetophenone, such
as 3,4-dichloro acetophenone where the starting 50
lution to give o-chlor-phenyl methyl carbinol,
having a boiling point of 109“ C. at 7 mm.
This
carbinol is then dehydrated by adding it drop
wise on a bed of fused powdered potassium bi
sulfate, the latter being in a ?ask. The ?ask
is then heated until the chloro-styrene vapors
come off. The vapors are swept out of the flask
by an inert gas, such as nitrogen, and cooled and
collected in a separate container. The product
thus obtained is washed with dilute sodium hy
droxide and calcium chloride; then is dried over
calcium chloride and redistilled. Pure o-chlor
compound was ortho-dichloro benzene. This
product is treated with aluminum isopropoxide
and isopropyl alcohol. The product therefrom is
styrene is thus obtained, having a boiling point
extracted with benzene and puri?ed by distilla
tion to give a ring halogenated phenyl-methyl 55 of Gil-61° C. at '7 mm.
Ortho-, meta-, and para-?uor styrene may be
carbinol such as 3.4 dichlorophenyl-methylcar
made from the corresponding ?uor compounds in
binol in the case mentioned above. The com
accordance with the above example.
pound is then dehydrated to give a ring halo
genated styrene, such as 3,4 dichlor styrene.
ExAMrLr: 2
The third general method which may be used 60
Preparation of m-chloro styrene
is to nitrate ethyl benzene, reduce the nitro group
or groups to an amino group or groups, replace
the so-formed amino group or groups by chlorine
‘m~Chlor acetophenone is reduced by adding
about one part of aluminum propoxide and 10
parts of isopropyl alcohol to one part of the
or ?uorine, by standard methods. The resulting
compound, for example, para ?uoro-ethyl benzene 65 acetophenone, heating for about six hours, dur
ing which time acetone-isopropyl alcohol distills
is chain chlorinated to form alpha chloro ethyl
off, acidifying the remainder with hydrochloric
para fluoro benzene. This compound is then de
acid and then extracting with benzene. The re—
hydrohalogenated to produce para fluoro styrene.
duced product thus obtained is chloro-phenyl
In this method, the formation of the beta chloro
derivative is also satisfactory inasmuch as the 70 methyl carbinol, having a boiling point of 106° C.
at 6 mm.
end product is the same. Another modi?cation
of the same synthesis would involve the catalytic
This carbinol is dehydrated as in Example 1,
dehydrogenation of the ethyl derivative to form
and subsequently washed, dried, redistilled, etc.,
the desired styrene.
to give as a pure product meta-chlor styrene, hav
The fourth general method is the alkylation of 75 ing a boiling point of 62-63° C. at 6 mm.
2,400,319
Likewise, other mono-chloro and mono-?uoro
styrenes can be obtained by either of the methods
of Examples 1 and 2.
ExAuPLn 3
Preparation of 2,5 dichloro styrene
2,5 dichloro benzaldehyde is treated with the
or more oi’ the compounds and this can be readily
accomplished by admixture of the polymers or by
lac-polymerization of the monomers and/or par
tially polymerized materials. It is to be under
stood that polymerizable materials other than
those previously described herein may be included
in the foregoing mixtures. For example, mono
meric and/or partially polymerized vinyl carbo
Grignard reagent of methyl bromite in ether so
zole and/or related materials may be included in
lution. After working up the product in the usual
the foregoing mixtures with excellent results.
manner, 2,5 dlchlorophenyl methyl carbinol is ob
A representative few of the mixtures referred
tained. The carbinol thus prepared is then de
to previously may be produced through the co
hydrated by adding it dropwise on a bed of po
polymerization or other combination of one or
tassium bisuliate, as is explained in Example 1.
more of the heretofore described compounds pro
Pure 2,5 dichlorostyrene is produced, having a
15 duced in accordance with this invention and one
boiling point of 72° C. at 2 mm.
or more of the following or related monomers or
polymers thereof: Acrylic alcohol and esters
EXAMPLE 4
thereof, such as methyl acrylate and methyl
Preparation of 3,4 dichloro styrene
methacrylate; styrene and derivatives thereof
Ortho dichloro benzene and anhydrous alumi 20 other than those described heretofore; maleic an
hydride; olefins such as isobutylene; dioleiins
num chloride is slowly treated with acetyl chlo
such as butadiene; vinyl chloride, vinylidene chlo
ride, continuous agitation being provided. The
ride, vinyl ethers and esters; acrylonltrile, acrylyl
mixture is then heated at 100° C. for several
chloride; unsaturated ketones such as methyl
hours. The reaction mass is poured on ice and
extracted with carbon tetra-chloride. The ex 25 vinyl ketone; unsaturated alpha, beta dicarbox
ylic acids; substituted benzenes; vinyl pyrrole
tract is purified by distillation to give 3,4 dichloro
monomers, such as N-vinyl pyrrole, 3-chloro-N
acetophenone of boiling point 135° C. at 12 mm.
vinyl carbazole, N-vinyl carbazole, N-vinyl indole,
A mixture of aluminum isopropoxide and dry
etc.; indene; and numerous other materials
isopropyl alcohol is added to the 3,4 dichlor aceto
which will copolymerize or combine with styrene.
phenone, the mixture being treated as described
A number of other compounds excellently
in Example 2 to give the desired 3,4 dichloro
adapted for copolymerization with the foregoing
phenyl methyl carbinol. This carbinol is then
materials are described in copending applications,
dehydrated as in Example 2 to give 3,4 dichloro
Serial No, 475,051, filed on February 6, 1943, by
styrene, having a boiling point of 70° C. at 4 mm.
Brooks, Serial No. 480,137, filed on March 23,
By analogous methods the other dichlor, di
1943, by Robinson, and Serial No. 507,276, ?led
iiuoro and chloro-?uoro styrenes may be obtained
on October 22, 1943, by Robinson and Dorst.
with satisfactory yields.
The various halogenated styrene derivatives
mentioned above may be readily polymerized by
heat, The preferred compounds of this inven
Among the outstandingly desirable copolymers
following agents: Heat, light, benzoyl peroxide,
one hour a clear, hard mass is obtained, having
are N-vlnyl carbazole and para-fluoro-styrene;
vinyl carbazole and 3,4 di?uoro-styrene; 3-chlo
tion, namely, ortho-dihalogenated styrene deriva— 40 ro-carbazole and 3,4 dichloro styrene; and, in
tives polymerize very readily. The order of ease
general vinyl carbazole and/or derivatives there
of with one or more of the halogenated styrenes
of polymerization in decreasing order is as fol
lows: The dlchloro styrenes, the chloro-?uoro
of this invention.
As an example of the simple polymerization
styrenes, the di-?uoro styrenes, the mono-chloro
styrenes, the mono-?uoro styrenes. The poly 45 of the pure monomer, 3,4 dichlor styrene is heated
at its boiling point. In a few minutes the liquid
mers produced from the above pure monomers are
glass-like and in most cases clear. The surfaces
had become viscous, and in a few more minutes
are fairly hard and durable and the physical
a hard, clear resin was formed. The contrac
properties are greatly superior to pure poly
tion upon polymerization is negligible.
50
As another example of simple polymerization
styrene.
,
The polymerization of the monomers may be
of the pure monomer, para-?uorostyrene is
heated to its boiling point. In approximately
accelerated by the action of one or more of the
oxygen, boron tri-?uoride, tin tetrachloride,
unusual characteristics. Practically no contrac
suliuryl chloride, zinc chloride, halogens, car 55 tion occurred during polymerization.
bon dioxide, sulfur, carbon disul?de, thiophenol,
The copolymerization of 3,4 dichlorstyrene
and N-vinyl carbazole may be advantageously
thiocresol, activated charcoal or carbon, alumi
num chloride and other related or eifective accel
crating agents.
carried out with the use of a small amount of
a suitable solvent, such as amyl naphthalene or
It may be desired to inhibit the polymerization 60 a similar compound. The presence of solvent
for various purposes. This may be done by use
seems to facilitate the polymerization reaction.
of one or more of the following agents in small
The polymers and copolymers heretofore men
amounts, benzoquinone; sulfur; trinitrobenzene;
tioned may be used for a variety of purposes.
anthracene; phenols such as cresol, hydroquinone
While they are particularly suitable for use in
and pyrogallol; and other inhibitors. Where the 65 electrical condensers, ceramic coated wires, and
monomer is to be stored for long periods, it is
other electrical equipment, they are useful in
often advisable to use such inhibitors.
other ?elds, such as in the molding of various
The addition of accelerating or inhibiting
agents is generally in small amounts, inasmuch
articles, for example, toilet articles, chinaware,
toothbrush handles, furniture, as a wood and/or
as their action is of a catalytic nature, rather 70
metal substitute, hardware, etc.; in the produc
than additive.
tion of paints, lacquers, enamels, varnishes, etc.;
A preferred embodiment of this invention is the
in lighting ?xtures, ultraviolet transmitting
co-polymerization of two or more of the halo
windows, edge-lighting signs, etc.: in the forma
genated styrene derivatives mentioned above. It
tion by extrusion of filaments and fibers for
75
may be desired to combine the properties of two
7
textiles, bristles, window screening, etc.; in the
molding of buttons, buckles, etc.; for use on
textiles where heat, crease and moisture resist
ance is desired; as a. binder for plywood, card
board paper, etc.; as a material for film and
sheet formation, for use in wrapping foods and
sealing containers. etc.
Another embodiment of this invention concerns
the use as dielectric materials of mixtures of
other conducting metals may be vaporized under
vacuum and deposited on the resin dielectric.
The resulting sheets may be rolled or stacked.
as desired. to form surprisingly satisfactory
condensers.
In cases where the aforesaid halogenated
styrene polymers are used for non-dielectric pur~
poses it is generally advisable to incorporate
therewith plasticizers and other materials, 1. e.,
the polymers of this invention with chlorinated 10 various ?llers such as wood, ?our, ground mica,
rubber, talc, asbestos, zinc oxide, titanium di
dielectric compounds which are not true poly
oxide, quartz and the like and/or organic or
mers.
inorganic color pigments. These are particularly
In particular, the products hereof are useful
useful when molded articles are made, since they
in the electrical ?eld as dielectric and molding 15 increase
the body or quantity ‘with only slight
compounds by virtue of their heretofore men
increase in cost. Further, some ?llers, particu
tioned low power factor, high leakage resistance
larly ground mica, possess high dielectric con
and breakdown strength, fairly high dielectric
stants and properties in themselves, and are
constant, etc.
~
therefore of considerable value in the manufac
More speci?c uses in the electrical ?eld are, 20 ture of dielectric compositions generally.
for example. coil forms, stand-oilr insulators, in
The resinous materials of this invention are
sulating rods and bushings, coil mounting strips,
also valuable as binding agents and impregnants
insulating beads for coaxial cable and similar
in the production of refractory ceramic coated
applications. Used as an ingredient in special
preparations, these products are useful for coat 25 wire, as described in copending application, Serial
No. 496,978, ?led on August 6, 1943, by Robinson
ing and treating coils and circuit parts for mois
and Dorst, since they are durable, resilient, mois
ture resistance. These products when hydro
biphenyls, chlorinated naphthalenes and other
ture-resistant, and heat-resistant.
genated or otherwise saturated to prevent fur
Some uses of the polymers of this invention
ther polymerization have applications as a cable
may require somewhat softer or more ?exible
oil or condenser dielectric, cable impregnant or 30
properties than are inherent in the polymer it
wire saturant.
It is, or course, understood that some of these
materials are more suitable as dielectric com
self. It is therefore helpful to add thereto plas
ticizers or mixtures thereof such as ethylacet
anilide, camphor, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene
pounds than others. One of the preferred single
compounds for this purpose is the polymer of 35 dichloride, hexacblorethane, sodium trichlorace
tate, diphenyl phthalate. dibutyl phthalate, tri
3,4 dichloro styrene. Condensers may be im
phenyl
phosphate, tricresyl phosphate, chlorinat
pregnated with 3,4 dichloro styrene in the mono
ed biphenyls (“Aroclors"), keto aromatic acids,
meric form by distilling the compound under
vacuum over to an evacuated chamber in which
‘such as methyl benzoylbenzoate, phthalides:
The dry 40 substituted phthalides, glycerol, dibenzyl ether,
butyl stearate, dixylylethane, para?in, tritolyl,
units and the chamber about them act as a con
cresol, diphenylpropane, etc.
denser for the 3.4 dichloro styrene vapor, and
Another embodiment of this invention concerns
the units are thoroughly impregnated with it.
methods of stopping the polymerization reaction
The chamber may be subsequently subjected to
are packed dried condenser units.
elevated temperature and/or pressure to poly 45 and/or controlling the physical and/or chemical
characteristics of the polymer. It is contemplat
merize the 3,4 dichloro styrene in situ. Fol
ed that the polymerization reaction may be
lowing removal from the chamber the impreg
stopped by hydrogenation; then the resulting
nated units may, if desired, be dipped in or
polymer
may be halogenated, etc., if desired, to
‘otherwise coated with the foregoing resins or
with polymerized vinyl carbazole or related resins 50 obtain speci?c properties in the polymer. It may
also be desired to nitrate or sulphonate follow
to render them completely moisture-proof, or a
ing the hydrogenation to impart special proper_
mixture of polymerized vinyl carbazole and ?nely
ties to the polymer.
ground mica may be used as a molding com
Hydrogenation of a partially polymerized sty
pound to encase the condenser unit. Other cus
tomary means can be used for impregnation 55 rene derivative may be advisable when it is de
sired to obtain a certain molecular weight range,
with satisfactory results. Excellent results have
since
with many of the compounds of this in
been obtained by impregnating the condensers in
vention a low or intermediate polymerization will
accordance with the instructions of application
result in a dielectric composition of exceptional
Serial No. 489,475, ?led June 3, 1943, by Beverly.
Condensers formed in accordance with the inven 60
tion described herein possess a relatively high
capacity, low leakage, high breakdown voltage,
properties.
It is further contemplated that this method of
altering the polymer could be used to produce
polychlorstyrenes by first polymerizing styrene
low power factor and satisfactory moisture re
or a mono-chloro styrene; subsequently hydro
sistance. Rolled paper, stacked mica, and other
genating
it; then chlorinating it under proper
types of condensers may be thus produced, with 65
conditions to give a polystyrene with one or more
excellent results.
chlorine atoms on some or all of the rings. Com
Rolled condensers may be made of metal foil
pounds of this type possess unique properties
and sheets or ?lms of the polymers referred to
when used in accordance with the preceding in
previously, i, e., the condenser is produced by
structions hereof.
rolling alternate sheets of polymer and foil in
70
As many apparently widely different embodi
the usual manner. These and other condensers
ments of this invention may be made without de
may also be impregnated and/or coated with the
parting from the spirit and scope hereof, it is to
same or related polymeric materials, if desired.
be understood that the invention is not limited
It is to be understood that in producing con
to the speci?c embodiments hereof except as de
densers of the foregoing type aluminum and 76 ?ned in the appended claims.
8,406,819
9
What is claimed is:
1. An electrical conductor insulated with a di—
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
dihalogenated styrene. the halogen atoms being
substituted on adjacent positions in the styrene
ring.
10
‘I. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
member selected from the class consisting of di
halosenated styrenes, the halogen atoms or
5 which are substituted on adjacent positions in
the styrene ring, and dihalogenatecl styrenes. the
halogen atoms of which are substituted on op
2. An electrical conductor insulated with a. di
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
posite positions in the styrene ring.
8. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
3. An' electrical conductor insulated with a di 10 electric composition comprising a polymer of a di.
halogenated styrene. the halogen atoms being sub
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
3,4 dihalogeno styrene.
3,4 dichloro styrene.
4. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a. polymer of a
3,4 diiluoro styrene.
stituted on opposite positions in the styrene ring.
9. An electrical conductor insulated with a. di
electric composition comprising a polymer of 2,5
.15 dichlorostyrene.
10. The insulated electrical conductor of claim
'1 wherein the insulation contains in addition to
the polymer described therein a dielectric com
pound selected from the class consisting of chlo
5. An electrical conductor insulated with a. di
electric composition comprising a co-polymer
obtained from a substantial amount of a nuclear
orthodihalogeno styrene and a. dissimilar poly
20
merizable resinous material.
rinated biphenyls and chlorinated naphthalenes.
6. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a co-polymer o
a halogenated styrene and N-vinyl carbazole.
_
LESTER A. BROOKS.
MATHEW NAZZEWSKI.
Disclaimer
2,406,319.~——Lester A. Brooks, Stamford, Vt, and Mathew Nazzewski, Adams, Mass.
INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR.
Patent dated Au . 27, 1946.
Dis
claimer ?led Dec. 19, 1949, by the assignee, Sprague Eectric Company.
Hereby enters this disclaimer to claim 9 of said patent and disclaims from the
scope of claims 7 and 8 of said patent the subject matter de?ned by said claim 9.
{O?cial Gazette Jan. 24, 1950.] V
8,406,819
9
What is claimed is:
1. An electrical conductor insulated with a di—
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
dihalogenated styrene. the halogen atoms being
substituted on adjacent positions in the styrene 5
ring.
7. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
member selected from the class consisting of di
halosenated styrenes, the halogen atoms or
which are substituted on adjacent positions in
the styrene ring, and dihalogenated styrenes. the
halogen atoms of which are substituted on op
2. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
posite positions in the styrene ring.
8. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
3. An' electrical conductor insulated with a di 10 electric composition comprising a polymer 0! a di
halogenated styrene. the halogen atoms being sub
electric composition comprising a polymer of a
3,4 dihalogcno styrene.
3,4 dichloro styrene.
4. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a. polymer of a
3,4 diiluoro styrene.
stituted on opposite positions in the styrene ring.
9. An electrical conductor insulated with a. di
electric composition comprising a polymer of 2,5
.15 dichlorostyrene.
10. The insulated electrical conductor of claim
'1 wherein the insulation contains in addition to
the polymer described therein a dielectric com
pound selected from the class consisting of chlo
5. An electrical conductor insulated with a di
electric composition comprising a co-polymer
obtained from a substantial amount of a nuclear
orthodihalogeno styrene and a. dissimilar poly
merizable resinous material.
20 rinated biphenyls and chlorinated naphthalenes.
6. An electrical conductor insulated with a di- _
electric composition comprising a co-polymer of
a halogenated styrene and N-vinyl carbazole.
_
LESTER A. BROOKS.
MATHEW NAZZEWSKI.
Disclaimer
2,406,319.~——Lester A. Brooks, Stamford, Vt, and Mathew Nazzewsk'i, Adams, Mass.
INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR.
Patent dated Au . 27, 1946.
Dis
claimer ?led Dec. 19, 1949, by the assignee, Sprague Eectric Company.
Hereby enters this disclaimer to claim 9 of said patent and disclaims from the
scope of claims 7 and 8 of said patent the subject matter de?ned by said claim 9.
{O?cial Gazette Jan. 24, 1950.] V
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